Vaast, Abbey of Saint
Situated at Arras, the ancient capital of Artois, Department of Pas-de-Calais, France; founded in 667.
A term applied to an office or position devoid of an incumbent, as a vacant benefice, bishopric, or parish.
Vadstena, Abbey of
Founded in Sweden by St. Bridget in 1346.
A titular see of Numidia, frequently mentioned by historians and ancient geographers.
Vaillant de Gueslis, François
Jesuit missionary. (1646-1718)
Vaison, Ancient Diocese of
Suppressed by the Concordat of 1801, its territory is now included in the Dioceses of Avignon.
Valdés, Alfonso de
Spanish Humanist and chancellor of Emperor Charles V. (1500-1532)
Valence, Diocese of
Comprises the Department of Drome.
Valence, University of
Erected 26 July, 1452, by letters patent from the Dauphin Louis, afterwards Louis XI.
Located in Spain; comprises the civil Provinces of Valencia, Alicante, and Castellón.
Valencia, University of
At the request of Jaime I the Conqueror, Innocent IV in 1246, authorized by a Bull the establishment of estudios generales in Valencia.
Valens, Flavius
Emperor of the East. (328-378)
Valentine, Pope
Reigned briefly in A.D. 827.
Valentine, Saint
At least three different Saint Valentines, all of them martyrs, are mentioned in the early martyrologies under date of 14 February.
Valentinian I
Emperor of the West. (321-375)
Valentinian II
Emperor of the West. (371-392)
Valentinian III
Reigned 425-55, son of Constantius III and Galla Placidia, daughter of Theodosius, succeeded Emperor Honorius.(419-455)
Valentinus and Valentinians
The best known and most influential of the Gnostic heretics, born on the coast of Egypt.
Biography of the Roman ruler, focusing on his treatment of Christians.
Validation of Marriage
May be effected by a simple renewal of consent when its nullity arises only from a defective consent in one or both parties.
Valla, Lorenzo
Article by U. Benigni on the teachings of this Italian humanist.
Valladolid, Archdiocese of
Bounded on the north by Palencia, east by Burgos and Segovia, south by Avila and Salamanca, and west by Zamora.
Valladolid, University of
Alfonso XI was the patron of Valladolid.
Vallarsi, Dominic
Italian priest. (1702-1771)
Valle, Pietro della
Italian traveller in the Orient. (1586-1652)
Valleyfield, Diocese of
Situated at the outlet of Lake St. Francis, on the south shore of the St. Lawrence.
Vallgornera, Thomas de
Dominican theologian and ascetical writer. (1595-1665)
Valliscaulian Order
Founded towards the end of the twelfth century by Viard, a lay brother of the Carthusian priory of Loubigny, in the Diocese of Langres.
Vallumbrosan Order
Founded by St. John Gualbert, son of the noble Florentine Gualbert Visdomini.
Vallée-Poussin, Charles-Louis-Joseph-Xavier de la
Professor of geology and mineralogy at the Catholic University of Louvain. (1827-1903)
Valois, Henri
Philologist. (1603-1676)
Titular see, suffragan of Dyrrachium, in Epirus Nova.
Valroger, Hyacinthe de
French oratorian, first studied medicine, and was later ordained priest. (1814-1876)
Valva and Sulmona, Dioceses of
Located in Italy, Valva, a medieval castle belonging to the Bishop of Sulmona, Baron of Valva, is situated near the ancient Corfinium, chief town of the Peligni, a Samnite tribe.
Valverde, Vincent de
First Bishop of Cuzco. (d. 1541)
Van Beethoven, Ludwig
Composer. (1770-1827)
Van Beneden, Pierre-Joseph
Professor of zoology and comparative anatomy in the Catholic University at Louvain. (1809-1831)
Van Buren, William Home
American surgeon. (1819-1883)
Van de Velde, Peter
Spanish painter. (1503-1580)
Van De Vyver, Augustine
Sixth Bishop of Richmond, Virginia. (1844-1911)
Van den Broek, Theodore J.
Priest and missionary. (1783-1851)
Van der Sandt, Maximilian
Wrote works on philosophy and theology, including a notable controversial reply to the Batavian Calvinist Lawrence in defence of the moral teaching of the Jesuits. (1578-1656)
Van der Weyden, Rogier
Painter. (1399-1464)
Archdiocese; includes that part of the mainland of the Province of British Columbia south of 54 ° N. lat. and west of the Straits of Georgia, together with the Queen Charlotte Islands.
Vandal, Albert
French writer. (1853-1910)
A Germanic people belonging to the family of East Germans.
Vane, Thomas
Seventeenth-century convert from Anglicanism.
Vannes, Diocese of
Comprises the Department of Morbihan, and was re-established by the Concordat of 1802.
Vanni, Andrea
Painter and statesman. (1320-1414)
Vanni, Francesco
Siennese painter. (1565-1609)
Vargas y Mexia, Francisco de
Spanish diplomat and ecclesiastical writer, died 1566.
Vargas, Luis de
Seville painter. (1502-1568)
Vasari, Giorgio
Painter, architect, and writer. (1511-1574)
Vasquez, Gabriel
Theologian. (1549-1604)
Vatable, François
Abbot of Bellozane, died 1547.
Vatican as a Scientific Institution, The
Details of scientific activity in the Vatican.
Vatican Council
The twentieth and up to 1912, the last ecumenical council, opened on 8 December, 1869, and adjourned on 20 October, 1870.
Vatican Observatory
Gregory XIII ordered a tower to be erected in a convenient part of the Vatican buildings, and to be fitted out with the greatest and best instruments of the time.
Vatican, The
Detailed history and information.
Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil. Governor of Canada, died 1725.
Vaughan, Herbert
Cardinal, and third Archbishop of Westminster. (1832-1903)
Vaughan, Roger William
Second Archbishop of Sydney. (1834-1883)
Vauquelin, Louis-Nicolas
French chemist. (1763-1829)
Vaux, Laurence
Martyr in prison. (1519-1585)
Cistercian abbey situated in the Diocese of Versailles, Seine-et-Oise, in what was called the "Isle-de-France".
Vavasour, Thomas
English physician. (1536-1585)
Vavasseur, François
Humanist and controversialist. (1605-1681)
Sacred books of ancient India.
Vega, Andreas de
Spanish theologian. (d. 1560)
Veghe, Johannes
German preacher and religious writer, died 1504.
Vegio, Maffeo
Humanist, poet, and educator. (1406-1458)
Veglia, Diocese of
In Austria, suffragan of Görz-Gradisca.
Veil, Religious
The bride of Christ, as the vestal virgins had done, adopted the veil, which thus symbolized not so much the purity as the inviolable fidelity to Christ which was to be reverenced in her.
Veit, Philipp
Painter. (1793-1877)
Veith, Johann Emanuel
Preacher. (1787-1876)
Velazquez, Diego Rodriguez de Silva y
Artist's biography by Louis Gillet.
A republic formed out of the provinces which, under Spanish rule, constituted the captaincy general of the same name.
Veni Creator Spiritus
The most famous of hymns, assigned in the Roman Breviary to Vespers (I and II) and Terce of Pentecost and throughout the octave.
Veni Sancte Spiritus Et Emitte Coelitus
Sung at Mass from Whitsunday until the following Saturday inclusively, and comprises ten stanzas.
Veni Sancte Spiritus Reple
A prose invocation of the Holy Ghost.
The capital of a province in Northern Italy, is formed of a group of 117 small islands joined together by 378 bridges mostly built of stone.
Diocese in Southern Italy.
Italian diocese.
Ventura di Raulica, Gioacchino
Italian orator, patriot, philosopher. (1792-1861)
Venturino of Bergamo
Preacher. (1304-1346)
Venusti, Raffaele
Italian controversialist. (d. 1543)
Vera Cruz
Diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the Archbishopric of Mexico.
Verapoly, Archdiocese of
Located on the Malabar Coast, India, having the Diocese of Quilon as suffragan.
Verbiest, Ferdinand
Jesuit missionary and astronomer. (1623-1688)
Verbum Supernum Prodiens
The first line of two hymns celebrating respectively the Nativity of Christ and the Institution of the Holy Eucharist.
Archdiocese in the Province of Novara, Piedmont, Italy.
Vercellone, Carlo
Biblical scholar, born at Biella, Milan; died at Rome, 19 January, 1869.
Verdaguer, Jacinto
Spanish poet. (1845-1902)
Verdi, Giuseppe
Italian composer. (1813-1901)
Verdun, Diocese of
Comprises the Department of the Meuse.
Bishop of Junca, in the African Province of Byzacena, in the middle of the sixth century.
Vergani, Paolo
Italian political economist. (1753-1820)
Vergerio, Pier Paolo, the Elder
Humanist, statesman, and canonist. (b. 1370)
Vergil, Polydore
Commissioned by Henry VII to write the history of England.
Vergilius of Salzburg, Saint
Irish-born Abbot of St. Peter's monastery at Salzburg. He held that the earth was round, for which St. Boniface accused him of heresy. Vergilius freed himself of the charge, and went on to become a missionary, dying in 789.
Vering, Friedrich Heinrich
German canonist. (1833-1896)
One of the New England states.
Verna, La
An isolated mountain hallowed by association with St. Francis of Assisi, situated in the centre of the Tuscan Apennines.
Vernazza, Tommasina
Entered the monastery of St. Maria delle Grazie, and became a canoness regular, taking the name of Battistina. (1497-1587)
Verne, Jules
Novelist. (1828-1905)
Vernier, Pierre
Inventor of the instrument which bears his name. (1580-1637)
Veroli, Diocese of
Located in the Province of Rome.
Veron, François
French controversialist, born at Paris about 1575; died at Charenton, 1625.
Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy).
Veronica Giuliani, Saint
Short biographical article on this Capuchin, who died in 1727.
Veronica, Saint
Veronica is a name popularly given to one of the women who accompanied Christ to Calvary. "Veronica" is an abbreviation of "vera icon" (true image), and the woman now called Veronica is said to have offered a towel to Christ, on which he left the imprint of his face.
Verot, Augustin
Third Bishop of Savannah, first of St. Augustine. (1804-1876)
Verrazano, Giovanni da
Navigator, died 1527.
Verreau, Hospice-Anthelme
French-Canadian priest, educator, and historian. (1828-1901)
Verri, Count Pietro
Verrocchio, Andrea del
Artist. (1435-1488)
Diocese includes the Department of Seine-et-Oise, France.
Versions of the Bible
Article on versions of the Bible in the original languages and in translation. Grouped by source.
Versions of the Bible, Coptic
At least parts of Scripture were translated into all four dialects of the Coptic language, though there is some debate about which of the Coptic versions is oldest.
Verstegan, Richard
Publisher and antiquarian, born at London, about 1548.
Vertin, John
Third Bishop of Marquette, U.S.A. (1844-1899)
Vertot, Réné-Aubert, Sieur de
French historian. (1655-1735)
A Cistercian monastery and church dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. It is situated five miles north-west of Borja, Saragossa, Spain.
Vesalius, Andreas
The reorganizer of the study of anatomy.
Biography of the Roman Emperor.
Vespasiano da Bisticci
Florentine humanist and librarian. (1421-1498)
Historical article on Evening Prayer, one of the two principal canonical hours.
Vespers, Music of
Applies especially to the cathedral Office, i.e., the Liturgy of the Hours in a parish setting.
Vespers, Sicilian
The traditional name given to the insurrection which broke out at Palermo on Easter Tuesday, 31 March, 1282, against the domination of Charles of Anjou.
Vespucci, Amerigo
Biographical article on the Italian navigator (1451-1512).
Vestibule (in Architecture)
A hall projecting in front of the façade of a church, found from the fifth century both in the East and the West.
According to the rules of the Church or from ecclesiastical usage, are to be worn by the clergy in performing the ceremonies of the services of the Church.
Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Gran, one of the sees founded about 1009 by King St. Stephen, or perhaps by Queen Gisela, his wife.
Veto, The Royal
Lord Grenville presented a petition for the Catholics in the Lords, and, in moving for a committee, proposed an effective veto for the king on the appointment of bishops.
Vetter, Conrad
Preacher and polemical writer. (1547-1622)
Veuillot, Louis
Journalist and writer. (1813-1883)
Vexilla Regis Prodeunt
Written by Venantius Fortunatus.
Vexiö, Ancient See of
In Sweden, comprised the County of Kronoberg and the hundreds of Ostra, Westra, Östbo, and Westbo in the County of Jönköping.
Vezzosi, Antonio Francesco
Member of the Theatine Congregation and biographical writer. (1708-1783)
Viader, José
Assistant at the Indian mission of Santa Clara.
Among the ancient Greeks the custom prevailed of giving a supper to those setting out on a journey.
Viator, Clerics of Saint
Lector of the cathedral at Lyons, France, in the fourth century.
Viborg, Ancient See of
Located in Denmark.
In canon law, the representative of a person clothed with ordinary ecclesiastical jurisdiction.
Vicar Apostolic
In the early ages of the Church, the popes committed to some residentiary bishops the duty of watching over ecclesiastical matters in a certain region.
Vicar Capitular
The administrator of a vacant diocese, elected by a cathedral chapter.
Vicar of Christ
A title of the pope implying his supreme and universal primacy, both of honour and of jurisdiction, over the Church of Christ.
The highest official of a diocese after the ordinary.
Vicari, Hermann von
Archbishop of Freiburg in Baden. (1773-1868)
Vicariate Apostolic (Updated List)
Recently erected vicariates Apostolic as of 1913.
Regarded as a habit inclining one to sin.
Vicelinus, Saint
Biographical article on the Bishop of Oldenburg, who died in 1154.
Vicente, Gil
Portuguese dramatist. (1470-1536)
Vicenza, Diocese of
The city is the capital of a province in Venetia (Northern Italy).
Vich, Diocese of
Suffragan of Tarragona.
Vico, Francescoe de
Astronomer. (1805-1848)
Victimae Paschali Laudes Immolent Christiani
First stanza of the Easter sequence.
Bishop of Tunnunum in Northern Africa. (d. 569)
Victor I, Pope Saint
Article on the late second-century pope, involved in the Quartodeciman controversy.
Victor II, Pope
Reigned 1055-57.
Victor III, Pope Blessed
Benedictine monk, peacemaker, abbot of Monte Cassino, elected to the papacy in 1086, d. 1087.
Victor IV
Cardinal Gregory Conti, elected in opposition to Innocent II.
Victor of Capua
A sixteenth-century bishop.
Victor Vitensis
An African bishop of the Province of Byzacena.
Diocese in southwestern British Columbia.
Victoria Nyanza, Northern
Founded in 1878 by the White Fathers of Cardinal Lavigerie.
Victoria Nyanza, Southern
Vicariate apostolic erected from the mission of Nyanza.
Victorinus, Caius Marius
A fourth-century grammarian, rhetorician, philosopher, and theologian.
Victorinus, Saint
Biographical profile of the bishop of Pettau, an ecclesiastical writer, martyred in the Diocletian persecution.
Vida, Marco Girolamo
Italian Humanist.
Vieira, Antonio
Missionary, diplomat, orator. (1608-1697)
Viel, Nicholas
Died 1625, the first victim of apostolic zeal on the shores of the St. Lawrence.
The capital of Austria-Hungary, the residence of the emperor, and the seat of a Latin archbishopric.
Vienna, University of
The oldest university of the former Holy Roman Empire, next to the University of Prague.
Vienne, Council of
Convened 1311-1312, dealing mainly with the Knights Templar.
Vierthaler, Franz Michael
Austrian pedagogue. (1758-1827)
Vieta, François
Father of modern algebra.
Viger, Denis-Benjamin
French-Canadian statesman and writer. (1774-1861)
Viger, Jacques
French-Canadian antiquarian and archaeologist. (1787-1858)
Diocese in Lombardy, Province of Pavia.
Bishop of Tapsus, in the African Province of Byzacena.
Vigilius, Pope
Reigned 537-55.
Vigilius, Saint
Biographical essay on the Bishop of Trent, martyred 26 June, 405.
Vignola, Giacomo Barozzi da
A theoretical and practical architect of the Transition Period between the Renaissance and Baroque styles. (1507-1573)
Vigor, Simon
French bishop and controversialist. (1515-1575)
Villalpandus, Juan Bautista
His fame rests mainly on a "Commentary on Ezechiel".
Villani, Giovanni
Florentine historian, b. about 1276; d. of the plague in 1348.
Villanovanus, Arnaldus
Physician and alchemist. (1235-1312)
Villefranche, Jacques-Melchior
Publicist. (1829-1904)
Villehardouin, Geoffroi de
Maréchal de Champagne, warrior, and first historian in the French language.
Villeneuve-Barcement, Jean-Paul-Alban
Vicomte de, b. at Saint-Auban, Var, 8 Aug., 1784; d. at Paris, 8 June, 1850.
Villermé, Louis-René
French economist. (1782-1863)
Villers, Cistercian Abbey of
Situated on the confines of Villers and Tilly, Duchy of Brabant, present Diocese of Namur (Belgium), and first monastery of the order in this territory.
The capital of Lithuania, situated at the junction of the Rivers Vileika and Vilja.
Vincent de Paul, Saint
Biography of the French priest, founder of the Congregation of the Mission, who died in 1660.
Vincent Ferrer, Saint
Biography of this Spanish-born Dominican missionary, who died in 1419.
Vincent Kadlubek, Blessed
Bishop of Cracow, resigned his office and became the first Pole to join the Cistercians. He died in 1223.
Vincent Mary Pallotti, Saint
Biography of the founder of the Pious Society of Missions, who are commonly known as the Pallottine Fathers. He died in 1850.
Vincent of Beauvais
Priest and encyclopedist. (1190-1264)
Vincent of Lérins, Saint
Essay on the fifth-century monk and ecclesiastical writer.
Vincent, Saint
Essay on the deacon, a native of Saragossa, martyred in 304.
Vincent, Saint
Also called Maldegarius, married to St. Waldetrude. Their four children are also among the saints. SS. Vincent and Waldetrude both entered monastic life, he founding the monasteries of Hautmont and Soignies. He died in 677.
Vincenzo de Vit
Latinist. (1810-1892)
Vinci, Leonardo di Ser Piero da
Florentine painter, sculptor, architect, engineer and scholar. (1452-1519)
Vindicianus, Saint
Biography of the bishop of Cambrai-Arras, born about 620.
Vineam Domini
An Apostolic Constitution issued by Clement XI against the Jansenists on 16 July, 1705.
The stimulus or moving cause must come from without; no one can do violence to himself.
Viotti, Giovanni Battista
Founder of the modern school of violinist.
Virgilius, Saint
Essay on the monk, archbishop of Arles.
Virgin Birth of Christ
The dogma which teaches that the Blessed Mother of Jesus Christ was a virgin before, during, and after the conception and birth of her Divine Son.
Virgin Mary, Devotion to the
Devotion to Our Blessed Lady in its ultimate analysis must be regarded as a practical application of the doctrine of the Communion of Saints.
Virgin Mary, Name of
The Hebrew form of her name is Miryam.
Virgin Mary, The
The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God.
One of the thirteen original states.
Morally, virginity signifies the reverence for bodily integrity which is suggested by a virtuous motive.
According to its etymology the word virtue (Latin virtus) signifies manliness or courage.
Vischer, Peter
Sculptor and metal founder. (1460-1529)
Visdelou, Claude de
One of the missionaries sent to China by Louis XIV in 1687.
One of the two principal branches of the Goths.
Visions and Apparitions
The article deals not with natural but with supernatural visions, that is, visions due to the direct intervention of a power superior to man.
Visit ad Limina
The obligation incumbent on certain members of the hierarchy of visiting, the "thresholds of the Apostles", Sts. Peter and Paul, and of presenting themselves before the pope to give an account of the state of their dioceses.
Visitation Convent, Georgetown
Located in the District of Columbia, United States of America.
Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Article on the event and the feast.
Visitation Order
The nuns of the Visitation of Mary, called also Filles de Sainte-Marie, Visitandines, and Salesian Sisters, were founded in 1610.
Visitation, Canonical
The act of an ecclesiastical superior who in the discharge of his office visits persons or places with a view of maintaining faith and discipline, and of correcting abuses by the application of proper remedies.
Visitors Apostolic
Officials whom canonists commonly class with papal legates.
Visits to the Blessed Sacrament
A devotional practice of relatively modern development, honoring the Real Presence of Christ.
Vitalian, Pope Saint
He tried to win over the Monothelites who then held sway in Constantinople, and was the reigning pope at the time of the Synod of Whitby. He died in 672.
Vitalini, Bonifazio
Jurist, died 1388.
Vitalis and Agricola, Saints
Vitalis was a slave, converted to Christianity by his master Agricola. Both were martyred at Bologna about 304.
Vitalis of Savigny, Saint
Founder of the monastery and Congregation of Savigny. Died 1122.
Vitalis, Saint
Martyr in about 171. Husband of St. Valeria (also a martyr), and father of SS. Gervasius and Protasius.
Vitelleschi, Muzio
Born at Rome 2 Dec., 1563; died there 9 Feb., 1645.
Vitellius, Lucius
Proclaimed Roman Emperor by the soldiers at Cologne during the civil war of A.D. 69; d. at Rome, 21 Dec., 69.
Viterbo and Toscanella
The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot of Monte Cimino, in Central Italy.
Diocese; suffragan of Burgos, in Spain.
Vittorino da Feltre
Humanist educator. (1397-1446)
Vitus, Modestus, and Crescentia, Saints
According to the legend, martyrs under Diocletian.
Viva, Domenico
Writer. (1648-1726)
A family of Italian painters. Alvise, Antonio, and Bartolommeo (Bartolommeo da Murano).
Vives, Juan Luis
Article on his life and works, by Paul Lejay.
Diocese; includes the Department of Ardèche, France.
Defined literally the word vivisection signifies the dissection of living creatures.
Vizagapatam, Diocese of
Located in the east of India, suffragan to Madras.
Diocese in north central Portugal.
Vladimir the Great, Saint
Biography of the grandson of St. Olga. Grand Duke of Kiev and All Russia, first ruler of Russia to convert to Christianity, d. 1015.
Vocation, Ecclesiastical and Religious
The special gift of those who, in the Church of God, follow with a pure intention the ecclesiastical profession of the evangelical counsels.
Vogler, George Joseph
Theorist, composer, organist. (1749-1814)
Vogüé, Eugène-Melchior, Vicomte de
Critic, novelist, and historian. (1848-1910)
Volk, Wilhelm
Pseudonym, Ludwig Clarus.
Organization of German Catholics opposing heresies and revolutionary tendencies in the social world, and for the defence of Christian order in society.
Volta, Alessandro
Physicist. (1745-1827)
Diocese in Tuscany.
Volterra, Daniele da
Italian painter. (1509-1566)
In the modern metaphysical sense is a theory which explains the universe as emanating ultimately from some form of will.
Wilful, proceeding from the will.
A wise woman.
Von Gagern, Max, Freiherr
Born at Weilburg (in Nassau), Germany, 25 March, 1810; died at Vienna, 17 October, 1889.
Vondel, Joost van Den
Netherland poet and convert. (1587-1679)
Votive Mass
A Mass offered for a votum, a special intention.
Votive Offerings
The general name given to those things vowed or dedicated to God, or a saint, and in consequence looked upon as set apart by this act of consecration.
Votive Offices
One not entered in the general calendar, but adopted with a view to satisfying a special devotion.
A promise made to God.
Vrau, Philibert
"The holy man of Lille", organizer of numerous Catholic activities. (1829-1905)
Vrie, Theodoric
Fourteenth-century historian.
Vulgate, Revision of
In the spring of 1907 the public press announced that Pius X had determined to begin preparations for a critical revision of the Latin Bible.
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