A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q RS T U V W X Y Z
Rabanus, Maurus Magnentius, Blessed
Biographical article on this Benedictine, abbot of Fulda, Archbishop of Mainz, theologian, who died in 856.
Rabbi and Rabbinism
Article covering a 1913 Catholic view of Rabbinism.
Rabbulas
Bishop of Edessa. (d. 435)
Rabelais, François
Sixteenth-century French writer.
Raccolta
A book containing prayers and pious exercises to which the popes have attached indulgences.
Race, Human
Article describing the view of the human race from a 1911 Catholic perspective.
Race, Negro
Article describing the view of the negro race from a 1911 Catholic perspective.
Rachel
Mother of Joseph and Benjamin, and love of Jacob.
Racine, Jean
Brief biography of the seventeenth-century dramatist.
Rader, Matthew
Philologist and historian. (1561-1634)
Radewyns, Florens
Co-founder of the Brethren of the Common Life. (d. 1400)
Radowitz, Joseph Maria von
Writer and statesman. (1797-1853)
Radulph of Rivo
Historian and liturgist. (d. 1403)
Raffeix, Pierre
Missionary and cartographer. (1633-1724)
Ragueneau, Paul
Jesuit missionary. (1608-1680)
Raich, Johann Michael
German theologian and writer. (1832-1907)
Raimondi, Marcantonio
Fifteenth-and-sixteenth century Italian engraver.
Rainald of Dassel
Chancellor of the German Empire. (d. 1167)
Rajpootana
Prefecture apostolic covering several Indian states.
Ralph Ashley, Blessed
English Jesuit lay-brother, cook and domestic servant, was tortured and martyred in 1606.
Ralph Corbie, Blessed
Sometimes called Ralph Corrington. An Irish-born Jesuit, martyred together with secular priest John Duckett in 1644.
Ralph Crockett, Blessed
English priest, martyred in 1588.
Ralph Milner, Blessed
A husband and father, convert to Catholicism, arrested the day of his first Communion, and martyred in 1591.
Ralph Sherwin, Saint
An English priest who was imprisoned and tortured. He died a martyr in 1581.
Ram, Pierre François Xavier de
Belgian historian and rector of the Catholic University of Louvain. (1804-1865)
Ramatha
Titular see in Palestine, suppressed in 1884 by the Roman Curia.
Rambler, The
Monthly English Catholic periodical published from 1848 to 1859.
Rameau, Jean-Philippe
Life, summaries of religious and secular works, and commentary on his advances in music theory and composition.
Ramsey Abbey
English abbey founded by a Saxon noble in 969.
Ramus, Peter
Article by William Turner on this early humanist and logician.
Rance, Jean-Armand le Bouthillier de
French abbot and reformer. (1626-1700)
Randall, James Ryder
American journalist and poet. (1839-1908)
Ransom, Feast of Our Lady of
Feast on 24 September commemorating the foundation of the Mercedarians.
Raphael
Italian painter. (1483-1520)
Raphael, Saint
Archangel appearing in the Book of Tobias.
Raphoe
Diocese comprising the greater part of County Donegal in the ecclesiastical province of Armagh.
Rapin, René
French Jesuit writer. (1621-1687)
Raskolniks
A generic term for dissidents from the Established Church in Russia.
Rass, Andreas
Bishop of Strasburg. (1794-1887)
Rathborne, Joseph
Priest and controversialist. (1807-1842)
Ratherius of Verona
Writer and troubled leader of the Diocese of Verona.
Ratio Studiorum
The educational system of the Jesuits.
Rationale
Collar ornamented in the front and back with appendages worn by the Bishops of Eichstätt, Paderborn, Toul, and Cracow.
Rationalism
Term used in an exact sense, to designate a particular moment in the development of Protestant thought in Germany, or in a broader, and more usual, sense to cover the view that the human reason, or understanding, is the sole source and final test of all truth.
Ratisbon
German diocese embracing the greater portion of the administrative district of Oberpfalz, and portions of Upper and Lower Bavaria, and Upper Franconia.
Ratisbonne, Maria Alphonse
Converted Jew who built two convents in Jerusalem. (1814-1884)
Ratisbonne, Maria Theodor
Preacher, writer, and director of the Archconfraternity of Christian Mothers. (1802-1884)
Ratramnus
Ninth-century Benedictine monk and author.
Ratzeburg, Ancient See of
Ancient German diocese that was suffragan to Hamburg and embraced the Duchy of Lauenburg (Holstein) in the Prussian Province of Schleswig- Holstein, the Principality of Ratzeburg in the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and the western part of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, including Wismar but not Schwerin.
Ratzinger, Georg
Political economist and social reformer. (1844-1899)
Rauscher, Joseph Othmar
Prince-Archbishop of Vienna. (1797-1875)
Ravalli, Antonio
Italian missionary. (1811-1884)
Ravenna
Archdiocese based in the capital of a province in Romagna, central Italy.
Ravesteyn, Josse
French theologian. (d. 1570)
Ravignan, Gustave Xavier Lacroix de
French Jesuit, orator, and author. (1795-1858)
Rawes, Henry Augustus
Oblate of St. Charles, hymn-writer and preacher. (1826-1885)
Raymbault, Charles
French missionary. (b. 1602)
Raymond IV, of Saint-Gilles
Count of Toulouse and of Tripoli. (d. 1105)
Raymond Lully, Blessed
Biobibliographical article on Ramon Lull, who is called "Doctor Illuminatus."
Raymond Martini
Dominican, theologian and Orientalist. (1220-1284)
Raymond Nonnatus, Saint
Spanish Mercedarian. (1200-1240)
Raymond of Peñafort, Saint
Born near Barcelona, Raymond was an able canon lawyer who joined the Dominicans. He died in 1275.
Raymond of Sabunde
Teacher and writer. (d. 1432)
Raymond VI
Count of Toulouse. (1156-1222)
Raymond VII
Count of Toulouse and son of Raymond VI. (1197-1249)
Raynaldi, Odorico
Italian oratorian. (1595-1671)
Raynaud, Théophile
French theologian and writer. (1583-1663)
Raynouard, François-Juste-Marie
French poet, dramatist, and philologist. (1761-1836)
Reading Abbey
Abbey founded by Henry I in 1121 and located in Surrey, England.
Reason
Article discussing various definitions of the term.
Recanati and Loreto
Diocese based around the province of Ancona in Central Italy.
Rechab and the Rechabites
Rechab was the father of Jonadab who in IV Kings, x, 15-28, appears as a fervent supporter of Jehu's attack on the House of Achab. The Rechabites were his descendants.
Recollection
Recollection, as understood in respect to the spiritual life, means attention to the presence of God in the soul.
Rector
Priests who preside over missions or quasi-parishes.
Rector Potens, Verax Deus
The daily hymn for Sext in the Roman Breviary.
Recusants, English
People who refrained from attending Church of England services.
Red Sea
The north-west arm of the Indian Ocean, some 1400 miles long and lying between Arabia on the east and Africa on the west.
Redeemer, Feast of the Most Holy
Feast that is found only in the special calendar of some dioceses and religious orders, and is celebrated with proper Mass and Office either on the third Sunday of July or on 23 October.
Redeemer, Knights of the
A secular community founded in 1608 by the Duke of Mentone, Vincent Gonzaga, on the occasion of the marriage of his eldest son Francis II Gonzaga with Marguerite of Savoy.
Redemption
The restoration of man from the bondage of sin to the liberty of the children of God through the satisfactions and merits of Christ.
Redemption in the Old Testament
Strictly deliverance by payment of a price or ransom, or simply deliverance by power, as from oppression, violence, or captivity.
Redemptions, Penitential
The substitution of exercises either easier or extending over a shorter period, for works of penance imposed according to the penitential canons.
Redemptoristines
Community of nuns formed in Scala, Italy, by Father Thomas Falcoia.
Redemptorists
Society of missionary priests founded by St. Alphonsus Maria Liguori in 1732 at Scala, Italy.
Redford, Sebastion
Jesuit chaplain and writer. (1701-1763)
Redi, Francesco
Italian poet. (1626-1698)
Reding, Augustine
Prince-Abbot of Einsiedeln and theological writer. (1625-1692)
Reductions of Paraguay
Jesuit campaign to convert the natives of Paraguay.
Referendarii
Officials in the Byzantine Court who reported to the emperor on the memorials of petitioners, and conveyed to the judges the orders of the emperor in connexion with such memorials.
Reform of a Religious Order
Return or bringing back of an order from a mitigated or relaxed observance to the rigour of its primitive rule.
Reformation, The
Sixteenth century religious movement led by Martin Luther.
Reformed Churches
Protestant bodies which adopted the tenets of Zwingli and, later, the doctrinal principles of Calvin.
Refuge, Cities of
Towns which according to the Jewish law enjoyed the right of asylum and to which anyone who had unintentionally slain another might flee and be protected from the "avenger of blood".
Refuge, Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the
Religious order founded in 1641 that works towards reforming women living a life of sin.
Regale, Droit de
Document denoting those rights that belonged exclusively to the king.
Regalia
The insignia of royalty or "crown jewels".
Regeneration
Biblico-dogmatic term closely connected with the ideas of justification, Divine sonship, and the deification of the soul through grace.
Regesta, Papal
Copies, generally entered in special registry volumes, of the papal letters and official documents that are kept in the papal archives.
Reggio dell' Emilia
Italian diocese and suffragan of Modena.
Reggio di Calabria
Archdiocese in Calabria, southern Italy.
Regina
Ecclesiastical division comprising the southern part of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan.
Regina Coeli
The opening words of the Eastertide anthem of the Blessed Virgin.
Reginald of Piperno
Companion of St. Thomas Aquinas. (1230-1290)
Regino of Prüm
German abbot. (d. 915)
Regionarii
The name given in later antiquity and the early Middle Ages to those clerics and officials of the Church of Rome who were attached neither to the papal palace or the titular churches of Rome, but to one of the city regions, or wards, which was assigned as their official district.
Regis, Jean-Baptiste
French missionary. (d. 1738)
Regis, Pierre Sylvain
French philosopher and writer. (1632-1707)
Registers, Parochial
Five distinct parish registers that a pastor must have: one each of baptisms, confirmations, marriages, and deaths; and a fifth containing a census or general account of the state of souls in the parish.
Regnault, Henri Victor
French chemist and physicist. (1810-1878)
Regulae Juris
Certain fundamental laws in the form of axioms found in the "Corpus Juris".
Regulars
Monks in observance of the Rule of St. Benedict.
Reichenau
Island upon the Gnadensee of the Lake of Constance, about one mile in breadth and about three and three-quarter miles long.
Reichensperger, August
Prussian politician and author. (1808-1895)
Reichensperger, Peter
German jurist and parliamentarian. (1810-1892)
Reifenstein
Former Cistercian abbey in Eichsfeld, founded on 1 August, 1162 by Count Ernst of Tonna.
Reiffenstuel, Johann Georg
Theologian and canonist. (1641-1703)
Reims
Archdiocese of Reims comprising the district of Reims in the Department of Marne and the whole Department of Ardennes.
Reims, Synods of
History of a series of synods held at the French city.
Reinmar of Hagenau
German minnesinger of the twelfth century.
Reisach, Carl von
Theologian and statesman. (1800-1869)
Reisch, Gregor
Intellectual and writer. (d. 1525)
Relationship
A certain connection of persons established either by nature or by civil or canon law.
Relatives, Duties of
Discusses a variety of duties that relatives should apply to one another.
Relativism
A doctrine which denies, universally or in regard to some restricted sphere of being, the existence of absolute values.
Relics
An object, notably part of the body or clothes, remaining as a memorial of a departed saint.
Religion
The voluntary subjection of oneself to God.
Religion, Virtue of
Article discussing the moral value of religion.
Religious Life
Overview and evangelical ideas on what makes up religious life.
Reliquaries
Any box, casket, or shrine destined for the reception of relics.
Remesiana
A titular see in Bulgaria, suffragan of Sardica.
Remigius of Auxerre
Benedictine monk, teacher and theologian. (d. 908)
Remigius, Saint
Apostle of the Franks, Archbishop of Reims, d. 553.
Remiremont
Monastery and nunnery of the Rule of St. Benedict, founded by Sts. Romaricus and Amatus in 620 above the town of Vosges, France.
Remuzat, Ven. Anne-Madeleine
Writer and witness to a revelation. (1696-1730)
Remy, Abbey of Saint
Abbey located in Reims, France that acquired the relics of St. Remy in 553.
Renaissance, The
Period of revival of classic, especially of Greek, learning and the recovery of ancient art in the departments of sculpture, painting, and architecture.
Renaudot, Eusebius
Apologetical writer and Orientalist. (1648-1720)
Renaudot, Théophraste
Doctor who engaged in relief work for the poor. (1586-1653)
Reni, Guido
Italian painter. (1575-1642)
Rennes
French diocese including the Department of Ille-et-Vilaine.
Renty, Gaston Jean Baptiste de
Jesuit who devoted himself to the service of the needy and suffering. (1611-1649)
Renunciation
A canonical term signifying the resignation of an ecclesiastical office or benefice.
René Goupil, Saint
Short biography of the Jesuit missionary, martyred in 1642.
Reordinations
The history of all ordinations which were considered null for any other reason than defect of the prescribed form or intention and which were repeated.
Reparation
Theological concept of God demanding satisfaction for the injuries which man had done Him.
Repington, Philip
Fourteenth-and-fifteenth century cardinal-priest of the title of SS.
Repose, Altar of
Sometimes called less properly sepulchre or tomb, more frequently repository.
Reputation (as Property)
The outcome of a person's meritorious activity.
Requiem, Masses of
Masses that are offered for the dead.
Rerum Crerator Optime
The hymn for Matins of Wednesday in the Divine Office.
Rerum Deus Tenax Vigor
Brief article on a hymn for None, one of the "little hours." Mid-afternoon.
Rerum Novarum
The opening words and the title of the Encyclical issued by Leo XIII, 15 May, 1891, on the "Condition of Labour".
Rescripts, Papal
Responses of the pope or a Sacred Congregation, in writing, to queries or petitions of individuals.
Reservation
The restriction in certain cases by a superior of the jurisdiction ordinarily exercised by an inferior.
Reservation of the Blessed Sacrament
The practice of preserving after the celebration of the Liturgy a portion of the consecrated elements for the Communion of the sick or for other pious purposes. The extreme antiquity of such reservation cannot be disputed.
Reserved Cases
A term used for sins whose absolution is not within the power of every confessor.
Residence, Ecclesiastical
A remaining or abiding where one's duties lie or where one's occupation is properly carried on.
Respighi, Lorenzo
Italian astronomer. (1824-1889)
Responsorium
A series of verses and responses, usually taken from Holy Scripture and varying according to the feast or season.
Restitution
An act of commutative justice by which exact reparation as far as possible is made for an injury that has been done to another.
Resurrection of Jesus Christ
Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life.
Resurrection, General
The rising again from the dead, the resumption of life.
Rethel, Alfred
German painter. (1816-1859)
Retreat of the Sacred Heart, Congregation of
Congregation founded in 1678 with large schools in various places in England, France, and Belgium.
Retreats
A series of days passed in solitude and consecrated to practices of asceticism, in particular to prayer and penance.
Retz, Cardinal de
Archbishop of Paris. (1614-1679)
Reuben
Proper name meaning both a patriarch and a tribe of Israel.
Reuchlin, Johannes
German humanist. (1455-1522)
Reumont, Alfred von
Statesman and historian. (1808-1887)
Reusens, Edmond
Belgian archeologist and historian. (1831-1903)
Reuss
Name of the two smallest states of the German Confederation.
Revelation
The communication of some truth by God to a rational creature through means which are beyond the ordinary course of nature.
Revelations, Private
Article discussing the judging of private revelations.
Revocation
The act of recalling or annulling.
Revolution, English, of 1688
The history of the Revolution resolves itself into a catalogue of various ill-judged measures which alienated the support of the Established Church, the Tory party, and the nation as a whole.
Revolution, French
A view of its effect on the Church.
Rex Gloriose Martyrum
The hymn at Lauds in the Common of Martyrs in the Roman Breviary.
Rex Sempiterne Caelitum
The Roman Breviary hymn for Matins of Sundays and weekdays during the Paschal Time.
Rey, Anthony
Educator and Mexican War chaplain. (1807-1847)
Reynolds, William
Writer, priest and lecturer. (1544-1594)
Rhaetia
Prefecture Apostolic in Switzerland.
Rhaphanaea
A titular see in Syria Secunda, suffragan of Apamea.
Rheinberger, Joseph Gabriel
Bavarian composer and organist. (1839-1901)
Rhesaena
A titular see in Osrhoene, suffragan of Edessa.
Rhinocolura
A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium.
Rhithymna
A titular see of Crete, suffragan of Gortyna.
Rhizus
A titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus, suffragan of Neocaesarea.
Rho, Giacomo
Italian missionary to China. (1593-1638)
Rhode Island
American state and one of the thirteen original colonies.
Rhodes
A titular metropolitan of the Cyclades.
Rhodes, Alexandre De
French missionary. (1591-1660)
Rhodesia
British possession in South Africa (present-day Zimbabwe).
Rhodiopolis
A titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra.
Rhodo
Second-century Christian writer.
Rhosus
A titular see in Cilicia Secunda, suffragan to Anazarba.
Rhymed Bibles
Short article on rhymed versions of the Bible, which are almost always psalters or only part of the Psalms.
Rhythmical Office
A liturgical horary prayer, the canonical hours of the priest, or an office of the Breviary, in which not only the hymns are regulated by a certain rhythm, but where, with the exception of the psalms and lessons, practically all the other parts show metre, rhythm, or rhyme.
Ribadeneira, Pedro de
Writer and member of the Society of Jesus. (1526-1611)
Ribas, Andrés Pérez De
Missionary and historian. (1576-1655)
Ribe, Ancient See of, in Denmark (Jutland)
Diocese that once consisted of the modern Danish Provinces of Ribe, Vejle, and Ringkjöbing, and of part of North Schleswig.
Ribeirao Preto
A suffragan see of the Archdiocese of São Paulo, Brazil.
Ribera, Jusepe de
Spanish artist. (1588-1656)
Ricardus Anglicus
Pioneer of scientific judicial procedure in the twelfth century.
Riccardi, Nicholas
Italian theologian, writer and preacher. (1585-1639)
Ricci, Lorenzo
General of the Society of Jesus. (1703-1775)
Ricci, Matteo
Founder of the Catholic missions of China. (1552-1610)
Riccioli, Giovanni Battista
Italian astronomer. (1598-1671)
Richard
A Friar minor and preacher, appearing in history between 1428 and 1431, whose origin and nationality are unknown.
Richard de Bury
English bishop and bibliophile. (1286-1345)
Richard de la Vergne, François-Marie-Benjamin
Archbishop of Paris. (1819-1908)
Richard de Wyche, Saint
The devoted companion of St. Edmund Rich, was bishop of Chichester. Richard died in 1253, and was canonized less than 10 years later.
Richard Fetherston, Blessed
Priest and martyr, died at Smithfield, 1540.
Richard Hill, Blessed
A Yorkshireman and priest, executed in 1590. Martyred together with John Hogg, Richard Holiday, and Edmund Duke.
Richard Hurst, Blessed
Also called Richard Herst. Layman martyred at Lancaster in 1628 following a show trial.
Richard I, King of England
King who embarked on the Crusades. (1157-1199)
Richard Langhorne, Blessed
Married Englishman, lawyer, martyred in 1679.
Richard Langley, Blessed
Biographical portrait of the Yorkshire layman who refused to compromise his faith, and who paid the price for it. He was martyred in 1586.
Richard Leigh, Blessed
Article on this English priest and missionary to his native land, martyred in 1588.
Richard of Cirencester
Chronicler and monk at Westminster Abbey.
Richard of Cornwall
Thirteenth century writer and lecturer.
Richard of Middletown
Thirteenth-century writer and Franciscan.
Richard of St. Victor
Biographical article on the 12th-century Scottish theologian, exegete, and mystic.
Richard Rolle de Hampole, Blessed
English solitary and writer. Article on his life and writings.
Richard Sergeant, Blessed
English priest martyred in 1586.
Richard Thirkeld, Blessed
English priest, missionary, arrested while visiting a Catholic in prison, and martyred in 1583.
Richard White, Saint
Real name, Richard Gwyn. Welsh schoolmaster, husband and father, had a reputation as a scholar, poet, martyred in 1584.
Richard Whiting, Blessed
Last abbot of Glastonbury, martyr, executed in 1539.
Richard, Charles-Louis
Theologian and publicist. (1711-1794)
Richelieu, Armand-Jean du Plessis, Duke de
Cardinal and French statesman. (1585-1642)
Richmond, Diocese of
Suffragan of Baltimore consisting of parts of the states of Virginia and West Virginia.
Ricoldo da Monte di Croce
Italian professor, scholar and writer. (d. 1320)
Riemenschneider, Tillmann
Frankish sculptor. (1460-1531)
Rienzi, Cola di
Italian revolutionary and notary of the Camera Capitolina. (d. 1354)
Rieti
Diocese in Central Italy, immediately subject to the Holy See.
Rievaulx, Abbey of
English monastery founded in 1131.
Riffel, Caspar
German historian and writer. (1807-1856)
Rigby, Nicholas
English priest. (1800-1886)
Right
Substantive designating the object of justice.
Rimbert, Saint
Monk and archbishop of Bremen-Hamburg. (d. 888)
Rimini
Diocese, suffragan of Ravenna.
Rimini, Council of
Opened early in July, 359, with over four hundred bishops.
Rimouski
Canadian diocese, suffragan of Quebec.
Ring of the Fisherman, The
Ring worn by the popes, with a representation of St. Peter in a boat on it.
Rings
Article discussing religious uses and values concerning the wearing of rings.
Rinuccini, Giovanni Battista
Papal nuncio to Ireland during the uprising of 1645-49. (1592-1653)
Rio Negro
Prefecture Apostolic in Brazil.
Rio, Alexis-François
French writer on art. (1797-1874)
Riobamba
City forming the base for the diocese of Bolivarensis, suffragan of Quito, Ecuador.
Rioja, Francisco de
Spanish poet. (1583-1659)
Ripalda, Juan Martínez de
Spanish theologian. (1594-1648)
Ripatransone
Diocese in Ascoli Piceno, Central Italy.
Ripon, Marquess of
English politician, Governor-General and Viceroy of India. (1827-1909)
Risby, Richard
Warden of the Observant friary at Canterbury who was condemned to death by Henry VIII. (1489-1534)
Rishanger, William
Thirteenth-century English chronicler.
Rishton, Edward
Priest and writer that fell victim to the plague. (1550-1585)
Rita of Cascia, Saint
Rita married an abusive man, became a mother, was widowed, joined the Augustinians. She died in 1456.
Rites
The ceremonies, prayers, and functions of any religious body.
Rites in the United States
Article discussing various rites used within the United States.
Ritschlianism
Conception of the nature and scope of Christianity, widely held in modern Protestantism, especially in Germany.
Ritter, Joseph Ignatius
German historian and writer. (1787-1857)
Ritual
One of the official books of the Roman Rite. It includes all the services performed by a priest that are not in the Missal and Breviary and has also, for convenience, some that are in those books.
Ritualists
The advanced section of the High Church party in the Anglican Establishment, which since about 1860 has adhered to and developed further the principles of the earlier Tractarian Movement.
Rivington, Luke
English priest and writer. (1838-1899)
Rizal, José Mercado
Filipino hero, physician, poet, novelist, and sculptor. (1861-1896)
Robbia, Andrea della
Nephew, pupil and assistant to painter Luca. (1431-1528)
Robbia, Lucia di Simone
Italian sculptor. (1400-1481)
Robert Anderton, Blessed
English priest and friend of William Marsden. The two were shipwrecked, whereupon they were arrested for being priests coming into England from abroad, and tried on the "bloody question." They were hanged, drawn, and quartered in 1586.
Robert Bickerdike, Blessed
Short biography of the sixteenth-century martyr, a layman from Yorkshire.
Robert Drury, Blessed
Biographical portrait of the English priest, martyred at Tyburn in February 1606/7.
Robert Francis Romulus Bellarmine, Saint
Biographical article on the Jesuit theologian and cardinal.
Robert Johnson, Blessed
English priest and martyr. (d. 1581)
Robert Morton, Blessed
Brief biography of the English priest, martyred at London in 1588, along with a layman, Hugh Moor. Article also mentions others martyred on the same day elsewhere in England, including the Bl. William Dean.
Robert Nutter, Blessed
Information on this English priest and martyr, blood brother of John Nutter. Also details on Edward Thwing, a priest and professor from near York. Robert Nutter and Thwing were martyred together in 1600.
Robert of Arbrissel
Itinerant preacher and founder of Fontevrault. (b. 1047)
Robert of Courçon
English Cardinal. (d. 1218)
Robert of Geneva
Antipope under the name of Clement VII. (1342-1394)
Robert of Jumièges
Eleventh-century Archbishop of Canterbury.
Robert of Luzarches
Thirteenth century French architect.
Robert of Melun
English philosopher and theologian. (d. 1167)
Robert of Molesme, Saint
Founder of the Abbey of Citeaux and the monastery at Molesme. (d. 1111)
Robert of Newminster, Saint
English abbot. (d. 1159)
Robert Pullus
Twelfth-century Cardinal, English philosopher and theologian.
Robert Southwell, Saint
Biography of the English poet, Jesuit, and martyr. He was hanged in 1595.
Robert Thorpe, Blessed
Brief account of the martyrdom of the Yorkshire priest, who was hanged in 1591.
Robert Wilcon, Blessed
Biographical details on this English priest and two of his companions in martyrdom: fellow priest "Edward Campion" and layman Robert Widmerpool. Martyred in 1588.
Robert, Saint
French Benedictine, founder of the Abbey of Chaise-Dieu, d. 1067.
Robertson, James Burton
Historian and professor. (1800-1877)
Robinson, William Callyhan
Jurist and educator. (1834-1911)
Rocaberti, Juan Tomás de
Spanish theologian. (1624-1699)
Rocamadour
Communal chief town of the canton of Gramat, district of Gourdon, Department of Lot, in the Diocese of Cahors and the ancient province of Quercy.
Rocca, Angelo
Founder of the Angelica Library at Rome. (1545-1620)
Roch, Saint
Early 14th century. While on pilgrimage, Roch acquired renown for healing plague victims. He himself was stricken with the plague. Upon returning to his hometown, he was cast into prison as an accused spy, where he died.
Rochambeau, Jean-Baptiste-Donatien
French marshal. (1725-1807)
Rochester, Ancient See of
The oldest and smallest of all the suffragan sees of Canterbury, was founded by St. Augustine, Apostle of England, who in 604 consecrated St. Justus as its first bishop.
Rochester, Diocese of
Located in New York.
Rochet
An over-tunic usually made of fine white linen (cambric; fine cotton material is also allowed), and reaching to the knees.
Rochette. Désiré Raoul
French archæologist. (1789-1854)
Rock, Daniel
English antiquarian and ecclesiologist. (1799-1871)
Rockford, Diocese of
Created 23 September, 1908, in the north-western part of the State of Illinois.
Rococo Style
A discussion of this whimsical style, its origins and uses.
Rodez
The Diocese of Rodez was united to the Diocese of Cahors by the Concordat of 1802, and again became an episcopal see by the Concordat of 1817 and Bull of 1822.
Rodrigues Ferreira, Alexandre
Brazilian scientist and explorer. (1756-1815)
Rodriguez, Alonso
Spanish writer and teacher. (1526-1616)
Rodriguez, Joao
Missionary and author. (1558-1633)
Roe, Bartholomew
English Benedictine martyr. (1583-1641)
Roermond
Diocese in Holland; suffragan of Utrecht.
Rogation Days
Days of prayer, and formerly also of fasting, instituted by the Church to appease God's anger at man's transgressions, to ask protection in calamities, and to obtain a good and bountiful harvest.
Roger Bacon
Philosopher, born at Ilchester, Somersetshire, about 1214; died at Oxford, perhaps 11 June, 1294.
Roger Cadwallador, Blessed
Short biography of the English priest, martyred in 1610.
Roger of Hoveden
Chronicler and king's clerk in the time of Henry II.
Roger of Wendover
Benedictine monk and chronicler. (d. 1236)
Roger, Bishop of Worcester
Bishop of Worcester. (d. 1179)
Roh, Peter
German-speaking Jesuit preacher. (1811-1872)
Rohault de Fleury
Family of French architects and archaeologists of the nineteenth century.
Rohrbacher, Réné François
French ecclesiastical historian. (1789-1856)
Rojas y Zorrilla, Francisco de
Spanish dramatic poet. (1607-1680)
Rokewode, John Gage
Director of the Society of Antiquaries. (1786-1842)
Rolduc
Located in S. E. Limburg, Netherlands.
Rolfus, Hermann
Catholic educationist and writer. (1821-1896)
Rollin, Charles
French writer and professor. (1661-1741)
Rolls Series
A collection of historical materials of which the general scope is indicated by its official title, "The Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages".
Rolph, Thomas
Surgeon and writer of several works on emigration. (1800-1858)
Roman Catechism
This catechism differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the people in two points: it is primarily intended for priests having care of souls (ad parochos), and it enjoys an authority equalled by no other catechism.
Roman Catholic
A qualification of the name Catholic commonly used in English-speaking countries by those unwilling to recognize the claim of being the One True Church.
Roman Catholic Relief Bill
Sections on England and Ireland.
Roman Colleges
This article treats of the various colleges in Rome which have been founded under ecclesiastical auspices and are under ecclesiastical direction, with the exception of those that are treated separately under their respective titles throughout the Catholic Encyclopedia.
Roman Congregations
The most important of certain departments organized by the Holy See at various times to assist it in the transaction of those affairs which canonical discipline and the individual interests of the faithful bring to Rome.
Roman Curia
Strictly speaking, the ensemble of departments or ministries which assist the sovereign pontiff in the government of the Universal Church.
Roman Rite, The
The manner of celebrating the Holy Sacrifice, administering Sacraments, reciting the Divine Office, and performing other ecclesiastical functions as used in the city and Diocese of Rome.
Romanos Pontifices, Constitutio
The constitution makes clear the following: though regulars according to canon law are subject immediately to the Holy See, bishops are given jurisdiction over small communities.
Romanos, Saint
Sixth-century poet.
Romans, Epistle to the
The subject is treated under the following heads: I. The Roman Church and St. Paul; II. Character, Contents, and Arrangement of the Epistle; III. Authenticity; IV. Integrity; V. Date and Circumstances of Composition; VI. Historical Importance; VII, Theological Contents: Faith and Works (Paul and James).
Romanus, Pope
Ninth-century Pope who reigned for four months in 897.
Romanus, Saints
Mentions and gives brief profiles of several saints of this name.
Rome
The significance of Rome lies primarily in the fact that it is the city of the pope.
Rome, University of
The university is now under the control of the Italian Government and is called the Royal University.
Romero, Juan
Missionary and Indian linguist. (1559-1630)
Romuald, Saint
Italian-born founder of the Camaldolese, d. 1027.
Romulus Augustulus
Deposed in the year 476, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire.
Ronan, Saint
Article describing the most celebrated of the twelve Irish saints known as Ronan.
Ronsard, Pierre de
French poet. (1524-1585)
Rood
A term, often used to signify the True Cross itself, which, with the prefix Holy, occurs as the dedication of some churches.
Roothaan, Johann Philipp
Twenty-first General of the Society of Jesus. (1785-1853)
Roper, William
English politician and biographer of St. Thomas More. (1496-1578)
Rorate Coeli
Vulgate, text, the opening words of Isaiah 45:8.
Rosa, Salvatore
Neapolitan artist. (1615-1673)
Rosalia, Saint
Hermitess, greatly venerated at Palermo and in the whole of Sicily of which she is patroness.
Rosary, Breviary Hymns of the
Their author was a pious client of Mary, Eustace Sirena.
Rosary, Confraternity of the
The Perpetual Rosary is an organization for securing the continuous recitation of the Rosary by day and night among a number of associates who perform their allotted share at stated times.
Rosary, Feast of the Holy
At the request of the Dominican Order Gregory XIII in 1573 allowed this feast to be kept in all churches which possessed an altar dedicated to the Holy Rosary.
Rosary, The
History of this devotion. Also considers the Orthodox and Eastern-Rite Catholic practice.
Rosate, Alberico de
Italian jurist. (d. 1354)
Roscelin
A monk of Compiègne, was teaching as early as 1087.
Roscommon
Capital of County Roscommon, Ireland; owes origin and name to a monastery founded by St. Coman in the first half of the eighth century on a "ros" or wooded point amidst marshes.
Rose of Lima, Saint
Biographical article on the first American to be named a saint.
Rose of Viterbo, Saint
Third order Franciscan, preached repentance. She died at the age of 17, in 1252.
Rosea
The official catalogue of the Roman Curia mentioned formerly a titular see of Rosea in Syria.
Roseau
Diocese; suffragan of Port of Spain, Trinidad, B.W.I.
Rosecrans, William Starke
American soldier and politician.
Roseline, Saint
A Carthusian prioress. She died in 1329.
Rosenau
Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Eger, established by Maria Theresa, in 1775-76.
Rosicrucians
The original appelation of the alleged members of the occult-cabalistic-theosophic "Rosicrucian Brotherhood", described in the pamphlet "Fama Fraternitatis R.C."
Roskilde, Ancient See of, in Denmark
Suffragan to Hamburg, about 991-1104, to Lund, 1104-1536.
Roskovanyi, August
Bishop of Neutra in Hungary, doctor of philosophy and theology. (1807-1892)
Rosmini and Rosminianism
Antonio Rosmini Serbati, philosopher, and founder of the Institute of Charity, born 24 March, 1797, at Rovereto, Austrian Tyrol; died 1 July, 1855, at Stresa, Italy.
Rosminians
The Institute of Charity, or, officially, Societas a charitate nuncupata, is a religious congregation founded by Antonio Rosmini, first organized in 1828.
Ross
Diocese in Ireland.
Ross, School of
Ross-Carbery, formerly Ross-Ailithir.
Rossano
Archdiocese in Calabria, province of Cosenza, Southern Italy.
Rosselino, Antonio di Matteo di Domenico
Italian sculptor. (1427-1478)
Rosselino, Bernardo
Italian sculptor. (1409-1464)
Rosselli, Cosimo
Italian fresco painter. (1439-1507)
Rossi, Bernardo de
Italian theologian and historian. (1687-1775)
Rossi, Pellegrino
Diplomat, economist and statesman. (1787-1848)
Rossini, Gioacchino Antonio
Article focusing on his musical innovations and his church music.
Rostock, Sebastian von
Bishop of Breslau. (1607-1671)
Rostock, University of
Located in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, founded in the year 1419.
Rota, Sacra Romana
One of three tribunals instituted by the "Sapienti Consilio" constitution of 1908.
Roth, Heinrich
Missionary in India and Sanskrit scholar. (1620-1668)
Rothe, David
Bishop of Ossory in Ireland. (1573-1650)
Rottenburg
Diocese; suffragan of the ecclesiastical Province of the Upper Rhine.
Rotuli
Rolls in which a long narrow strip of papyrus or parchment, written on one side, was wound like a blind about its staff.
Rouen, Archdiocese of
Revived by the Concordat of 1802 with the Sees of Bayeux, Evreux, and Séez as suffragans: it also includes the Department of the Seine Inferieure.
Rouen, Synods of
The first synod is generally believed to have been held by Archbishop Saint-Ouen about 650.
Rouquette, Adrien
Scholar and missionary to the Choctaw Indians. (1813-1887)
Rousseau, Jean-Baptiste
French poet. (1670-1741)
Rovezzano, Benedetto da
Sculptor and architect. (1490-1530)
Rowsham, Stephen
Sixteenth-century English priest and martyr.
Royal Declaration, The
The name most commonly given to the solemn repudiation of Catholicity which, in accordance with provisions of the "Bill of Rights" (1689) and of "the Act of Succession" (1700), every sovereign succeeding to the throne of Great Britain was required to make in the presence of the assembled Lords and Commons.
Royer-Collard, Pierre-Paul
Philosopher and French politician. (1763-1845)
Ruadhan, Saint
Irish founder of the monastery of Lorrha, one of the "twelve apostles of Erin," d. 584.
Rubens, Peter Paul
Flemish painter. (1577-1640)
Rubrics
Among the ancients, according to Columella, Vitruvius, and Pliny, the word rubrica, rubric, signified the red earth used by carpenters to mark on wood the line to follow in cutting it; according to Juvenal the same name was applied to the red titles under which the jurisconsults arranged the announcements of laws.
Rubruck, William
Thirteenth-century Franciscan missionary and writer of travels.
Rudolf of Fulda
French chronicler. (d. 862)
Rudolf of Habsburg
German king. (1218-1291)
Rudolf of Rudesheim
Bishop of Breslau. (1402-1482)
Rudolf von Ems
Middle High German epic poet of the thirteenth century.
Rueckers, Family of
Famous organ and piano-forte builders of Antwerp.
Ruffini, Paolo
Physician and mathematician. (1765-1822)
Rufford Abbey
A monastery of the Cistercian Order, situated on the left bank of the Rainworth Water, about two miles south of Ollerton in Nottinghamshire.
Rufina, Saints
Brief notices on four saints of this name.
Rufinus, Saint
Record of the eleven saints named Rufinus in the Roman Martyrology.
Rufus, Saints
Record of the ten saints named Rufus in the Roman Martyrology.
Ruiz de Alarcón y Mendoza, Juan de
Spanish dramatic poet. (1580-1639)
Ruiz de Montoya, Antonio
Linguist and pioneer of the original Jesuit mission in Paraguay. (1585-1652)
Ruiz de Montoya, Diego
Spanish theologian. (1562-1632)
Rumania
A kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, situated between the Black Sea, the Danube, the Carpathian Mountains, and the Pruth.
Rumohr, Karl Friedrich
German art historian. (1785-1843)
Rupert, Saint
First Bishop of Salzburg. (d. 718)
Rusaddir
A titular see of Mauritania Tingitana.
Rusicade
A titular see of Numidia.
Ruspe
Titular see of Byzacena in Africa, mentioned only by Ptolemy (IV, 3) and the "Tabula" Peutinger.
Russell, Charles
English lawyer, journalist and politician. (1832-1900)
Russell, Charles William
Irish professor and writer. (1812-1880)
Russell, Richard
Bishop of Vizéu in Portugal. (1630-1693)
Russia
Geography and history.
Russia, The Religion of
There are two theories in regard to the early Christianity of Russia; according to one of them, Russia was Catholic from the times when she embraced Christianity until the twelfth century; the other holds that Russia was always Orthodox.
Russian Language and Literature
Russian is a Slav language belonging to the Indo-European family.
Rusticus of Narbonne, Saint
Monk from Gaul, became bishop of Narbonne. Zealous opponent of the Arians and Nestorians.
Ruth, Book of
One of the proto-canonical writings of the Old Testament.
Ruthenian Rite
There is no separate and distinct rite for the Ruthenians, but the name is often used for the modifications which the Ruthenians have introduced in the Byzantine or Greek Rite.
Ruthenians
A Slavic people from Southern Russia, Galicia and Bukowina in Austria, and North-eastern Hungary.
Rutter, Henry
English priest and writer. (1755-1838)
Ruvo and Bitonto
Diocese in the Province of Bari, Aquileia, Southern Italy. Ruvo, the ancient Rubi, situated on a calcareous hill, includes a fine Norman cathedral of the eleventh century.
Ruysch, John
Astronomer, cartographer, and painter. (d. 1533)
Ryan, Father Abram J.
Poet, newspaper editor and Confederate chaplain. (1839-1886)
Ryan, Patrick John
Sixth Bishop and second Archbishop of Philadelphia. (1831-1911)
Ryder, Henry Ignatius Dudley
English Oratorian priest and controversialist. (1837-1907)
Ryken, Theodore James
Founder of the Xaverian Brothers. (1797-1871)
Râle (Rasle), Sebastian
French Jesuit missionary to North America, and martyr. (1654-1724)
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January 2, 2007 at 16:42:38 UTC
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