Society Religion and Spirituality Christianity Denominations Catholicism Reference Catholic Encyclopedia S
Sa, Manoel de
Portuguese theologian and exegete, b. at Villa do Conde (Province Entre-Minho-e-Douro), 1530; d. at Arona (Italy), 30 Dec., 1596.
Saavedra Remírez de Baquedano, Angel de
Spanish poet and statesman, b. at Cordova, 10 March, 1791; d. at Madrid, 22 June, 1865.
Saavedra, Fajardo Diego de
Statesman and author, b. at Algezares, Murcia, Spain, in 1584; d. at Madrid in 1648.
Saba and Sabeans
This Saba (Sheba) must not be confounded with Saba (Seba) in Ethiopia of Is., xliii, 3; xlv, 14. It lies in the Southern Arabian Jôf about 200 miles north-west of Aden.
In Hebrew, plural form of "host" or "army". The word is used almost exclusively in conjunction with the Divine name as a title of majesty: "the Lord of Hosts", or "the Lord God of Hosts".
St. Sabbas, or Sabas. Basilian monk, hermit, founded the monastery at Mar Saba near Jerusalem. Died 532. Article also mentions five other saints of this name.
Defines Sabbatarianism as a rigorist conflation of the Christian Sunday with the Jewish Sabbath, devotes attention to Seventh-Day Sabbatarianism as well.
The seventh day of the week among the Hebrews, the day being counted from sunset to sunset, that is, from Friday evening to Saturday evening.
The seventh year, devoted to cessation of agriculture, and holding in the period of seven years a place analogous to that of the Sabbath in the week; also called "Year of Remission".
The name Sabbatine Privilege is derived from the apocryphal Bull "Sacratissimo uti culmine" of John XXII, 3 March, 1322.
Martyr in 126 or 127, at Rome.
Reigned 604-606. The son of Bonus, he was born at Blera (Bieda) near Viterbo. In 593 he was sent by St. Gregory I as apocrisiarius or Apostolic nuncio to Constantinople; but in some respects his administration of the office did not come up to Gregory's expectations.
Sabran, Louis de
A titular see in Tripolitana. Sabrata was a Phoenician town on the northern coast of Africa, between the two Syrta. With Oca and Leptis Magna it caused the Greek name Tripolis to be given to the region.
A learned and zealous Dominican, born at Piacenza about the beginning of the thirteenth century; died about 1263.
Sacra Jam Splendent
The opening words of the hymn for Matins of the Feast of the Holy Family.
In instituting the sacraments Christ did not determine the matter and form down to the slightest detail, leaving this task to the Church, which should determine what rites were suitable in the administration of the sacraments. These rites are indicated by the word Sacramentalia, the object of which is to manifest the respect due to the sacrament and to secure the sanctification of the faithful.
Presents the necessity, the nature, the origin/cause, the number, the effects, the minister, and the recipient of the Sacraments.
Sacred Heart of Jesus, Missionaries of the
A religious congregation of priests and lay brothers with the object of promoting the knowledge and practice of devotion to the Heart of Jesus as embodied in the revelations to Margaret Mary Alacoque.
Sacred Heart of Jesus, Missionary Sisters of the
A religious congregation having its general mother house at Rome, founded in 1880 by Mother Francis Xavier Cabrini.
Sacred Heart of Jesus, Society of the
An institution of religious women, taking perpetual vows and devoted to the work of education.
Sacred Heart of Jesus, Society of the
Founded in Belgium.
Sacred Heart, Brothers of the
A congregation founded in 1821 by Père André Coindre, of the Diocese of Lyons, France. Its constitutions were modeled upon the constitutions of St. Ignatius based upon the Rule of Saint Augustine. Its members bind themselves for life by the simple vows of religion.
Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, Congregation of the
Better known as the Congregation of Picpus, was founded by Father Coudrin, b. at Coursay-les-Bois, in Poiton on 1 March, 1768.
This term is identical with the English offering (Latin offerre) and the German Opfer.
The violation or injurious treatment of a sacred object. In a less proper sense any transgression against the virtue of religion would be a sacrilege.
The opening words of the hymn for Matins of Corpus Christi and of the Votive Office of the Most Blessed Sacrament, composed by St. Thomas Aquinas.
An officer who is charged with the care of the sacristy, the church, and their contents. In ancient times many duties of the sacristan were performed by the doorkeepers (ostiarii), later by the mansionarii and the treasurers.
A room in the church or attached thereto, where the vestments, church furnishings and the like, sacred vessels, and other treasures are kept, and where the clergy meet and vest for the various ecclesiastical functions.
A politico-religious sect of the Jews during the late post-Exile and New-Testament period. The old derivation of the name from tsaddiqim, i.e. the righteous; with assumed reference to the adherence of the Sadducees to the letter of the Law as opposed to the pharasaic attention to the superadded "traditions of the elders", is now generally discredited.
Sadler, Thomas Vincent Faustus
Missionary born 1604; died at Dieulward, Flanders, 19 Jan., 1680-1.
Sadlier, Mary Anne Madden
Authoress, b. at Cootehill, Co. Cavan, Ireland, 30 Dee., 1820; d. at Montreal, Canada, 5 April, 1903.
Cardinal, humanist, and reformer (1477-1547)
A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch.
Sahagún, Bernardino de
Missionary and Aztec archeologist, b. at Sahagún, Kingdom of Leon, Spain, in or before the year 1500; d. at Mexico, 23 Oct., 1590.
A prominent tribe formerly holding a considerable territory in Western Idaho and adjacent portions of Oregon and Washington.
Sahara, Vicariate Apostolic of
Vast desert of northern Africa, measuring about 932 miles from north to south and 2484 miles from east to west, and dotted with oases which are centres of population.
Sailer, Johann Michael
Professor of theology and Bishop of Ratisbon, b. at Aresing in Upper Bavaria 17 October, 1751; d. 20 May, 1832, at Ratisbon.
Sainctes, Claude de
French controversialist, b. at Perche, 1525; d. at Crèvecoeur, 1591.
Saint Albans, Abbey of
Located in Hertfordshire, England; founded about 793 by Offa, king of the Mercians.
Diocese in Canada.
Saint Andrews and Edinburgh
The exact date of the foundation of the See of St. Andrews is, like any others in the earliest history of the Scottish Church, difficult, if not impossible, to fix.
Saint Andrews, Priory of
One of the great religious houses in Scotland and the metropolitan church in that country before the Reformation.
Saint Andrews, University of
The germ of the university is to be found in an association of learned ecclesiastics, formed in 1410, among whom were: Laurence of Lindores, Abbot of Scone, Richard Cornwall, Archdeacon of Lothian, Wm. Stephen, afterwards Archbishop of Dunblane. They offered courses of lectures in divinity, logic, philosophy, canon and civil law.
Saint Asaph, Ancient Diocese of
Founded by St. Kentigern about the middle of the sixth century when he was exiled from his see in Scotland.
Saint Augustine, Abbey of
Benedictine monastery, originally dedicated to Sts. Peter and Paul, founded in 605 outside of the City of Canterbury, on the site of the earlier Church of St. Pancras.
Saint Bartholomew's Day
This massacre of which Protestants were the victims occurred in Paris on 24 August, 1572 (the feast of St. Bartholomew), and in the provinces of France during the ensuing weeks, and it has been the subject of knotty historical disputes.
Saint Benedict, Medal of
A medal, originally a cross, dedicated to the devotion in honour of St. Benedict.
Saint Bonaventure, College of
At Quaracchi, near Florence, Italy, famous as the centre of literary activity in the Order of Friars Minor, was founded 14 July, 1879, by Mgr. Bernardino del Vago, Archbishop of Sardis, then minister general of the order.
Archdiocese; the chief ecclesiastical division of the Canadian West, so-called after the patron saint of the German soldiers who were among its first settlers.
A suffragan of the Archdiocese of St. Paul, Minn., comprises the counties of Stearns, Sherburne, Benton, Morrison, Mille Lacs, Kanabec, Grant, Pope, Stevens, Isanti, Traverse, Douglas, Wilkin, Otter-Tail, Todd, Wadena, in the State of Minnesota, an area of 12,251 square miles. The bishop resides in St. Cloud, Stearns county.
Saint Francis Mission
A noted Catholic Indian mission village under Jesuit control near Pierreville, Yamaska district, Province of Quebec, Canada.
Saint Francis Xavier's College, University of
University in Nova Scotia founded in 1885 under the name of St. Francis Xavier's College
A Swiss bishopric directly subject to the Holy See. It includes the Canton of St. Gall and, as a temporary arrangement, the two half-cantons of Appenzell Outer Rhodes and Appenzell Inner Rhodes.
Diocese in Newfoundland. Beginning at Garnish it takes in the western portion of the south coast and then stretches along the Gulf of St. Lawrence, northwards, almost as far as the Straits of Belle Isle, lying between 55° 20' and 59° 30' west longitude and between 47° 30' and 51° 20' north latitude.
Saint George, Orders of
Knights of St. George appear at different historical periods and in different countries as mutually independent bodies having nothing in common but the veneration of St. George, the patron of knighthood.
Diocese in the Province of Quebec, suffragan of Montreal.
Saint Isidore, College of
In Rome, originally founded for the use of Spanish Franciscans during the pontificate of Gregory XV.
Saint James of Compostela, Order of
Founded in the twelfth century, owes its name to the national patron of Spain, St. James the Greater.
Diocese in the Province of New Brunswick, Canada.
Saint John's University
The legal title of a Catholic boarding-school at Collegeville, Minnesota, conducted by the Benedictine Fathers of St. John's Abbey.
Saint Joseph's College, University of
Founded in 1864 by Rev. Camille Lefebvre in Memramcook, New Brunswick, Canada.
Saint Joseph, Diocese of
The City of St. Joseph, Missouri, was founded by Joseph Robidoux, a Catholic. At the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore in 1866, St. Joseph was among the new episcopal sees proposed.
Saint Louis (Missouri)
Created a diocese 2 July, 1826; raised to the rank of an archdiocese 20 July, 1847.
Saint Louis, University of
Probably the oldest university west of the Mississippi River, was founded in the City of St. Louis in 1818 by the Right Reverend Louis William Du Bourg, Bishop of Louisiana.
Saint Lucius, Monastery of
Located in Chur, Switzerland. The Church of St. Lucius was built over the grave of this saint, whose relics were preserved in it until the sixteenth century.
Saint Mark, University of
The highest institution of learning in Peru, located at Lima, under the official name of Universidad Mayor de San Marcos. Reputed to be the oldest university in the New World, created by a royal decree of 12 May, 1551.
Saint Omer, College of
Well-known Jesuit college at St. Omer, often spoken of under the anglicized form of St. Omers or St. Omer's, founded by Father Parsons in 1592 or 1593.
Saint Paul (Minnesota)
Archdiocese comprising the counties of Ramsey, Hennepin, Chisago, Anoka, Dakota, Scott, Wright, Rice, Lesueur, Carver, Nicollet, Sibley, Meeker, Redwood, Renville, Kandiyohi, Lyon, Lincoln, Yellow Medicine, Lac-Qui-Parle, Chippewa, Swift, Goodhue, Big Stone, and Brown, which stretch across the State of Minnesota from east to west, in about the center of its southern half.
Saint Paul-without-the Walls
An abbey nullius. As early as 200 the burial place of the great Apostle in the Via Ostia was marked by a cella memoriæ, near which the Catacomb of Comodilla was established.
Saint Peter, Basilica of
The present Church of St. Peter stands upon the site where at the beginning of the first century the gardens of Agrippina lay.
Saint Peter, Tomb of
The history of the confusion and conflicting authorities surrounding the location of the tomb of Saint Peter.
The imperial residence and second capital of Russia, lies at the mouth of the Neva on the Gulf of Finland.
Saint Sylvester, Order of
The Order is neither monastic nor military but a purely honorary title created by Gregory XVI, 31 Oct., 1841.
Saint Thomas of Guiana
Diocese; suffragan of Caracas, erected by Pius VI on 19 Dec., 1791, comprises the former state of Bermúdez, districts of Nueva Esparta and Guayana, and territories of Amazonas, Caura, Colón, Orinoco, and Yuruary, in the south and east of Venezuela.
Saint Thomas of Mylapur
Diocese. Suffragan to the primatial See of Goa in the East Indies.
Saint Thomas, Diocese of
Diocese comprising the Islands of São Thomé and Principe, in the Gulf of Guinea.
Saint Thomas, University of
University in Manila, founded in 1619 by the Dominican Miguel de Benavides, Archbishop of Manila.
Saint Vincent de Paul, Society of
International association of Catholic laymen engaging in personal service of the poor.
Diocese; comprises the Department of the Côtes du Nord. Re-established by the Concordat of 1802 as suffragan of Tours, later, in 1850, suffragan of Rennes.
The Diocese of Saint-Claude comprised in the eighteenth century only twenty-six parishes, subject previously to the Abbey of Saint-Claude, and some parishes detached from the Dioceses of Besançon and Lyons.
Saint-Cosme, Jean-François Buisson de
Born in Quebec, Canada, February, 1667; killed, 1707. Entering the Séminaire des Missions Etrangères of Quebec, he was ordained in 1690 and after serving for a time at Minas, Nova Scotia (then Acadia), was assigned to the western mission.
Diocese erected in 1850 as suffragan of Bordeaux, includes the Island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean about 350 miles cast of Madagascar.
Saint-Denis, Abbey of
Situated in a small town to which it has given its name, about four miles north of Paris.
Diocese comprising the Department of the Vosges.
Diocese comprising the Department of Cantal, and is suffragan of the Archbishopric of Bourges.
Diocese of Mauramanensis. Includes the arrondissement of Saint Jean-de-Maurienne in the Department of Haute Savoie.
Oratorian; b. 1815; d. at Edgbaston, Birmingham, 24 May, 1875; son of Henry St. John, descended from the Barons St. John of Bletsoe.
Saint-Ouen, Abbey of
Located in Rouen, France, this abbey was a Benedictine monastery of great antiquity dating back to the early Merovingian period.
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
Prefecture apostolic comprising the only French possession in North America, a group of islands.
Saint-Simon and Saint-Simonism
Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, was born in Paris, 17 Oct., 1760; died there, 19 May, 1825. He belonged to the family of the author of the "Memoirs".
Saint-Simon, Louis de Rouvroy, Duc de
Born 16 January, 1675; died in Paris, 2 March, 1755.
Saint-Sulpice, Society of
Founded at Paris by M. Olier (1642) for the purpose of providing directors for the seminaries established by him.
Saint-Vallier, Jean-Baptiste de
Second Bishop of Quebec, b. at Grenoble, France, 14 Nov. 1653; d. at Quebec, Canada, 26 Dec., 1727; son of Jean de La Croix de Chevrières, and Marie de Sayne.
Saint-Victor, Abbey of
In 1108 William of Champeaux retired to a small hermitage dedicated to St. Victor, the martyr soldier. He was followed by many disciples and induced again to take up his lectures. Hence the origin of the Royal Abbey and School of St. Victor.
Saint-Victor, Achard de
Canon regular, Abbot of St-Victor, Paris, and Bishop of Avranches, b. about 1100; d. 1172.
Sainte-Claire Deville, Charles
Geologist, b. at St. Thomas, West Indies, 26 February, 1814; d. in Paris 10 October, 1876.
Sainte-Claire Deville, Henri-Etienne
Chemist, b. at St. Thomas, West Indies, 11 March, 1818; d. at Boulogne, 1 July, 1881.
Sainte-Geneviève, Abbey of
In Paris, founded by King Clovis who established there a college of clerics, later called canons regular.
Saints Vincent and Anastasius, Abbey of
Located near Rome.
Sala, George Augustus Henry
Journalist, b. in London, 24 Nov., 1828; d. at Brighton, 8 Dec., 1895, having been received into the Church before death.
Article on the Spanish diocese.
Salamanca, University of
Spanish university. Had its beginning in the Cathedral School under the direction, from the twelfth century, of a magister scholarum (chancellor).
A titular see in Cyprus. Salamis was a maritime town on the eastern coast of Cyprus, situated at the end of a fertile plain between two mountains, near the River Pediaeus.
Bishop of Saint-Flour; b. at Carpentras, 22 Oct., 1759; d. at Saint-Flour, 11 June, 1829.
Salazar, Domingo de
Born in La Rioja, in the village of La Bastida on the banks of the Ebro, 1512; died in Madrid, 4 December, 1594. Devoted to the conversion of natives of the new world.
Saliensis. Diocese in Victoria, Australia, comprises all the territory known as Gippsland.
An abbey situated near the Castle of Heiligenberg, about ten miles from Constance, Baden (Germany).
Diocese in Campania, Southern Italy. The city is situated on the gulf of the same name, backed by a high rock crowned with an ancient castle.
Salesian Society, The
Founded by Saint John Bosco, takes its distinctive name from its patron, Saint Francis de Sales.
The Diocese of Salford comprises the Hundreds of Salford and Blackburn, in Lancashire, England, and was erected 29 Sept., 1850.
Salimbene degli Adami
Chronicler, b. at Parma, 9 Oct., 1221; d. probably at Montefalcone about 1288.
Salisbury, Ancient Diocese of
The diocese was originally founded by Birinus, who in 634 established his see at Dorchester in Oxfordshire, whence he evangelized the Kingdom of Wessex. From this sprang the later Dioceses of Winchester, Sherborne, Ramsbury, and Salisbury.
The principal of a small group of tribes constituting a distinct linguistic stock (the Salivan), centring in the eighteenth century, about and below the junction of the Meta and Orinoco, in Venezuela.
Salmanticenses and Complutenses
Authors of the courses of scholastic philosophy and theology, and moral theology.
A Chaldean see, included in the ancient Archdiocese of Adhorbigan, or Adherbaidjan.
Jesuit Biblical scholar, born at Toledo, 8 Sept., 1515; died at Naples, 13 Feb., 1585.
Daughter of Herod Philip and Herodias at whose request John the Baptist was beheaded.
Always used for the seasoning of food and for the preservation of things from corruption, had from very early days a sacred and religious character.
Salt Lake, Diocese of
Includes the State of Utah, and slightly more than half of the State of Nevada.
Salta, Diocese of
Comprises the civil Provinces of Salta and Jujuy in the northern part of the Republic of Argentina.
Saltillo, Diocese of
Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of Linares, or Monterey.
Diocese in Uruguay, suffragan to Montevideo.
Salutati, Coluccio di Pierio di
Italian Humanist b. in Tuscany, 1331; d. 4 May, 1406.
Diocese in the Province of Cuneo, Piedmont, Upper Italy.
Salvatierra, Juan Maria
Missionary born at Milan, 15 November, 1648; died at Guadalajara, 17 July, 1717.
Salvation has in Scriptural language the general meaning of liberation from straitened circumstances or from other evils, and of a translation into a state of freedom and security.
Salve Mundi Salutare
A poem in honour of the various members of Christ on the Cross.
The opening words (used as a title) of the most celebrated of the four Breviary anthems of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
Salvete Christi Vulnera
The Roman Breviary hymn at Lauds of the feast of the Most Precious Blood, is found in the Appendix to Pars Verna of the Roman Breviary (Venice, 1798).
Fifth-century Latin writer.
The Archdiocese of Salzburg is conterminous with the Austrian crown-land of the same name.
Founder of St. Francis Provincial Seminary (St. Francis, Wisconsin) known as the "Salesianum", one of the best known pioneer priests of the North-west, b. at Münzbach, Diocese of Linz, Upper Austria, 17 Aug., 1819; d. at St. Francis, Wisconsin, 17 Jan., 1874.
A titular see, suffragan of Cæsarea in Palestine Prima. In the sixth year of his reign (about 900 B. C.) Amri, King of Israel, laid the foundations of the city to which he gave the name of Samaria, "after the name of Semer the owner of the hill" (II Kings, xvi, 24).
Samaritan Language and Literature
History of the changes in the language as affected by the changing religious and ethnic culture of the land.
Sambuga, Joseph Anton
Theologian, b. at Walldorf near Heidelberg, 9 June; 1752; d. at Nymphenburg near Munich 5 June, according to Sailer, but 5 January according to other statements, 1815.
A group of islands situated in the south Pacific.
A Russian diocese, also called Telshi (Telshe), including the part of Lithuania lying on the Baltic.
Titular see, suffragan of Rhodes in the Cyclades. The island, called in Turkish Soussan-Adassi, is 181 sq. miles in area and numbers 55,000 inhabitants, nearly all of whom are Greek schismatics.
A titular see in Augusta Euphratensis, suffragan of Hierapolis, capital of Commagenum.
English bishop (d. 1554)
Most famous of the Judges of Israel.
Abbot of St. Edmunds (1135-1211)
Biography of this Welsh-born abbot, reluctant bishop, confessor. Died about 565.
The collective name of a group of tribes in southwestern Bolivia.
San Antonio, Diocese of
Comprises all that portion of the State of Texas between the Colorado and Rio Grande Rivers, except the land south of the Arroyo de los Hermanos, on the Rio Grande, and the Counties of Live Oak, Bee, Goliad, and Refugio.
San Carlos de Ancud
The most southern of the Chilian dioceses.
Archdiocese established 29 July 1853 to include multiple counties in the State of California, U.S.A.
A celebrated family of architects, sculptors, painters, and engravers, which flourished in Italy during the Renaissance period, from the middle of the fifteenth to the end of the sixteenth century. The founder of the family was Francesco Giamberti (1405-80), a Florentine wood-carver; he had two sons, Giuliano and Antonio.
San José de Costa Rica
The Republic of Costa Rica, Central America, constitutes this diocese as a suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Guatemala.
Diocese in the Argentine Republic at the foot of the Cordillera of the Andes.
San León del Amazonas
Prefecture Apostolic in Peru.
San Luis Potosí
Diocese in Mexico, erected by Pius IX in 1854. It includes the State of San Luis Potosí, and a small portion of the State of Zacatecas.
San Marco and Bisignano
Diocese in the Province of Cosenza in Calabria, Italy.
An independent republic lying between the Italian Provinces of Forli, Pasaro, and Urbino.
San Martino al Cimino
A prelature nullius in the territory of the Diocese of Viterbo, Province of Rome.
A city and diocese in the Province of Florence, central Italy.
Diocese. The Republic of Salvador, often incorrectly called San Salvador from the name of its capital, is the smallest and most thickly populated state of Central America.
The name given by Columbus to his first discovery in the New World. It is one of the Bahama group of islands.
San Sepolcro, Piero da
Painter, b. at Borgo San-Sepolcro, about 1420; d. there, 1492.
San Severino is a small town and seat of a bishopric in the Province of Macerata in the Marshes, Central Italy.
Diocese in the Province of Foggia (Capitanata), Southern Italy, situated in a fertile plain, watered by the Radicosa and Triolo.
San Xavier del Bac, Mission of
One of the eight missions founded by the Spanish Padres between 1687 and 1720 in the Pimeria Alta, within the present limits of the State of Arizona.
Religious scholar/author - Born at Cordova, 1550; died in the college of Granada, 19 May, 1610.
Sanction signifies the authoritative act whereby the legislator gives a law value and binding force for its subjects.
Explains the meaning of the term "sanctity" as employed in somewhat different senses in relation to God, to individual men, and to a corporate body.
The hymn at First and Second Vespers in the Common of the Martyrs in the Roman Breviary. Its authorship is often attributed to Rabanus Maurus (d. 856), Archbishop of Mainz.
Church architecture term.
A consecrated place of refuge.
The Sanctus is the last part of the Preface in the Mass, sung in practically every rite by the people (or choir). One of the elements of the liturgy of which exists the earliest evidence.
Unlike the ancient sandals, which consisted merely of soles fastened to the foot by straps, the episcopal sandals are in the form of low shoes, and resemble slippers.
An English form of the Scottish sect of Glassites, followers of John Glas (b. 1695; d. 1773) who was deposed from the Presbyterian ministry in 1728, for teaching that the Church should not be subject to any league or covenant, but should be governed only by Apostolic doctrine.
Sandeo, Felino Maria
Often quoted under the name of Felinus, Italian canonist of the fifteenth century.
Historian, b. at Antwerp, 1586; d. at Afflighem, Belgium, 10 Jan., 1664.
English exile - Born at Charlwood, Surrey, in 1530; died in Ireland, 1581.
Diocese in Victoria, Australia; suffragan of Melbourne.
Ancient Polish city with existing traces of prehistoric construction.
Sands, Benjamin and James
U.S. Navy admirals.
Vicariate Apostolic comprising all the islands of the Hawaiian group.
A sub-tribe of the Songish Indians.
The supreme council and court of justice among the Jews.
Diocese in Lower Austria.
Italian and Latin poet, b. at Naples, 28 July, 1458; d. at Rome, in Aug., 1530.
Restorer of the Scholastic philosophy in Italy, b. at Naples, 1811; d. there of cholera, 16 Nov., 1865.
Sansovino, Andrea Contucci del
Sculptor of the transition period at the end of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth century. Born at Monte San Sovino, Arezzo, 1460; died 1529.
Sant' Angelo de' Lombardi
Diocese in the Province of Avellino, Southern Italy. The city was established by the Lombards at an unknown period.
Sant' Angelo in Vado and Urbania
Diocese; S. Angelo in Vado is a city in the Marches, on the site of the ancient "Tifernum Metaurense", a town of the Umbrian Senones, near the River Metaurus, believed to have been destroyed by the Goths.
Santa Agata dei Goti, Diocese of
In the Province of Benevento, Southern Italy; the city, situated on a hill at the base of Monte Taburno, includes an ancient castle.
Santa Casa di Loreto
Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the "Holy House" of Loreto has been numbered among the most famous shrines of Italy.
Diocese; suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Porto Alegre (São Pedro do Rio Grande), in Brazil, South America, created in 1906.
Santa Cruz de la Sierra
Diocese in Bolivia, erected on 6 July, 1605, as suffragan of Lima, but since 2 July, 1609, it has been dependent on La Plata (Charcas).
Santa Fe (Argentina)
Diocese in the Argentine Republic, suffragan of Buenos Aires.
Santa Fe (New Mexico)
Archdiocese in New Mexico, erected by Pius IX in 1850 and created an archbishopric in 1875.
Santa Lucia del Mela
Prelature nullius within the territory of the Archdiocese of Messina, Sicily.
Santa Maria (Brazil)
A Brazilian see, suffragan of Porto Alegre.
Santa Maria de Monserrato
An abbey nullius in Brazil.
Diocese in Colombia, erected in 1535, its first bishop being Alfonso do Tobes.
Diocese in the Province of Catanzaro in Calabria, Southern Italy. Situated on a rocky precipice on the site of the ancient Siberena, it became an important fortress of the Byzantines in their struggles with the Saracens.
Diocese in Spain which takes its name not from St. Andrew as some believe, but from St. Hemeterius (Santemter, Santenter, Santander), one of the patrons of the city and ancient abbey.
Prelature nullius created in 1903, in the ecclesiastical Province of Belem do Pará.
Santiago del Estero
Diocese in the Argentine Republic, erected 25 March, 1907, suffragan of Buenos Aires.
Santiago, University of
Founded in 1501 by Diego de Muros (Bishop of the Canaries), and Lope Gómez Marzo, who on 17 July, 1501, executed a public document establishing a school and academy for the study of the humanities.
Santini, Giovanni Sante Gaspero
Astronomer, b. at Caprese in Tuscany, 30 Jan., 1787; d. at Padua, 26 June, 1877.
Santo Domingo, Archdiocese of
Erected on 8 August, 1511, by Julius II who by the Bull "Pontifex Romanus" on that date established also the Sees of Concepción de la Vega and of San Juan of Porto Rico.
Santos, João dos
Dominican missionary in India and Africa, b. at Evora, Portugal; d. at Goa in 1622.
Diocese in Albania, established in 1062.
Wife of Abraham and also his step-sister.
A class of monks widely spread before the time of St. Benedict.
Diocese in Spain.
Saragossa, University of
Not definitively established until 1585, its real founder being Don Pedro Cerbunc, Prior of the Cathedral of Saragossa, and later Bishop of Tarrazona.
Sarajevo, Archdiocese of
Treatise about the development of the Church in Bosnia.
The chief Franciscan mission of the Ucavali river country, Department of Loreto, north-east Peru, in the eighteenth century.
Sarbiewski, Mathias Casimir
The Horace of Poland, b. near Plonsk, in the Duchy of Masovia, 24 February, 1595; d. 2 April, 1649. He entered the novitiate of the Jesuits at Vilna on 25 July, 1612.
A titular see of Lydia, in Asia Minor probably the ancient Hyde of Homer (Iliad, II, 844; XX, 385), at the foot of Mount Tmolus.
A titular metropolitan see of Dacia Mediterranea. The true name of the city (now Sophia, the capital of Bulgaria) was Serdica.
Sardica, Council of
One of the series of councils called to adjust the doctrinal and other difficulties caused by the Arian heresy, held most probably in 343.
The second largest Italian island in the Mediterranean.
A titular see in Phoenicia Prima, suffragan of Tyre. It is mentioned for the first time in the voyage of an Egyptian in the fourteenth century B.C. Chabas, "Voyage d'un Egyptien" .
Sarnelli, Januarius Maria
One of S. Alphonsus's earliest companions, fourth son of Baron Angelo Sarnelli of Ciorani, b. in Naples 12 Sept., 1702; d. 30 June, 1744.
A Servite and anti-papal historian and statesman, b. at Venice, 14 August, 1552; d. there 14 or 15 January, 1623.
Born at Lucan near Dublin, about 1650; died at Huy in Belgium, 1693. Commanded armies in several European countries.
Located in Aemilia, Province of Forli, Italy.
Sarto, Andrea del
Artist - Born at Florence in 1486; d. there in 1531.
The manner of regulating the details of the Roman Liturgy that obtained in pre-Reformation times in the south of England and was thence propagated over the greater part of Scotland and of Ireland.
A titular see in Cappadocia. Sasima is mentioned only in three non-religious documents.
Saskatchewan and Alberta
The twin provinces of the Canadian West, so called because they were formed on the same day.
Archdiocese in Sardinia, Italy, situated on the River Rossello in a fertile region: a centre of the oil, fruit, wine, and tobacco industries.
Sassoferrato, Giovanni Battista Salvi da
Seventeenth-century Italian artist.
A titular see in Armenia Prima, suffragan of Sabastia.
Theologian, cardinal, first Apostolic delegate to the United States, b. 21 July, 1839, at Marsciano near Perugia; d. 8 Jan., 1910, at Rome.
First bishop of Toulouse, third-century martyr.
Per Tillemont, one of the most illustrious martyrs France has given to the Church.
First King of Israel.
Sault Sainte Marie
Ontario, Canada, diocese erected in 1904.
The Diocese of Savannah comprises the State of Georgia and was created as such by Pius IX, 1850.
Bishop of Bath and Glastonbury, and cousin of the Emperor Henry VI, date of birth unknown, d. at Rome, 1205. He was archdeacon of Canterbury, 1175, and archdeacon of Northampton, 1180.
A noble French family of the seventeenth century devoted to trade and to the publication of works on commercial matters.
Savigny, Abbey of
Situated on the confines of Normandy and Brittany, Diocese of Coutances, France. Founded by Vital de Mortain, Canon of the Collegiate Church of St. Evroul.
Savigny, Karl Friedrich
Savona and Noli
Province of Genoa, on the Gulf of Genoa.
Dominican reformer. Born at Ferrara, 21 September, 1452; died at Florence, 23 May, 1498.
A district in the south-eastern part of France that extends from the Lake Geneva to south of the River Arc.
Saxe, Jean de
For a long time two astronomers of the Middle Ages were confounded under this name. (1) Joannes Danko (2) Jean de Counnout.
One of the Saxon duchies in the east of Thuringia; situated on the west frontier of the Kingdom of Saxony.
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
One of the Saxon-Thuringian duchies.
A Saxon-Thuringian duchy. The duchy came into existence in 1681, as the result of the various succession agreements among the seven sons of Duke Ernest the Pious of Saxe-Gotha.
A grand duchy in Thuringia, also known in recent times as the Grand duchy of Saxony.
Thirteenth-century Danish historian
Chronology of the area and the people.
Saxony, Albert of
Scala Sancta (Holy Stairs)
Consisting of twenty-eight white marble steps, at Rome, near the Lateran; according to tradition the staircase leading once to the prætorium of Pilate at Jerusalem, hence sanctified by the footsteps of Our Lord during his Passion.
Scaliger, Julius Caesar
Article by Paul Lejay on this scholar's life and writings.
Theologian, better known by his religious name, Anrea di Castellana.
Scammon, Ellakim Parker
Educator, b. at Whitefield, Maine, U.S.A., 27 Dec., 1816; d. at New York, 7 Dec., 1894.
A word or action evil in itself, which occasions another's spiritual ruin.
Bolognese painter, born about 1360; died about 1410.
The most important part, of the habit of the monastic orders.
Scaramelli, Giovanni Battista
Ascetical writer, b. at Rome, 24 Nov., 1687; d. at Macerata, 11 Jan., 1752.
Oratorian, Papal envoy, b. of a noble and ancient family in the Duchy of Monferrato, Piedmont, 1596; d. at Rome, 14 Oct., 1656.
Special emphasis on his religious works and his influence on later composers.
French poet and dramatist, b. in Paris, 4 July, 1610; d. 7 October, 1660.
Etymology of the word based on a Greek term meaning "speculation, doubt".
Schadow, Friedrich Wilhelm
Painter, b. at Berlin, 1789; d. at Düsseldorf, 1862. He was the son of the sculptor, Johann Gottfried Schadow of Berlin.
Orator, poet, and statesman, b. at Tubbergen, Holland, 2 March, 1844; d. at Rome, 21 Jan., 1903.
Schall von Bell, Johann Adam
An especially prominent figure among the missionaries to China, b. of an important family at Cologne in 1591; d. at Peking, 15 Aug., 1666.
Schannat, Johann Friedrich
German historian, b. at Luxembourg, 23 July, 1683; d. at Heidleberg, 6 March, 1739.
A German principality, surrounded by the Prussian province of Westphalia Hanover, and an exclave of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau (the Prussian County of Schaumburg).
German Humanist and historian, b. at Nuremberg, 13 February, 1440; d. there on 28 November, 1514.
Scheeben, Matthias Joseph
Theological writer of acknowledged merit, born at Meckenheim near Bonn, 1 March, 1835; died at Cologne, 21 July, 1888.
Scheffmacher, John James
Jesuit theologian b. at Kientzheim, Alsace, 27 April, 1668; d. at Strasburg, 18 August, 1733. He was one of the greatest theologians of his time, an orator of power and influence and the author of valuable works on controversy.
German astronomer, b. at Wald, near Mindelheim, in Swabia, 25 July, 1575; d. at Niesse, in Silesia, 18 July, 1650.
Schelble, Johann Nepomuk
Musician, b. 16 May, 1789, at Huffingen in the Black Forest; d. there 6 Aug., 1837.
Theologian, b. at Antwerp, 1649; d. at Rome, 6 April, 1692. While he was a canon of the cathedral of Antwerp, he was called to Rome by Innocent IX and made an assistant librarian of the Vatican Library.
Schenkl, Maurus von
Benedictine theologian and canonist, b. at Auerbach in Bavaria, 4 January 1749; d. at Amberg, 14 June, 1816.
A Coptic abbot. The years 332-33-34 and 350 are mentioned as the date of his birth, and the years 451-52 and 466 as the date of his death, all authors agreeing that he lived about 118 years.
Pulpit orator and controversialist, b. at Schwaz, in the Tyrol, 1540, according to Duhr; d. at Linz, 30 Nov., 1605; entered the Society of Jesus in 1559.
Scherer-Boccard, Theodore, Count von
A Swiss Catholic journalist and politician; b. at Dornach in the canton of Solothurn, 12 May, 1816; d. at Solothurn, 6 Feb., 1885.
Bishop, cardinal, and statesman, b. at Muhlbach in the Canton of Valais, Switzerland, about 1470; d. of the plague at Rome, l October, 1522.
In the language of theology and canon law, the rupture of ecclesiastical union and unity.
From the time of Diotrephes (III John 1:9-10) there have been continual schisms, of which the greater number were in the East.
Only a temporary misunderstanding, even though it compelled the Church for forty years to seek its true head; it was fed by politics and passions, and was terminated by the assembling of the councils of Pisa and Constance.
Schlegel, Friedrich von
Poet, writer on aesthetics, and literary historian, the "Messias" of the Romantic School, b. at Hanover, 10 March, 1772; d. at Dresden, 12 January, 1829.
Formerly a duchy and diocese of northwestern Germany, now a part of the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein.
Schlosser, John Frederick Henry
Jurist - b. at Frankfort-on-the-Main, 30 December, 1780; d. there 22 January, 1851.
Ascetical writer, b. at Vienna, 17 June, 1805; d. at Graz, 2 Nov., 1852.
Schmalzgrueber, Francis Xavier
Canonist, b. at Griesbach, Bavaria, 9 Oct., 1663; d. at Dillingen 7 Nov., 1735.
Schmid, Christoph von
Writer of children's stories and educator, b. at Dinkelsbuehl, in Bavaria, 15 Aug., 1768; d. at Augsburg in 1854.
Schmidt, Friedrich von
Born at Wesel, Lower Rhine, 12 Feb., 1829; d. at Kerkrade, Holland, 20 Nov., 1885.
Schoenberg, Matthias von
Author, b. at Ehingen, in the Diocese of Constance, 9 Nov., 1732; d. at Munich, 20 Apr., 1792.
A place for the teaching and practice of ecclesiastical chant, or a body of singers banded together for the purpose of rendering the music in church.
A term used to designate both a method and a system. It is applied to theology as well as to philosophy.
Theologian and historian, b. at Freising in Bavaria, 15 January, 1722; d. at Welchenberg, 16 July, 1795.
Schols, Charles Mathieu
Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences. Born of Catholic parents at Maastriche, Holland, 28 March, 1849; died at Delft 17 March, 1897.
Scholz, John Martin Augustine
German Orientalist and exegete, b. at Kapsdorf, near Breslau, 8 Feb., 1794; d. at Bonn, 20 Oct. 1852. He studied in the Catholic gymnasium and the University of Breslau.
German painter and engraver, b. at Colmar between 1445 and 1450; d. probably in 1491, it is believed at Breisach.
History and development of education as related to the church.
The object of apostolic schools is to cultivate vocations for the foreign missions. Apostolic schools, as distinct from junior ecclesiastical seminaries, owe their origin to Father Alberic de Foresta.
Schools, Clerks Regular of the Pious
Called also Piarists, Scolopli, Escolapios, Poor Clerks of the Mother of God, and the Pauline Congregation, a religious order founded in Rome in 1597 by St. Joseph Calasanctius.
Schorlemer-Alst, Burghard Freiherr von
Social reformer, b. at Heringhausen, Westphalia, 21 Oct., 1825; d. at Alst, 17 March, 1895.
German physicist, b. 5 Feb., 1608, at Königshofen; d. 12 or 22 May, 1666, at Augsburg.
A name applied to the monastic foundations of Irish and Scotch missionaries on the European continent, particularly to the Scotch Benedictine monasteries in Germany, which in the beginning of the thirteenth century were combined into one congregation.
Jesuit theologian, b. at Itzum, in Hanover, Nov., 1820; d. at Poitiers 23 Feb., 1875.
A Benedictine theologian and canonist, b. at Bamberg, 24 October 1722; d. in the monastery of Banz near Bamberg, 21 September, 1797.
Schrank, Franz Paula von
Naturalist, b. at Varnbach near Schärding on the Inn, 21 August, 1747; d. at Munich, 22 December, 1835.
Historical painter (1808-1879)
A theological writer, b. at Dorsten in Westphalia, 2 Aril, 1824; d. at Münster, 6 June, 1892.
German physiologist and founder of the theory of the cellular structure of animal organisms; b. at Neuss, 7 December, 1810; d. Cologne, 11 January, 1882.
Schwanthaler, Ludwig von
Founder of the modern Romantic school of sculpture, b. at Munich in 180 2; d there, 1848.
A German friar, reputed the inventor of gunpowder and firearms. There has been much difference of opinion regarding the bearer of this name and his share in the discovery attributed to him.
Schwarzenberg, Friedrich, Prince of
Cardinal and Prince-Archbishop of Prague, b. at Vienna, 6 April, 1809; d. there, 27 March, 1885.
The name of a Protestant sect founded by the nobleman Caspar von Schwenckfeld (b. at Ossig in Silesia in 1489 or 1490; d. at Ulm 10 December, 1561).
Schwind, Moritz von
Painter - Born at Vienna, 1804; died at Munich, 1871.
Formerly a Premonstratensian, now a Benedictine, abbey, situated on the Isar not far from Munich in Upper Bavaria. It was founded in 762 by the priest Waltrich and dedicated to St. Dionysius.
Schäufelin, Hans Leonhard
A German wood engraver, pupil of Durer, b. at Nuremberg in 1490; d. there in 1540. Best known as an engraver, but also an artist of repute.
Schäzler, Constantine, Baron von
Theologian, b. at Ratisbon, 7 May, 1827; d. at Interlaken, 9 September, 1880.
Publisher and printer, b. at Gernsheim on the Rine about 1425; d. at Mainz in 1503.
The name of a German noble family, many members of which were prelates of the Church.
History of this Catholic publishing house at Paderborn.
Science and the Church
Dicsusses the relationship between the two subjects.
A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Perhaps the name should be written Scilium: the real name was possibly Scilli, or better, Scili.
Scillium, Martyrs of
In the year 180 six Christians were condemned to death by the sword, in the town of Scillium, by Vigellius Saturninus, Proconsul of Africa.
Archdiocese, ancient residence of the early Servian rulers is the modern Uscub.
Scotism and Scotists
Article on the school of philosophy inspired by John Duns Scotus, and its proponents in the fourteenth through nineteenth centuries.
The northern portion of the Island of Great Britain.
Scotland, Established Church of
The religious organization which has for three centuries and a half claimed the adherence of the majority of the inhabitants of Scotland, may be said to date from August 1560.
A convenient term under which to include the monastic institutions which were founded during the sixth century in the country now known as Scotland, though that name was not used in its present sense until four hundred years later.
Scots College, The
Clement VIII gave Scotland its college at Rome. The Bull of foundation, dated 5 December, 1600, conferred on the college all the privileges already enjoyed by the Greek, German, and English colleges.
Diocese in Pennsylvania
In the New-Testament period the scribes were the professional interpreters of the Law in the Jewish synagogues.
A large room set apart in a monastery for the use of the scribes or copyists of the community.
Sacred Scripture is one of the several names denoting the inspired writings which make up the Old and New Testament.
An unfounded apprehension and consequently unwarranted fear that something is a sin which, as a matter of fact, is not.
Definitions for the term as variously employed in canon law.
In the widest sense of the term, sculpture is the art of representing in bodily form men, animals, and other objects in stone, bronze, ivory, clay and similar materials.
Scutari, Archdiocese of
The Archdiocese of Scutari comprises 29 parishes.
A titular metropolitan of Palaestina Secunda. It is the ancient Bethsan so often mentioned in the Bible, as proved by texts in the writings of Josephus.
The use of a seal by men of wealth and position was common before the Christian era. It was natural then that high functionaries of the Church should adopt the habit as soon as they became socially and politically important.
Seal of Confession, the Law of the
"Let the priest who dares to make known the sins of his penitent be deposed...."
The Diocese of Seattle (Seattlensis) comprises the entire State of Washington, U.S.A.
A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea.
The city, which existed perhaps under another name in pre-Roman times, was called Sebastia and enlarged by Augustus; under Diocletian it became the capital of Armenia Prima and after Justinian who rebuilt its walls, the capital of Armenia Secunda.
Sebastian Newdigate, Blessed
Martyred at Tyburn in 1535 for denying the royal supremacy.
Article on this Roman martyr of the late third or early fourth century.
A titular see in Armenia Prima, suffragan of Sebastia. The primitive name of this city was Carana, dependent on Zela, which was included in the principality given toAteporix by Anthony of or Augustus.
Suffragan of Zara. Sebenico was the seat of a bishop before the establishment of a see.
Astronomer, b. at Reggio in Emilia, Italy, 18 June, 1818; d. 26 Feb., 1878.
A small tribe speaking a distinct language of Salishan linguistic stock, formerly occupying the territory about the entrance of Jervis and Sechelt inlets, Nelson Island, and south Texada Island.
Bishop, nephew of St. Patrick. First Irish Christian to write Latin poetry. Died 457.
Diocese in Styria, Austria, suffragan of Salzburg. The See of Seckau was founded by Archbishop Eberhard II of Salzburg, with the permission of Honorius III, 22 June, 1218.
The prayer said in a low voice by the celebrant at the end of the Offeratory in the Roman Liturgy.
Sect and Sects
Etymology and meaning of the word "sect" .
The secular cleric makes no profession and follows no religious rule.
A term used for the first time about 1846 by George Jacob Holyoake to denote "a form of opinion which concerns itself only with questions, the issues of which can be tested by the experience of this life".
An authorization given to religious with solemn vows and by extension to those with simple vows to live for a time or permanently in the "world".
Regius professor of divinity at Cambridge, 1557, rector of Stanhope, Durham, and vicar of Gainford, Durham, both in 1558; d. in a Yorkshire prison, 1573.
The Italian name of the portable papal throne used on certain solemn occasions in the pontifical ceremonies.
The name given to seats on the south side of the sanctuary, used by the officiating clergy during the liturgy.
The inducing of a previously virtuous woman to engage in unlawful sexual intercourse.
Christian poet of the fifth century.
An Irish teacher, grammarian and Scriptural commentator, who lived in the ninth century.
An obscure Puritan sect which arose in England in the middles of the seventeenth century. They represented an Antinomian tendency among some of the Independents, and professed to be seeking for the true Church, Scripture, Ministry, and Sacraments.
A Chaldean see, appears to have succeeded the See of Arzon in the same province.
Seghers, Charles John
Bishop of Vancouver Island (today Victoria), Apostle of Alaska. b. at Ghent, Belgium, 26 Dec., 1839; d. in Alaska, 28 Nov., 1886.
Italian Jesuit, preacher, missionary, ascetical writer, b. at Nettuno, 21 March (cf. Massei) 1624; d. at Rome, 9 Dec., 1694.
Located in the Province of Rome. The city, situated on a hill in the Monti Lepini overlooks the valley of the river Sacco.
Diocese in Spain, bounded on the north by Castellón and Teruel, on the east by Castellón, on the south by Valencia, and on the west by Valencia and Teruel.
Diocese in Spain; bounded on the north by Valladolid, Burgos, and Soria; on the east by Guadalajara; on the south by Madrid; on the west by Avila and Valladolid.
Sehna, Diocese of
A Chaldean see, erected in 1853, its subjects being partly in Persia and partly in Turkey at Suleimanieh.
Seidl, Johann Gabriel
Poet, author of the present Austrian national hymn, b. at Vienna, 21 June 1804; d. there, 17 July, 1875.
Seitz, Alexander Maximilian
Painter, b. At Munich, 1811; d. at Rome, 1888.
Sejny, Diocese of
A diocese in the northwestern part of Russian Poland.
A Déné tribe whose habitat is on both sides of the Rockies.
Titular metropolis of Syria Prima. The city was founded near the mouth of the Orontes, not far from Mount Casius, by Seleucus Nicator about 300 B.C.
Metropolitan see of Isauria in the Patriarchate of Antioch.
A Gnostic sect who are said to have flourished in Galatia.
The name given to the Macedonian dynasty, which was founded by Seleucus, a general under Alexander the Great.
The right of a private person to employ force against any one who unjustly attacks his life or person, his property or good name.
Selgas y Carrasco, José
Poet and novelist, b. at Lorca, Murcia, Spain, 1824; d. at Madrid, 5 Feb., 1882.
A titular see in Pamphylia Prima, suffragan of Side.
A titular see in Isauria, near the Gulf of Adalia. Selinus.
Selvaggio, Giulio Lorenzo
Canonist and archaeologist, b. at Naples, 10 August, 1728; d. there, November, 1772.
A titular see in Thracia Prima, suffragan of Heraclea. Selymbria, or Selybria, the city of Selys on the Propontis, was a colony of the Megarians founded before Byzantium.
Son of Noe.
Semiarians and Semiarianism
A name frequently given to the conservative majority in the East in the fourth century as opposed to the strict Arians.
The word seminary (Fr. séminaire, Ger. Seminar) is sometimes used, especially in Germany, to designate a group of university students devoted to a special line of work. The same word is often applied in England and the United States to young ladies' academies, Protestant or Catholic.
A doctrine of grace advocated by monks of Southern Gaul at and around Marseilles after 428.
The term Semites is applied to a group of peoples closely related in language, whose habitat is Asia and partly Africa.
Discussion of the science by this name.
Semmelweis, Ignaz Philipp
Physician and discoverer of the cause of puerperal fever, b. Ofen (Buda), 1 July, 1818; d. at Vienna, 13 August, 1865.
Naval officer, b. in Charles County, Maryland, U.S.A., 27 September, 1809; d. at Point Clear, Alabama, 26 August, 1877.
Indian missionary and philologist, b. at Barcelona, Spain, about 1590; d. at Guarambare, Paraguay, 19 July, 1614.
Senan, José Francisco de Paula
Missionary - Born at Barcelona, Spain, 3 March, 1760; died at Mission San Buenaventura on 24 Aug., 1823
Sixth-century Irish missionary, bishop, and confessor. Was revered even in his earthly life for his sanctity, being visited by Sts. Ciaran and Brendan.
Cistercian monastery and cradle of the modern Cistereians of the Immaculate Conception.
The westernmost and largest of the five tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy of central and western New York.
Inventor of lithography.
Vicariate Apostolic, to which is joined the Prefecture Apostolic of Senegal (Senegalensis), both in French West Africa.
Archdiocese comprising the Department of the Yonne.
Sens, Councils of
Chronology of councils held at this location.
In canon law, the decision of the court upon any issue brought before it.
Sept-Fons, Notre-Dame de Saint-Lieu
Located in the Diocese of Moulins in France, it was founded (1132) by Guichard and Guillaume de Bourbon, of the family de Bourbon-Lancy, which gave kings to France, Italy, and Spain.
Founder of the African dynasty of Roman emperors.
The ninth Sunday before Easter, the third before Lent known among the Greeks as "Sunday of the Prodigal".
The first translation of the Hebrew Old Testament, made into popular Greek before the Christian era.
A Hebrew masculine plural form, designates a special class of heavenly attendants of Yahweh's court.
Seraphin of Montegranaro, Saint
Late sixteenth-century Italian Capuchin. Had the gift of reading hearts.
Seraphina Sforza, Blessed
Forced by her husband to enter the Poor Clares, d. 1478.
Bishop and theological author. Died 211.
Serena, Diocese of La
Embracing Atacama and Coquimbo provinces (Chile), suffragan of Santiago, erected 1 July, 1840.
Writer, born at Barrow-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire, in 1623; died in 1710.
A titular see in Augusta Euphratensis, suffragan of Hierapolis.
Sergius and Bacchus, Saints
Soldiers, martyred in the Diocletian persecution in about 303. Universally venerated in the East.
Sergius I, Pope Saint
Sergius II, Pope
Sergius III, Pope
Sergius IV, Pope
Italian theologian and cardinal, b. at Troja (Apulia), 6 May, 1493; d. at Trent 17 March, 1563.
Seroux d'Agincourt, Jean-Baptiste-Louis-George
Born at Beauvais, 5 April, 1730; died at Rome, 24 September, 1814. He was a descendant of the counts of Namur.
Scientist known for work in astronomy and seismology, b. at S. Giovanni in Marignano, near Rimini, 31 Oct., 1823; d. at Fiesole, 22 Feb., 1885.
Titular metropolitan see in Macedonia, more correctly Serrhae, is called Siris by Herodotus.
Servants of Mary (Order of Servites)
Order founded on the feast of the Assumption, 1233 when the Blessed Virgin appeared to seven noble Florentines.
Servants of the Most Blessed Sacrament
An order of nuns, founded by the Venerable Pierre-Julien Eymard.
A European kingdom in the north-western part of the Balkan peninsula.
Servites, Order of
The fifth mendicant order, the objects of which are the sanctification of its members, preaching the Gospel, and the propagation of devotion to the Mother of God, with special reference to her sorrows.
Servus servorum Dei
"Servant of the servants of God", a title given by the popes to themselves in documents of note.
Diocese in Campania, Province of Caserta (Southern Italy).
Astronomer, mathematician, b. at Florence, Italy, 20 March, 1816; d. at Frederick, Maryland, 17 Jan., 1890.
Tribe of Panoan linguistic stock formerly centering about the confluence of the Manoa with the Ucayali River, Loreto province, north-eastern Peru.
Author, b. in New York, 28 Jan., 1835; d. there, 15 Mar., 1905.
Settignano, Desiderio da
Artist, born at Settignano, Tuscany, 1428; died at Florence, 1463.
The seven men elected by the whole company of the original Christian community at Jerusalem and ordained by the Apostles, their office being chiefly to look after the poor and the common agape.
Martyrs on the Island of Corcyra (Corfu) in the second century. Their names are Saturninus, Insischolus, Faustianus, Januarius, Marsalius, Euphrasius, and Mammius.
One of the three chief furnishings of the Holy of the Tabernacle and the Temple. In reality it was an elaborate lampstand, set on the south side of the Holy Place.
Bishop of Gabala in Syria, in the fourth and fifth centuries. Regarded by his contemporaries as a good preacher, known as the author of Biblical commentaries and sermons.
Reigned May-August 640,
Severus Sanctus Endelechus
Christian rhetorician and poet of the fourth century.
An article by Thomas J. Shahan on the emperor who was born at Acco in Palestine in 208, and murdered by his mutinous soldiers at Sicula on the Rhine.
Sevigne, Madame de
Writer, b. at Paris, 6 Feb., 1626; d. at Grignan, 18 April, 1696. She was the granddaughter of St. Jane Frances de Chantal.
Archdiocese in Spain.
Seville, University of
Initially started in the thirteenth century by the Dominicans in order to prepare missionaries for work among the Moors and Jews.
The eighth Sunday before Easter and the second before Lent.
Biography of the seventh-century English widow and abbess.
Article on the midday office.
One who guards the church edifice, its treasures, vestments, etc., and as an inferior minister attends to burials, bell-ringings and similar offices about a church.
Prince-abbot of St. Gall and cardinal, b. at Milan, 10 January, 1644, d. at Rome, 4 September, 1696.
Shakespeare, Religion of
Thesis regarding the faith of the bard.
A vague term used by explorers of Siberia in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to designate not a specific religion but a form of savage magic or science, by which physical nature was believed to be brought under the control of man.
Jewish scribe who together with Hillel made up the last of "the pairs", or as they are sometimes erroneously named, "presidents and vice-presidents" of the Sanhedrin.
Shan-si, Vicariate Apostolic of Northern
Highlights of the history of Catholicism in this Chinese province.
Shan-si, Vicariate Apostolic of Southern
Erected in 1890; the mission is entrusted to the Franciscan Fathers.
Shan-tung, Vicariate Apostolic of Eastern
This mission was separated in 1894 from Northern Shan-Tung and erected into a vicariate Apostolic.
Shan-tung, Vicariate Apostolic of Northern
Erected by Gregory XVI in 1839.
Shan-tung, Vicariate Apostolic of Southern
On 2 Jan., 1882, the then vicar Apostolic of Shan-tung, Rt. Rev. Mgr. D. Cosi, elected as pro-vicar Apostolic for the southern part of his vicariate Father John Baptist Anzer, a member of the Steyl Seminary.
English priest (1577-1630).
Shea, John Dawson Gilmary
American historian (1824-1892).
Shea, Sir Ambrose
Born in Newfoundland, 17 Sept., 1815; d. in London, 30 July, 1905.
Sheil, Richard Lalor
Dramatist, prose writer, and politician, b. at Drumdowny, County Kilkenny, Ireland, 17 August, 1791; d. at, Florence, Italy, 25 May, 1851.
English confessor; d. in Marshalsea prison, London, probably in February or March, 1585-6.
In 1640 the Christian religion was preached for the first time in the Province of Shen-si. It was, by turns, looked upon with favor and disfavor by the emperors of China.
The southern part of Shen-si was entrusted in 1885 to the Seminary of Sts. Peter and Paul, established at Rome by Pius IX, 1874.
English musical composer (1512-1563)
Located in Dorsetshire, England; founded in 998. Sherborne (scir-burne, clear brook) was originally the episcopal seat of the Bishop of Western Wessex, having been established as such by St. Aldhelm (705).
Diocese in the Province of Quebec, suffragan of the Archdiocese of Montreal, erected by Pius IX, 28 Aug., 1874.
Sheridan, Philip Henry
General, U.S. Army. Born at Albany, N.Y., U.S.A., 6 March, 1831; died at Nonquitt, Mass, 5 August, 1888.
English priest and confessor. One of the Dilati, b. 1563; d. 1588.
Bishop of Meath, d. at Dublin, 3 Dec. 1482. He was an English ecclesiastic who obtained the see by papal provision in April, 1460.
One of the four great islands of Japan, has all area of 7009 square miles, not counting the smaller islands which depend upon it.
Military officer, b. in Dungannon County Tyrone, Ireland, 12 Dec., 1810; d. at Ottumwa, Iowa, 1 June, 1879.
Vicariate apostolic in Nyassaland Protectorate, Africa.
English poet and dramatist (1596-1666)
One of the thirteen English dioceses created by Apostolic Letter of Pius IX on 27 Sept., 1850. It then comprised the English counties of Shropshire and Cheshire, and the Welsh counties of Carnarvon, Flint, Denbigh, Merioneth, Montgomery, and Anglesey.
Shrines of Our Lady and the Saints in Great Britain and Ireland
Location and origins of shrines.
Shroud of Turin
A relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that it is the actual "clean linen cloth" in which Joseph of Arimathea wrapped the body of Jesus Christ.
Some history behind Carnival.
A tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, the most important of that group in British Columbia, formerly holding a large territory on middle and upper Thompson River, including Shuswap, Adams, and Quesnel Lakes.
Siam, "the land of the White Elephant" or the country of the Muang Thai (the Free).
Sculptor, b. at Dulmen, 7 June, 1850; d. in New York, 10 July, 1907.
A Russian possession in Asia forming the northern third of that continent.
Born at Saint-Paul-Trois-Chateaux (Drome, France), 4 August, 1792; died in Paris, 3 January, 1857.
The name given to certain collections of supposed prophecies, emanating from the sibyls or divinely inspired seeresses, which were widely circulated in antiquity.
Bishop of Cremona (Italy) in the twelfth century, a member of one of the principal families of that city, d. 1215.
A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage.
An Israelite city in the tribe of Ephraim, the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel.
The largest island in the Mediterranean.
Titular metropolis of Pamphylia Prima.
City in Syria. Mentioned in the Bible. Is home to both a Melkite Rite and a Maronite diocese.
Christian author and Bishop of Clermont, b. at Lyons, 5 November, about 430; d. at Clermont, about August, 480.
A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra; mentioned by Ptolemy.
Archdiocese in Tuscany (Central Italy).
Siena, University of
The earliest notices of an advanced school (of grammar and medicine) at Siena go back to 1241.
Missionary bishop, b. in Catalonia, date of birth unknown; d. after 1799, place and exact date equally uncertain.
Comprises the English colony of that name and the surrounding territory from French Guinea on the north and east to Liberia on the south.
Sigebert of Gembloux
Benedictine historian, b. near Gembloux which is now in the Province of Namur, Belgium, about 1035; d. at the same place, 5 November, 1112.
Siger of Brabant
Indisputably the leader of Latin Averroism during the sixth and seventh decades of the thirteenth century.
King of Germany and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, b. 15 February, 1361, at Nuremberg; d. at Znaim, Bohemia, 9 December, 1437.
Sign of the Cross
A term applied to various manual acts, liturgical or devotional in character, which have this at least in common: that by the gesture of tracing two lines intersecting at right angles they indicate symbolically the figure of Christ's cross.
Italian painter, b. at Cortona about 1441; d. there in 1523.
Diocese in Spain, suffragan of Toledo.
The religion of a warlike sect of India, having its origin in the Punjab and its centre in the holy City of Amritsar, where their sacred books are preserved and worshipped.
A titular see in Lydia, suffragan of Sardis. It is not mentioned by any ancient geographer or historian.
All writers on the spiritual life uniformly recommend, nay, command under penalty of total failure, the practice of silence.
The largest province of Prussia.
The collective designation for the rapidly dwindling remnant of some thirty small tribes, representing five linguistic stocks - Salishan, Yakonan, Kusan, Takelman, and Athapascan.
A pool in the Tyropoean Valley, just outside the south wall of Jerusalem, where Jesus Christ gave sight to a man born blind.
Silveira, Ven. Goncalo da
Pioneer missionary of South Africa, b. 23 Feb, 1526, at Almeirim, about forty miles from Lisbon; martyred 6 March, 1561.
Silverius, Pope Saint
Son of Pope St. Hormisdas. Named pope while yet a subdeacon, to thwart the Monophysites. Exiled through a forgery of his political and religious enemies, died of starvation in prison, probably in 537.
Theologian, b. at Ferrara about 1474; d. at Rennes, 19 Sept., 1526.
The mother of St. Gregory the Great. She died in about 592.
The second son of Jacob by Lia and patronymic ancestor of the Jewish tribe bearing that name.
Simeon of Durham
Chronicler, d. 14 Oct., between 1130 and 1138.
Simeon Stylites the Elder, Saint
First and most famous of the hermits whose asceticism involved living atop a pillar. Died in 459.
Simeon Stylites the Younger, Saint
From Antioch. 521-597, lived on a pillar for 68 years. Also a brief mention of St. Simeon Stylites III.
The "just and devout" man of Jerusalem who according to the narrative of St. Luke, greeted the infant Saviour on the occasion of His presentation in the Temple.
Archdiocese in India, a new creation of Pius X by a Decree dated 13 September, 1910.
According to the testimony of St. Justin, Simon came from Gitta in the country of the Samaritans.
Simon of Cascia
Italian preacher and writer. (d. 1348)
Simon of Cramaud
French bishop. (1360-1422)
Simon of Cremona
Augustinian writer and preacher. (d. 1390)
Simon of Sudbury
Archbishop of Canterbury. (d. 1381)
Simon of Tournai
Professor in the University of Paris at the beginning of the thirteenth century, dates of birth and death unknown.
Simon Stock, Saint
Biography of the English Carmelite, sixth general of the Order. Associated with the brown scapular. Died 1265.
Simon the Apostle, Saint
Also known as Simon the Zealot.
Simone da Orsenigo
A Lombard architect and builder of the fourteenth century whose memory is chiefly connected with the cathedral of Milan in the course of its erection.
A Gnostic, Antinomian sect of the second century which regarded Simon Magus as its founder and which traced its doctrines back to him.
Usually defined "a deliberate intention of buying or selling for a temporal price such things as are spiritual of annexed unto spirituals".
Simplicius, Faustinus and Beatrice, Saints
Two brothers and their sister, all martyrs in the Diocletian persecution.
Simplicius, Pope Saint
Reigned 468-483; date of birth unknown; died 10 March, 483.
Born 1820; died near Rome, 5 April, 1876.
A moral evil.
The mountain on which the Mosaic Law was given.
Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of the Archdiocese of Durango.
A titular See in Armenia Secunda, suffragan of Melitene.
Diocese in Switzerland.
Titular see in Asia Minor suffragan of Ephesus.
Comprises twenty-four counties in north-western Iowa.
Suffragan of St. Paul, comprises all that part of the State of South Dakota east of the Missouri River.
Provides information about their history, language, population, culture and religion.
A numerous tribe of Panoan linguistic stock, formerly centring about the Pisqui and Aguaitia tributaries of the upper Ucayali River, Province of Loreto, north-eastern Peru, and now found as boatmen or labourers along the whole course of that stream.
Siricius, Pope Saint
Siricius condemned Jovinian, but this did not spare the pope from criticism by St. Jerome.
Cardinal and scholar, born at Guardavalle near Stilo in Calabria, 1514; died at Rome, 6 October, 1585.
Situated near the modern town of Mitrovitz in Slavonia; its church is said to have been founded by St. Peter.
Scholar of the seventeenth century, born at Riom in the Department of Puy-de-Dome, France, October, 1559; died in Paris, 7 October 1651.
Successor of John VII, he was consecrated probably 15 January, 708, and died after a brief pontificate of about three weeks; he was buried in St. Peter's.
Sisters of Charity of Cincinnati, Ohio
On 27 October, 1829, at the request of Bishop Fenwick of Cincinnati, several sisters from Mother Seton's community at Emmitsburg, Maryland, opened an orphanage, parochial school, and academy on Sycamore Street opposite the old cathedral, then occupying the present site of St. Xavier's Church and college.
Sisters of the Little Company of Mary
A congregation founded in 1877 in England to honour in a particular manner the maternal Heart of the Blessed Virgin, especially in the mystery of Calvary.
With the building by Sixtus IV (1471-84) of the church for the celebration of all papal functions since known as the Sistine Chapel, the original schola cantorum and subsequent capella pontificia or capella papale, which still retains more or less of the guild character, becomes the capella sistina, or Sistine Choir.
Titular see in Mauretania Sitifensis.
Missionary, born at Porrera, Island of Majorca, 9 December, 1739; died at San Antonio, Cal., 3 Sept., 1808.
A titular see, suffragan of Sebastia in Armenia Prima.
Sixtus I, Pope Saint
Martyr, reigned for ten years in the very early part of the second century.
Sixtus II, Pope Saint
This is the St. Sixtus who is commemorated in the Eucharistic Prayer. Pope who was one of the first martyrs of the Valerian persecution, in 258.
Sixtus III, Pope Saint
Sixtus IV, Pope
Born near Abisola, 21 July, 1414; died 12 Aug., 1484.
Sixtus V, Pope
Born at Grottamare near Montalto, 13 December, 1521; elected 24 April, 1585; crowned 1 May, 1585; died in the Quirinal, 27 August, 1590.
Skara, Ancient See of
Located in Sweden.
Theologian and missionary, b. at Grojec, 1536; d. at Cracow, 27 Sept., 1612.
Celebrated clinical lecturer and diagnostician and, with Rokitansky, founder of the modern medical school of Vienna, b. at Pilsen in Bohemia, 10 December, 1805; d. at Vienna, 13 June, 1881.
The attributing to another of a fault of which one knows him to be innocent.
Slavery and Christianity
Discusses the history.
Slavery, Ethical Aspect of
In Greek and Roman civilization slavery on an extensive scale formed an essential element of the social structure; and consequently the ethical speculators, no less than the practical statesmen, regarded it as a just and indispensable institution.
A tribe of the great Déné family of American Indians, so called apparently from the fact that the Crees drove it back to its original northern haunts.
Slavonic Language and Liturgy
Although the Latin holds the chief place among the liturgical languages in which the Mass is celebrated and the praise of God recited in the Divine Offices, yet the Slavonic language comes next to it among the languages widely used throughout the world in the liturgy of the Church.
Slavs in America
History of ethnic Slavs migrating to the U.S.
Customary name for all the Slavonic races.
Slomsek, Anton Martin
Slomek, Anton Martin, Bishop of Lavant, in Maribor, Styria, Austria, noted Slovenian educator, born 1800; died 24 Sept., 1862.
Polemical writer; born at Geffen, Brabant; died at Cologne, 9 July, 1560.
One of the seven capital sins. In general it means disinclination to labour or exertion.
Slythrust, Thomas, English confessor, born in Berkshire; died in the Tower of London, 1560.
A politico-religious alliance formally concluded on 27 Feb., 1531, at Smalkalden in Hesse-Nassau, among German Protestant princes and cities for their mutual defence.
Hagiographer, died at the Benedictine monastery of Aniane, Herault, in Southern France, March, 843.
Journalist, b. at Skolland, in the Shetland Isles, about 1790; d. Jan., 1866.
Born in Worcestershire, 1500; died at Douai, 9 July, 1563.
Smith, Richard (Bishop of Chalcedon)
Bishop of Chalcedon, second Vicar Apostolic of England; b. at Hanworth, Lincolnshire, Nov., 1568.
Smith, Thomas Kilby
U.S. General and journalist. Born at Boston, Mass., 23 Sept., 1820; died at New York, 14 Dec., 1887.
Orientalist and exegete (1704-1770).
The capital of the vilayet of Aïdin and the starting-point of several railways.
Historian, born at Hvammr, 1178; died 1241.
Once an important tribe of the Piman branch of the great Shoshonean linguistic stock, occupying the territory of the Santa Cruz and San Pedro Rivers, in southeastern Arizona.
Born at Olesko in 1629; died at Wilanow, 1696; son of James, Castellan of Cracow and descended by his mother from the heroic Zolkiewski, who died in battle at Cecora.
A system of social and economic organization that would substitute state monopoly for private ownership of the sources of production and means of distribution.
Societies which maintain common ownership of the means of production and distribution, e.g., land, factories, and stores, and also those which further extend the practice of common ownership to consumable goods, e.g., houses and food.
Numerous throughout the world; some are international in scope, some are national; some diocesan and others parochial.
Societies, Catholic, American Federation of
An organization of the Catholic laity, parishes, and societies under the guidance of the hierarchy, to protect and advance their religious, civil, and social interests.
A designation of which the exact meaning has varied at different times.
Implies fellowship, company, and has always been conceived as signifying a human relation.
Society of Foreign Missions of Paris
Established in 1658-63, its chief founders being Mgr Pallu, Bishop of Heliopolis, Vicar Apostolic of Tongking, and Mgr Lambert de la Motte, Bishop of Bertyus, Vicar Apostolic of Conchin-China.
Society of Jesus, The
Comprehensive information about the past of the Jesuit order.
Society, The Catholic Church Extension
The first active agitation for a church extension or home mission society for the Catholic Church in North America was begun in 1904 by an article of the present writer, published in the "American Ecclesiastical Review" (Philadelphia).
The body of doctrine held by one of the numerous Antitrinitarian sects to which the Reformation gave birth.
The claims of sociology to a place in the hierarchy of sciences are subjected to varied controversy. It has been held that there is no distinct problem for a science of sociology, no feature of human society not already provided for in the accepted social sciences.
Diocese in Colombia.
Greek philosopher. (469-399 B.C.)
Fourth-century Church historian.
It would not be possible to give a definition making a clear distinction between the sodalities and other confraternities; consequently the development and history of the sodalities are the same as those of the religious confraternities.
Sodom and Gomorrha
They were situated in "the country about the Jordan" (Gen., xiii, 10); their exact location is unknown.
Sodor and Man
Includes, with the exception of two hamlets, the entire Department of Aisne.
A family of Milanese artists, closely connected with the cathedral and with the Certosa near Pavia.
The word solemnity is here used to denote the amount of intrinsic or extrinsic pomp with which a feast is celebrated.
A Benedictine monastery in Department of Sarthe, near Sablé, France.
A titular see in Cyprus, suffragan of Salamis.
Technically in canon law the crime of making use of the Sacrament of Penance, directly or indirectly, for the purpose of drawing others into sins of lust.
A prefecture Apostolic in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, erected by a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Consistory, 23 May, 1910.
The second son of David by his wife Bathsheba, and the acknowledged favourite of his father.
Solomon Islands, Northern
Established on 23 May, 1898, by separation from the Vicariate Apostolic of New Pomerania.
Solomon Islands, Southern
The Spanish navigator Alvaro Mendana de Neyra discovered the Islands of Ysabel, Guadalcanar, and San Christoval in 1567.
Solomon, Psalms of
Eighteen apocryphal psalms, extant in Greek, probably translated from a Hebrew, or an Aramaic original, commonly assigned to the first century B.C.
Diocese in Lerida, Spain, suffragan of Tarragona.
A triangular-shaped territory in the north-eastern extremity of Africa, projecting into the ocean towards the island of Socotra; its apex is at Cape Guarafui.
Name of a charitable religious congregation of regular clerics, founded in the sixteenth century by St. Jerome Emiliani with the mother-house at Somasca (Venice), whence the name.
Confessor, born about 1530; died in the Tower of London, 27 May, 1587; second son of Henry, second Earl of Worcester.
Son of God
Includes uses from the Old and New Testaments.
Son of Man
Several instances of its use are detailed.
The general designation given to the numerous poetical and musical creations which have come into existence in the course of time and are used in connection with public Divine worship, but which are not included in the official liturgy on account of their more free and subjective character.
A tribe of some importance formerly holding the south coast of Vancouver Island, B.C.
Theologian, b. at Zon in Brabant, 12 August, 1506; d. at Antwerp, 30 June, 1576.
Sonora, Diocese of
Republic of Mexico; suffragan of the Archdiocese of Durango.
A titular see, suffragan of Melitene in Armenia Secunda.
A group of Greek teachers who flourished at the end of the fifth century B.C.
The ninth of the twelve Minor Prophets of the Canon of the Old Testament; preached and wrote in the second half of the seventh century B.C.
Bishop of Constantina or Tella in Osrhoene, was a relative of Ibas, Bishop of Edessa, and apparently of the same theological tendency, i. e. strongly anti-Monophysite and liable to be suspected of Nestorianism.
A titular see in Paphlagonia, suffragan of Gangra.
Sorbait, Paul de
Physician, b. in Hainault, 1624; d. at Vienna, 19 April, 1691.
This name is frequently used in ordinary parlance as synonymous with the faculty of theology of Paris.
The founder of Notre Dame, Indiana; b. 6 Feb., 1814, at Ahuillé, near Laval, France; d. 31 Oct., 1893, at Notre Dame, U.S.A.
Archdiocese in the Province of Naples, with one suffragan, Castellamare.
Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the Seven
The object of these feats is the spiritual martyrdom of the Mother of God and her compassion with the sufferings of her Divine Son.
Dominican, renowned theologian, b. at Segovia, 1494; d. at Salamanca, 15 Nov., 1560.
The question of the reality of the soul and its distinction from the body is among the most important problems of philosophy, for with it is bound up the doctrine of a future life.
One of the thirteen original colonies of the United States.
The thirty-ninth state, admitted to the Union on 2 November, 1889.
Suffragan of Westminster, England.
Sovana and Pitigliano
The two towns, Sovana and Pitigliano, are situated in the Province of Grosseto, Central Italy.
Sozomen, Salaminius Hermias
One of the famous historians of the early Church, born at Bethelia, a small town near Gaza in Palestine.
Titular see in the Balkans, suffragan of Adrianopolis.
A titular see of Palestina Prima, suffragan of Cæsarea.
The idea of space is one of the most important in the philosophy of the material world; for centuries it has preoccupied and puzzled philosophers and psychologists.
Educator and author, born at Florence, 8 Aug., 1716; died at Rome, 16 Sept., 1788.
This name properly signifies the whole peninsula which forms the south-western extremity of Europe. Since the political separation of Portugal, however, the name has gradually come to be restricted to the largest of the four political divisions of the Peninsula: (1) Spain; (2) Portugal; (3) the Republic of Andorra; (4) the British possession of Gibraltar, at the southern extremity.
Suffragan of Zara.
Spalding, Martin John
Seventh Archbishop of Baltimore. (1810-1872)
A distinguished eighteenth-century scientist, b. at Scadiano in Modena, Italy, 10 January, 1729; d. at Pavia, 12 February, 1799.
Spanish Language and Literature
As a medium of literary expression Spanish asserted itself first in the twelfth century: it had been six or seven centuries in the process of evolution out of Latin.
The literature produced by the Spanish-speaking peoples of Mexico, Central America, Cuba and adjacent islands, and of South America with the notable exceptions of Brazil (whose speech is Portuguese) and the Guianas.
The University of St. Mark's at Lima enjoys the reputation of being the oldest in America; it has the distinction of having first begun its course by royal decree.
A celebrated town of the Peloponnesus, mentioned several times under this name or under that of Lacedæmon in the Bible.
In scholastic terminology, species is the necessary determinant of every cognitive process.
A Tyrolean patriot of 1809, born at Gnadenwald, near Hall, in the Tyrol, 13 July, 1767; died at Hall, 28 March, 1820.
A term used with reference to business transactions to signify the investing of money at a risk of loss on the chance of unusual gain.
A priest, theologian, and philosopher, born at Bronte in the Province of Catania, Sicily, 6 December, 1740; died at Rome, 26 November, 1795.
Spee, Friedrich Von
A poet, opponent of trials for witchcraft, born at Kaiserswerth on the Rhine, 25 February, 1591; died at Trier 7 August, 1635.
Spencer, The Hon. George
Passionist, b. at the Admiralty, London, 21 Dec., 1799; d. at Carstairs, Scotland, 1 Oct., 1864.
Converted while a student at Cambridge and entered the Society of Jesus in 1627.
Diocese in Bavaria.
Speyer, Johann and Wendelin von
German printers in Venice from 1468 to 1477.
Author, b. at Zug, Switzerland, 22 April, 1842; d. at Luxembourg, 20 February, 1905.
Spina, Alphonso de
Spanish Franciscan, date of birth unknown; died about 1491.
Scholastic theologian, born at Pisa about 1475; died at Rome, 1546.
Spinola, Christopher Royas de
Bishop of Wiener-Neustadt, born of a noble Spanish family, near Roermond in Gelderland in 1626; died at Wiener-Neustadt, 12 March, 1695.
Belonged to a family of Jewish merchants of moderate means, and was originally called Baruch. Born at Amsterdam, 24 Nov., 1632; died at The Hague, 21 Feb., 1677.
A tapering construction in plan conical, pyramidal, octagonal, or hexagonal crowning a steeple or tower.
Used in several different but allied senses: (1) as signifying a living, intelligent, incorporeal being, such as the soul; (2) as the fiery essence or breath (the Stoic pneuma) which was supposed to be the universal vital force; (3) as signifying some refined form of bodily substance, a fluid believed to act as a medium between mind and the grosser matter of the body.
History and methods of Spiritism (here distinguished from Spiritualism) and the dangers inherent in its practice and beliefs.
Suffragan of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, established in 1896.
Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius
A short work composed by St. Ignatius of Loyola and written originally in Spanish.
The term has been frequently used to denote the belief in the possibility of communication with disembodied spirits, and the various devices employed to realize this belief in practice.
A general term denoting several groups of Friars Minor, existing in the second half of the thirteenth and the beginning of the fourteenth centuries, who, in opposition to the main body of the order, pretended to observe the Rule of St. Francis in its primitive severity.
An important tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, closely cognate with the Colville, Coeur d'Aléne, Kalispel, and Flathead, and formerly holding the country upon Spokane River in Eastern Washington and the adjacent portion of Idaho.
A convert from Calvinism, Bishop of Pamiers, and one of the continuators of Baronius, born at Mauléon, 6 January, 1568; died at Toulouse, 18 May, 1643.
Spontini, Gasparo Luigi Pacifico
Composer, born at Magolati, near Jesi, Ancona, 14 Nov., 1774; died there, 14 Jan., 1851.
Moral theologian, born at Passau, Bavaria; died there, 29 May, 1683.
Sportelli, Venerable Caesar
Lawyer and priest, born at Nola in Bari, Italy, 29 March, 1702; died at Pagani, 19 April, 1750.
Diocese of Springfield (Campifontis) in Massachusetts, erected in June, 1870.
A considerable tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, speaking a distinct language, holding the territory about Squamish River and Howe Sound, above Fraser River in South-western British Columbia.
Squiers, Herbert Goldsmith
Army officer and diplomatist; b. at Madoc, Canada, 20 April, 1859; d. at London, 19 Oct., 1911.
Suffragan diocese of Reggio, in Calabria, Southern Italy.
The opening words of two companion hymns, one of which (Stabat Mater Dolorosa) is in liturgical use, while the other (Stabat Mater Speciosa) is not.
Stadler, John Evangelist
Bavarian hagiographer, b. at Parkstetten, in the Diocese of Ratisbon, 24 Dec., 1804; d. at Augsburg, 30 Dec., 1868.
The popular name for the glass used in the making of coloured windows.
Seats in a choir, wholly or partly enclosed on the back and sides.
An abbey of Benedictine nuns, midway between Malvern and Worcester, England.
Stanfield, William Clarkson
English painter, b. at Sunderland, 1793; d. at Hampstead, near London, 1867.
Stanislas Kostka, Saint
Polish Jesuit, died in 1568 at the age of 17, less than a year after entering the Society.
Stanislaus of Cracow, Saint
Bishop and martyr, d. 1079. The patron saint of Poland.
Diocese of the Greek-Ruthenian Rite, in Galicia, Austria, suffragan of Lemberg.
Vicariate Apostolic in the Belgian Congo.
Astronomer, b. at Olmütz, Moravia, 1621; d. at Bahia, Brazil, 18 Dec., 1705.
Catholic controversialist, historian, and devotional writer, born at Dublin, 1547; died at Brussels, 1618.
An Italian word signifying room, chamber, apartment. In English the term is chiefly used for Raphael's celebrated Stanze in the Vatican Palace, four in number, the walls of which were frescoed by Raphael and his pupils.
Stapf, Joseph Ambrose
Theologian, born at Fliess in the valley of the Upper Inn in the Tyrol, Austria, 15 August, 1785; died at Brixen, 10 January, 1844.
Theologian, born at Osnabrück, 27 Aug., 1512; died at Ingolstadt, 5 March, 1564.
Nothing is known of his career, except that he was a priest living in Flanders, and that in 1639 he published at Brussels a book called "Catechismus seu doctrina Christiana Latino-hibernica", which was the first book in which Irish was printed in Roman type.
Controversialist, born at Henfield, Sussex, July, 1535; died at Louvain, 12 Oct., 1598.
Born at Stara Wola, near Cracow, 1585; died at Cracow, 1656; studied at Louvain, but took his degrees in the University of Cracow, after which he travelled in various countries of Western Europe.
Starr, Eliza Allen
Writer and artist, born at Deerfield, Massachusetts, 29 August, 1824; died at Durand, Illinois, 8 September, 1901.
State and Church
The Church and the State are both perfect societies, that is to say, each essentially aiming at a common good commensurate with the need of mankind at large and ultimate in a generic kind of life, and each juridically competent to provide all the necessary and sufficient means thereto.
State or Way (Purgative, Illuminative, Unitive)
Stages in the spiritual life.
States of the Church
Consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years (754-1870) acknowledged the pope as temporal ruler.
Days on which in the early Church fast was observed until the Hour of None (between twelve and three o'clock), later of Sext (nine to twelve), as distinct from the strict observance of the fast day proper until Vespers (three to six).
Statistics of Religions
Includes the definition and historical development, along with the status of religious bodies.
Includes a history of their keeping.
Jesuit theologian, born at Kötzting, Bavaria (Diocese of Ratisbon), 30 Jan., 1728; died at Munich, 21 Aug., 1797.
Staudenmaier, Franz Anton
A theologian, born at Donzdorf, Würtemberg, 11 Sept., 1800; died at Freiburg im Breisgau, 19 Jan., 1856.
Staupitz, Johann Von
Abbot, born at Motterwitz near Leisnig (or Moderwitz near Meustadt an der Orla) about 1460; died at Salzburg, 28 Dec., 1524.
A titular metropolitan see of the Province of Caria.
Stavanger, Ancient See of
Located in Norway.
A tribe of Frisian peasants in Northern Germany who revolted against their lord, the Archbishop of Bremen, and had to be subdued by arms.
Stefaneschi, Giacomo Gaetani
A cardinal deacon, born at Rome, about 1270; died at Avignon, 23 June, 1343.
A titular Bishop of Spiga, diplomatist and musician, born at Castelfranco in the Province of Treviso, in 1655; died at Frankfort in 1728 or 1730.
Located in Hungary, suffragan of Gran, founded in 1777 under Queen Maria Theresa.
Steinle, Eduard Von
An historical painter, born at Vienna, 2 July, 1810; died at Frankfort, 19 Sept., 1886.
Jesuit missionary, born in Swabia, Germany, 13 Oct., 1720; died at Philadelphia, 17 Aug., 1786.
Stephen (II) III, Pope
Unanimously elected in St. Mary Major's and consecrated on 26 March (or 3 April), 752; d. 26 April, 757.
Stephen (III) IV, Pope
Born about 720; died 1 or 3 August, 772.
Stephen (IV) V, Pope
Date of birth unknown; died 24 Jan., 817.
Stephen (IX) X, Pope
Born probably about the beginning of the eleventh century; died at Florence, 29 March, 1058.
Stephen (V) VI, Pope
Date of birth unknown; died in Sept., 891.
Stephen (VI) VII, Pope
Date of birth unknown; died about August, 897.
Stephen (VII) VIII, Pope
Date of birth unknown; died in February or March, 931.
Stephen (VIII) IX, Pope
Date of birth unknown; he became pope about 14 July, 939, and died about the end of Oct., 942.
Stephen Harding, Saint
English Cistercian, confessor, the third abbot of Cîteaux, d. 1134.
Stephen I, Pope Saint
Stephen II, Pope
Stephen of Autun
Bishop, liturgical writer, b. at Bangé (hence surnamed Blagiacus or de Balgiaco) in Anjou; d. at the abbey of Cluny, 1139 or early in 1140.
Stephen of Bourbon
Illustrious writer and preacher, especially noted as a historian of medieval heresies, b. towards the end of the twelfth century; d. in 1261.
Stephen of Muret, Saint
Founder of the Order of Grandmont. Died 1124.
Stephen of Tournai
Canonist, born at Orléans, 1128; died at Tournai, September, 1203.
On the deacon, and first Christian martyr. Article suitable for teenagers and adults.
First King of Hungary. Baptized at the age of 10 by St. Adalbert, and died in 1038.
Stephens, Henry Robert
Belgian theologian, born of English parentage at Liège, 5 August, 1665; died there, 15 June, 1723.
Known as the first Englishman in India. Born about 1549 at Bulstan, Wiltshire; died in 1619 at Goa, India.
Exegete, born at Gubbio, Umbria, 1496; died at Venice, 1549.
Archivist, born at Berwick-on-Tweed, 27 Nov., 1806; died in London, 8 Feb., 1895.
Born at Bruges in 1548; died at Leyden in 1620.
Poet and pedagogue, b. at Oberplan in Bohemia, 23 October, 1805; d. at Linz, 28 October, 1868.
Their existence is so well established historically that, as a general thing, they are no longer disputed by unbelievers, who now seek only to explain them naturally.
A fixed pay, salary; retribution for work done; the income of an ecclesiastical living.
The capital of the Kingdom of Sweden, situated on Lake Maelar at the spot where it opens into the Saltsjö.
Stoddard, Charles Warren
An American author, born 7 August, 1843, at Rochester, N. Y.; died 23 April, 1909, at Monterey, California.
Stoics and Stoic Philosophy
The Stoic School was founded in 322 B.C. by Zeno of Cittium and existed until the closing of the Athenian schools (A.D. 429).
Friedrich Leopold, Count zu Stolberg. Born at Brammstedt in Holstein (then a part of Denmark), 7 November, 1750; d. at Sondermühlen near Osnabrück, 5 December, 1819.
A liturgical vestment composed of a strip of material from two to four inches wide and about eighty inches long.
Stolz, Alban Isidor
Catholic theologian and popular author, b. at Bühl, Baden, 3 Feb., 1808; d. at Freiberg, 16 Oct., 1883.
Rite regarding the blessing and laying of the Foundation Stone for the building of a church.
Jesuit, b. at Draycot, 28 Nov., 1748; d. at St. Helens, 22 Aug., 1834.
Stone, Mary Jean
Writer and scholar, born at Brighton, Sussex, in 1853; died at Battle, Sussex, 3 May, 1908.
Stones, Precious, in the Bible
Stones remarkable for their colour, brilliancy, or rarity.
Stoning in Scripture
At first an expression of popular fury analogous to "lynching", later came to be a natural and legally recognized method of execution.
English priest, b. 1513; d. after 1585.
History of the school, which dates back to a period considerably prior to its foundation on English soil in 1794.
Sculptor, b. at Nuremberg in 1438; d there in 1533.
Stradivari Family, The
Family name that goes back to the Middle Ages. Spelled various ways, Stradivare, Stradiverto, Stradivertus. Known among other things as makers of stringed instruments.
Cremonese violin-maker, b. in 1649 or 1650; d. at Cremona, 18 or 19 Dec., 1737.
Strahov, Abbey of
A Premonstratensian abbey at Prague, Bohemia, founded in 1149.
Archbishop of St. Andrews and Edinburgh, born at Edinburgh, 8 December, 1810; died there, 2 July, 1883.
German diocese immediately dependent on the Papal See.
A titular see in Caria (Asia Minor) suffragan of Stauropolis.
Streber, Franz Ignaz Von
Numismatist and theologian, born at Reisbach, Lower Bavaria, 11 Feb., 1758; died at Munich, 26 April, 1841.
Streber, Franz Seraph
Numismatist and nephew of Franz Ignaz von Streber, born at Deutenkofen, Lower Bavaria, 26 Feb., 1805; died at Munich, 21 Nov. 1864.
Son of Franz Seraph Streber, b. at Munich, 27 Sept., 1839; d. at Tölz, 9 Aug., 1896.
Strengnäs, Ancient See of
Located in Sweden.
Strossmayer, Joseph Georg
Josip Juraj, Bishop of Diakovár, born at Essegg in Croatia-Slavonia, 4 February, 1815; died 8 April, 1905.
Stuart, Henry Benedict Maria Clement
Cardinal, Duke of York, known by the Jacobites as "Henry IX, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland"; born at Rome, 11 March, 1725; died at Frascati, 13 July, 1807.
Latin Studium, the most important monastery at Constantinople, situated not far from the Propontis in the section of the city called Psamathia.
Diocese in Hungary, and Suffragen of Gran. It was formed in 1777 from the dioceses of Gyor and Veszprem.
Solitaries who, taking up their abode upon the tops of a pillar (stylos), chose to spend their days amid the restraints thus entailed and in the exercise of other forms of asceticism. This practice may be regarded as the climax of a tendency which became very pronounced in Eastern lands in the latter part of the fourth century.
A duchy and Austrian crownland, divided by the River Mur into Upper and Lower Styria.
A neo-Scholastic philosopher and theologian, born in Bavaria, 1823, and died 1895.
The subdiaconate is the lowest of the sacred or major orders in the Latin Church. It is defined as the power by which one ordained as a subdeacon may carry the chalice with wine to the altar, prepare the necessaries for the Eucharist, and read the Epistles before the people.