Society Religion and Spirituality Christianity Denominations Catholicism Reference Catholic Encyclopedia M
Maassen, Friedrich Bernard Christian
Professor of law. (1823-1900)
Benedictine monk of the Congregation of Saint-Maur. (1632-1707)
A collection of medieval Welsh tales in prose.
Diocese; suffragan of Goa.
Article on two saints named Macarius, both fourth-century Egyptian monks: St. Macarius the Egyptian ("the Elder") and St. Macarius the Alexandrian ("the Younger").
A Christian apologist of the end of the fourth century.
Macarius of Antioch
A Patriarch, deposed in 681.
Bishop of Jerusalem, d. 334. He was an opponent of Arianism.
A priestly family which under the leadership of Mathathias initiated the revolt against the tyranny of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, King of Syria, and after securing Jewish independence ruled the commonwealth till overthrown by Herod the Great.
Maccabees, The Books of
The author, date, and contents of 1 and 2 Machabees. A brief look at 3 and 4 Machabees.
Archbishop and theologian, born at Saul, Co. Down, 1571; died 22 September, 1626.
Irish scholar and chronologist (1843-1904).
MacCarthy, Denis Florence
Well-known Irish poet of the nineteenth century, born in Lower O'Connell Street, Dublin, 26 May, 1817; died at Blackrock, Dublin, 7 April, 1882.
MacCarthy, Nicholas Tuite
Called the Abbé de Lévignac, born in Dublin on 19 May, 1769; died at Annécy, Savoy, 3 May, 1833.
Laird of Glenaladale and Glenfinnan, philanthropist, colonizer, soldier, born in Glenaladale, Scotland, about 1742; died at Tracadie, Prince Edward Island, Canada, 1811; he was the son of Alexander and Margaret (MacDonnell of Scotus).
First Bishop of Kingston, Ontario, Canada, b. 17 July 1760, at Inchlaggan in Glengarry, Scotland; d. 14 January, 1840, at Dumfries, Scotland.
A short, richly ornamented staff.
Known as a S. Augustino, O.F.M., theologian, born at Coimbra, Portugal, 1596; he entered the Jesuit Order in 1610, which however he left in 1638 in order to join the Discalced Franciscans.
Macerata and Tolentino
Located in the Marches, Central Italy.
MacFarland, Francis Patrick
Third Bishop of Hartford (q.v.) born at Franklin, Pennsylvania, 16 April, 1819; died at Hartford, Connecticut, 2 October, 1874.
Born at Uisneach, Westmeath, Ireland, 1702; died at Paris, 1763. He came of a long family long settled in Westmeath and long holding a high position among the Leinster chiefs, and was related to that MacGeoghegan who defended the Castle of Dunboy against Carew, and also to Connell MacGeoghegan, who translated the Annals of Clonmacnoise.
Born March 6, 1791 at Tubbernavine, Co. Mayo, Ireland; died at Tuam, November 4, 1881.
Including a short biography, a list of his works and a summary of his ideas.
The burial-place in the vicinity of ancient Hebron which Abraham bought from Ephron the Hethite for the interment of Sara (Gen., xxiii, 9, 17).
Also called Malo or Maclovius. According to this article, Machutus was baptized by St. Brendan the Navigator, and accompanied him on his famous voyage.
This vicariate which was detached from the Athabaska-Mackenzie Vicariate in 1901 and intrusted to Mgr Gabriel Breynat, Titular Bishop of Adramytus, consecrated 6 April 1902, is bounded on the west by the Rocky Mountains, on the south by 60º latitude, on the east by the water-shed and is unlimited on the north towards the pole.
Bishop of Clogher, Ireland, and patriotic leader, born at Farney, County Monaghan, 1600; executed at Enniskillen in 1650.
MacNeven, William James
Irish-American physician and medical educator. (1763-1841)
A titular see in Mauretania Sitifiensis.
Macrina the Elder, Saint
Grandmother of SS. Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa, and Macrina the Younger.
Macrina the Younger, Saint
Granddaughter of St. Macrina the Elder, and the sister of St. Gregory of Nyssa. She died in 379.
A titular see of the Byzantine Empire.
Island situated to the south-east of Africa.
A titular see of Numidia.
Madeleine-Sophie Barat, Saint
Founder of the Society of the Sacred Heart, d. 1865.
Known principally by his extension of St. Peter's, at the command of the pope, from the form of a Greek to that of a Latin cross. (1556-1629)
A sculptor of the Roman School and of the era just preceding Bernini, his contemporary. (1576-1636)
An Arabian tribe introduced into history in the texts of Gen., xxv, 1-4 and I Chron., i, 32.
Archdiocese in India.
Province and town in Spain.
Born of a noble family of Trent, 5 July, 1512; died at Tivoli, Italy, 5 July, 1578.
The Madura mission owes its origin to Robert de Nobili, who commenced at Madura, in 1606, that peculiar method of propagating the faith which has made his name famous.
First bishop of Ferns, d. 626.
Founder and first abbot of Tallacht, d. around 791. Co-author with St. Aengus of the Rule of the Célidhé Dé.
Abbot and martyr, died in 722.
Maerlant, Jacob van
Flemish poet of the Middle Ages, b. about 1235; d. after 1291.
Maestro di Camera del Papa
The maestro di camera is the real chief chamberlain. His authority extends over all matters concerning the daily personal service of His Holiness.
Poet, orator, antiquarian (1514-1549).
Italian painter. (d. 1660)
Maffei, Marchese Francesco Scipione
Italian littérateur and archaeologist, b. at Verona, 1 June, 1675; d. there, 11 Feb., 1755.
Humanist, historian and theologian (1451-1522).
French painter, b. at Marseilles 1817; d. there, 1899.
It is perhaps the Migdal-El mentioned in the Old Testament (Jos., xix, 38) belonging to the tribe of Nephtali.
The members of certain religious communities of penitent women who desired to reform their lives.
Capital of the Prussian Province of Saxony, situated on the Elbe; pop. 241,000; it is noted for its industries, particularly the production of sugar, its trade, and its commerce. From 968 until 1552 it was the seat of an archbishopric.
Situated on the torrent Qina, on the east of the Plain of Esdraelon opposite Jezrahel, commanded the central of the three passes that join the plain with the seaboard.
Short biographical article on the Portuguese explorer (1480-1521).
The "wise men from the East" who came to adore Jesus in Bethlehem (Matthew 2).
Born at Montblanch, Catalonia, Spain, 29 or 30 January, 1761; died at Santa Clara, California, 22 Nov., 1830. He received the habit of St. Francis at Barcelona on 4 April, 1777, and was ordained priest probably in 1785.
Irish bishop (1802-1849).
Magistris, Simone de
Born in 1728; died 6 October, 1802; a priest of the Oratorio di S. Filippo Neri, at Rome, whom Pius VI created titular Bishop of Cyrene and provost of the Congregation for the correction of the liturgical books of Oriental Rites.
Italian scholar and librarian, b. 20 Oct., 1633, at Florence; d. there, 4 July, 1714.
The charter of liberties granted by King John of England in 1215 and confirmed with modifications by Henry III in 1216, 1217, and 1225.
A titular see in Lydia, suffragan of Ephesus.
An educator of the clergy, born at Bleymard, in the Diocese of Mende, France, 9 June, 1837; died 21 December, 1902.
The title commonly given to the Latin text and vernacular translation of the Canticle (or Song) of Mary.
Swedish historian and geographer, b. at Skeninge, Sweden, 1490; d. at Rome, 1 Aug., 1558.
His "life" was re-edited twice, so that he is said in it to be a contemporary of St. Gall (early seventh century) but also of the first bishop of Augsburg (mid-eighth century).
Born at Milan, 1586, presumably of the noble family of de Magni; died at Salzburg, 29 July, 1661. He received the Capuchin habit at Prague.
Magrath, John Macrory
Born in Munster, Ireland, in the fifteenth certury; date and place of death unknown. Like many of his ancestors, he was chief historian to the O'Briens, princes of Thomond and chiefs of the Dalcassian clans.
A titular see of Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perga.
Roman cardinal and celebrated philologist, b. at Schilpario, in the Diocese of Bergamo, 7 March 1782; d. at Albano, 9 September 1854.
French physicist and theologian; b. at Toulouse, 17 July, 1601; d. at Toulouse, 29 October, 1676.
Mailla, Joseph-Anna-Marie de Moyria de
Jesuit missionary; b. 16 Dec., 1669, at Château Maillac on the Isère; d. 28 June, 1748, at Peking, China.
Missionary b. in France (parentage, place and date of birth unknown); d. 12 August, 1762.
Celebrated preacher, b. at Juignac, (?), Brittany, about 1430; d. at Toulouse, 22 July, 1502.
French church historian, b. at Nancy, 10 January, 1610; d. at Paris, 13 August, 1686.
Maimonides, Teaching of Moses
Article by William Turner discusses this Jewish thinker's life and doctrines.
A group of tribes constituting a distinct linguistic stock, the Mainan, ranging along the north bank of the Marañón.
Commonly known as the Pine Tree State, but is sometimes called the Star in the East.
Maine de Biran, François-Pierre-Gonthier
A philosopher; born at Grateloup near Bergerac, Dordogne, France, 29 November, 1766; died at Paris, 16 July, 1824.
Maintenon, Françoise, Marquise de
Born at Niort, 28 November 1635; died at Saint-Cyr, 15 April 1719. She was the granddaughter of the celebrated Protestant writer, Agrippa d'Aubigné.
German town and bishopric in Hesse; formerly the seat of an archbishop and elector.
A former important group of tribes on the Upper Orinoco River, from above the Meta to the entrance of the Cassiquiare, in Venezuela and Columbia, speaking dialects of the Arawakan stock.
Maisonneuve, Paul de Chomedey de
Founder of Montreal (d. 1676).
Maistre, Joseph-Marie, Comte de
Biographical article, summarizing his chief arguments for authority and against Gallicanism.
Maistre, Xavier de
French romance writer, younger brother of Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre, b. at Chambery, Savoy, in 1763; d. at St. Petershurg, 12 June, 1852.
Located in New South Wales. Maitland, the principal settlement on Hunter River, was chosen as the title for a bishop in 1848.
Majano, Benedetto da
A well-known Florentine sculptor and architect of the Renaissance, b. at Majano, Tuscany. 1442; d. at Florence, 24 May, 1498.
Majorca and Iviza
A suffragan of Valencia, with the episcopal residence at Palma on the Island of Majorca.
Chief steward of the household of the pope.
The state of a person or thing greater, or superior, in relation to another person or thing.
Catholic journalist, born at Gross-Schmograu in Silesia, 14 July, 1842; died at Hochkirch near Glogau, 21 May, 1899.
The name of a district of India stretching about 145 miles along the west coast, south of Mangalore, in the general region of present-day Kerala.
Certain customs or practices of the natives of South India, which the Jesuit missionaries allowed their neophytes to retain after conversion, but which were afterwards prohibited by the Holy See.
The Diocese of Malacca comprises the southern portions of the Malay Peninsula, otherwise known as the Straits Settlements.
Examination of the Old Testament prophet and book.
Abbot of Bangor, later Archbishop of Armagh, d. 1148. Article includes testimony from St. Bernard of Clairvaux on St. Malachy's character.
Diocese in Spain, by the Concordat of 1851 made a suffragan of Granada, having previously been dependent on Seville.
A Jesuit missionary to Brazil, b. 18 September or 6 December, 1689, at Menaggio, in Italy; d. 21 September, 1761, at Lisbon.
Malatesta, House of
The name of an Italian family prominent in the history of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, famous alike in the poetry of Dante and in the annals of the early Renaissance.
A name common in the Semitic languages and of special interest as being that borne by the Jewish servant whose ear was struck off by St. Peter.
A theologian and exegete, b. in 1533 at Casas de Reina, in the district of Llerena, 66 leagues from Madrid; d. at Rome, 5 Jan., 1583.
A philosopher and theologian, priest of the Oratory of St. Philip Neri; b. at Paris, 6 Aug., 1638; d. 13 Oct 1715.
Malediction (in Scripture)
Four principal words are rendered maledictio in the Vulgate, "curse" in Douay Version.
French poet, b. at Caen, Normandy, in 1555; d. at Paris, 16 October, 1628.
A tribe of Algonquian stock, occupying territory upon the lower St. John River, St. Croix River, and Passamaquody Bay, in western New Brunswick and northeastern Maine, and closely connected linguistically and historically with the Abnaki (Penobscot, etc.) of Maine.
A French mineralogist, b. 4 February, 1833, at Châteauneuf-sur-Cher; d. 6 July, 1894, in Paris.
Mallinckrodt, Herman von
German parliamentarian; born 5 Feb., 1821, at Minden, Westphalia; died 26 May, 1874, at Berlin.
A sister of the Catholic political leader Hermann Mallinckrodt, and foundress of the Sisters of Christian Charity, b. at Minden, Westphalia, 3 June, 1817; d. at Paderborn, 30 April, 1881.
Benedictine abbey in England.
Mallory, Stephen Russell
An American statesman; born in the Island of Trinidad, W. I., 1813; died at Pensacola, Florida, United States, 9 Nov., 1873.
A titular see of Cilicia Prima, suffragan of Tarsus.
Town in Wiltshire, England, ninety-five miles west of London, formerly the seat of a mitred parliamentary abbey of Benedictine monks.
Malmesbury, The Monk of
Supposed author of a chronicle among the Cottonian manuscripts in the British Museum (Vesp. D. IV. 73) which Tanner states to be only a copy of a chronicle written by Alfred of Beverley in the twelfth century, but which, according to Sir Thomas Hardy, is almost entirely based on that of Geoffrey of Monmouth.
Jesuit missioner and writer; born according to the best authorities, in 1585; died at Seville, 1655.
Malory, Sir Thomas
Writer of the "Morte Arthure", the earliest production of English prose.
Founder of comparative physiology, b. at Crevalcore, 10 March, 1628; d. at Rome, 29 Sept., 1694.
The group of Maltese islands, including Malta, Gozo, Comine and a few inconsiderable islets, lies 58 miles south of Sicily and about 180 miles S.E. by E. of Cape Bon in Tunisia.
French Jesuit, b. at Puy, 3 Oct., 1621; d. Toulouse, 3 Jan., 1674.
An exegete and historical critic, b. at Jativa, Valencia, 1566; d. 7 May, 1628.
Located in Worcestershire, England, a district covered by a lofty range between the Severn and Wye, known as the Malvern Hills. On its eastern side were formerly two houses of Benedictine monks, the priories of Great and Little Malvern.
Mamachi, Thomas Maria
Dominican theologian and historian, born at Chios in the Archipelago, 4 December, 1713; died at Corneto, near Montefiascone, Italy, 7 June, 1792.
Printer and publisher, b. at Tours, 17 Aug., 1811; d. at Tours, 12 April, 1893.
The general term applied in South America to designate the mixed European-Indian race, and more specifically applied in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to the organized bands of Portuguese slave-hunters who desolated the vast interior of South America from the Atlantic to the slopes of the Andes, and from the Paraguay to the Orinoco.
The so-called "Mamertine Prison", beneath the church of S. Giuseppe dei Falegnami, via di Marforio, Rome, is generally accepted as being identical with "the prison ... in the middle of the city, overlooking the forum", mentioned by Livy (I, xxxiii).
Bishop of Vienne, d. around 476.
Mamona; the spelling Mammona is contrary to the textual evidence and seems not to occur in printed Bibles till the edition of Elzevir.
Includes sections on the nature of man, the origin of man, and the end of man.
King of Israel.
Or Manaen. Mentioned in Scripture, and traditionally believed to have been one of the first Christians in Antioch.
The name of seven persons of the Bible, a tribe of Israel, and one of the apocryphal writings.
Foundress of the Montreal Hôtel-Dieu, and one of the first women settlers in Canada, b. at Nogent-le-Roi, Champagne, 1606; d. at Montreal, 19 June, 1673.
A suffragan of the Archdiocese of Boston, U.S.A.
A north-eastern division of the Chinese Empire and the cradle of the present  imperial dynasty.
Tribe occupying jointly with the Hidatsa (Minitari or Grosventre) and Arikara (Ree) the Fort Berthold reservation, on both sides of the Missouri, near its conjunction with the Knife River, North Dakota.
Mandeville, Jean de
The author of a book of travels much read in the Middle Ages, died probably in 1372.
The city of Manfredonia is situated in the province of Foggia in Apulia, Central Italy, on the borders of Mount Gargano.
Diocese on the west coast of India, suffragan of Bombay.
Mangan, James Clarence
Irish poet, b. in Dublin, 1 May, 1803; d. there, 20 June, 1849. He was the son of James Mangan, a grocer, and of Catherine Smith.
A politico-religious sect which arose in Tyrol in the first half of the nineteenth century.
A religion founded by the Persian Mani in the latter half of the third century.
Manifestation of Conscience
A practice in many religious orders and congregations, by which subjects manifest the state of their conscience to the superior, in order that the latter may know them intimately, and thus further their spiritual progress.
This archdiocese comprises the city of Manila, the provinces of Bataan, Bulacan, Cavite, Mindoro, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Rizal, Tarlac, and Zambales; and the Districts of Infanta and Marinduque in the Province of Tayabas.
Founded by Father Frederic Faura, S.J., in 1865; constituted officially The Philippine Weather Bureau by decree of the American governor, May, 1901.
An ornamental vestment in the form of a band, a little over a yard long and from somewhat over two to almost four inches wide, which is placed on the left arm in such manner that it falls in equal length on both sides of the arm.
History of the Canadian province.
Mann, Theodore Augustine
English naturalist and historian, b. in Yorkshire, 22 June, 1735; d. at Prague in Bohemia, 23 Feb., 1809.
The food miraculously sent to the Israelites during their forty years sojourn in the desert (Ex., xvi; Num., xi, 6-9).
Manning, Henry Edward
Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster (1808-1892).
Poet, from Bourne in Lincolnshire, England.
French architect, born in Paris, probably of Italian stock, in 1598; died there, 1666.
French architect, grand-nephew of François, was originally Jules Hardouin, but took the name of Mansard; was born in Paris, 1646; died at Marly 1708.
Mansi, Gian Domenico
Italian prelate and scholar born at Lucca, of a patrician family, 16 February, 1692; died archbishop of that city, 27 September, 1769.
Biography of the Italian painter.
An outer vestment reaching to the knees, open in front, with slits instead of sleeves on the sides.
Diocese of Mantua (Mantuana), in Lombardy.
Manu, The Laws of
The English designation commonly applied to the "Manava Dharma-sastra", a metrical Sanskrit compendium of ancient sacred laws and customs held in the highest reverence by the orthodox adherents of Brahminism.
First teacher of Greek in Italy, born at Constantinople about the middle of the fourteenth century; died at Constance, German, and was buried there, 15 April, 1415.
Every book written by hand on flexible material and intended to be placed in a library is called a manuscript.
Manuscripts of the Bible
Manuscripts are written, as opposed to printed, copies of the original text or of a version either of the whole Bible or of a part thereof.
A large number of manuscripts covered with painted ornaments.
The name given to the towel used by the priest when engaged liturgically.
Scholar and printer (1450-1515).
Italian poet and novelist, b. at Milan, 7 March, 1785; d. 22 May, 1873.
Archdeacon of Oxford, b. at, or in the vicinity of, Hereford, c. 1140, d. between 1208 and 1210.
The Syriac word mafriano signifies one who fructifies, a consecrator. It is used to designate the prelate who holds the second rank after the patriarch among the Jacobite Syrians.
A learned Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. 14 October, 1683, at Sezanne, in the Department of Marne; d. 2 April, 1762, at Paris.
An Armenian Catholic Diocese.
An Italian painter, b. at Camerino, in the March of Ancona, 13 May, 1625, d. in Rome, 15 December, 1713.
Bishop of Rennes, ecclesiastical writer and hymnologist, b. about 1035 at Angers, France, d. there 11 September, 1123.
Marca, Pierre de
French bishop and scholar, b. at Gan in Béarn, 24 Jan., 1594, of a family distinguished in the magistracy; d. at Paris, 29 June, 1662.
Consecrated virgin, blood sister of St. Ambrose, d. about 398.
Latin chronicler of the sixth century.
Marcellinus of Civezza, O.F.M.
Modern Franciscan author, born at Civezza in Liguria, Italy, 29 May, 1822; d. at Leghorn, 27 March, 1906.
A high official at the court of Emperor Honorius, and possessed the confidence of his imperial master owing to his good sense, and unblemished conduct.
Marcellinus, Pope Saint
Elected to the papacy in 296. He died in 304, probably of natural causes, since no early source calls him a martyr.
Biography focusing on religious works, particularly his Paraphrase of the Psalms.
Marcellus I, Pope Saint
After a vacancy in office following the death of Pope St. Marcellinus, was elected to the papacy in 308. Fairly lengthy biographical article.
Marcellus II, Pope
Born 6 May, 1501, at Montepulciano in Tuscany; died 6 May, 1555, at Rome. His father, Ricardo Cervini, was Apostolic treasurer in the March of Ancona.
Marcellus of Ancyra
One of the bishops present at the Councils of Ancyra and of Nicaea, a strong opponent of Arianism, but in his zeal to combat Arius adopting the opposite extreme of modified Sabellianism and being several times condemned, dying deprived of his see c. A.D. 374.
A Catalan poet, b. perhaps in the last quarter of the fourteenth century, at Valencia; d. there in 1458.
Marchand, Jean Baptiste
Second principal in order of succession of the Sulpician College of Montreal and missionary of the Detroit Hurons at Sandwich, Ont.; b. at Verchères, Que., 25 Feb. 1760, son of Louis Marchand and Marguerite de Niverville; d. at Sandwich, 14 Apr., 1825.
A theologian, b. at Couvin, a village in the principality of Liege, in 1585; d. at Ghent, 11 Nov., 1661.
A Lombard sculptor of the neoclassic school, born at Saltrio, near Milan, 7 August, 1790; died at Milan, 6 February. 1858.
An archæologist, born at Tolmezzo near Udine, 22 Feb., 1795; died at Rome, 10 Feb., 1860.
Roman Emperor at Constantinople, b. in Thrace about 390; d. January, 457.
A titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra.
A titular see in Lower Maesia, on the right bank of the Danube, so called by Trajan after his sister Marciana (Amm. Marcellinus, XXVII, 2) and previously known as Parthenopolis.
Said that the creator "god" of the Old Testament was not the good God and Father of Jesus Christ of the New Testament. Had their own shadow hierarchy and their own Bible, which consisted of parts of Luke and Paul, edited so as to disparage the Old Testament. Only the unmarried were allowed to be baptized. Marcionism may have led to the formation of the Apostle's Creed as rebuttal, and certainly was an incentive in deciding on the canon of the New Testament.
A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Edessa.
A sect of Valentinian Gnostics, founded by Marcus.
A missionary among the Iroquois, b. in Canada, 16 March, 1791; d. there 29 May, 1855.
The name of three leading Gnostics.
An obscure writer of the fourth century of whom nothing is known but his name at the head of a "Sermon against the Arians", discovered by Wetsten in a manuscript codex of St. Athanasius at Basle.
A theologian and ascetic writer of some importance in the fifth century.
A residential Armenian archbishopric, a Chaldean bishopric, and a residential Syrian bishopric; moreover it is the headquarters of the Capuchin mission of Mardin and Amida.
The third Archbishop of Baltimore; born at Ingres near Orléans, France, 28 August, 1764; died at Baltimore, 29 January, 1828.
(1), Carlo, Italian dramatist, born at Cassolo (or Cassolnuovo) in Piedmont in 1800; died at Savona in 1846. (2), Leopoldo, Italian dramatic poet, born at Ceva in 1831; died 1899, son of Carlo Marenco.
Margaret Clitherow, Saint
Article on this martyr, d. 1586, who is called the "Pearl of York." St. Margaret was crushed to death for the crime of harboring priests.
Margaret Colona, Blessed
A Roman orphan, hermit, founder of a community of Poor Clares, d. 1284.
Margaret Mary Alacoque, Saint
Biographical article on the apostle of the devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus.
Margaret of Cortona, Saint
Third Order Franciscan, d. 1297.
Margaret of Hungary, Saint
Princess who became a Dominican at the age of 4. She died in 1270 or 1271, and was canonized in 1943.
Margaret of Lorraine, Blessed
Duchess d'Alencon, widow, became a Poor Clare, d. 1521.
Margaret of Savoy, Blessed
Widow, Third Order Dominican, d. 1464.
Margaret of Scotland, Saint
Biographical entry on the eleventh-century queen.
Margaret of the Blessed Sacrament
French Carmelite nun (1590-1660).
Margaret Pole, Blessed
Biography of the Countess of Salisbury, martyred in 1541.
Margaret Ward, Saint
English martyr, died at Tyburn in 1588.
Also known in the Christian East as St. Marina. Virgin and martyr from Pisidian Antioch.
The canonists of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries who taught canon law by commenting on the Decretum of Gratian and on the various collections of the Decretals, gave the most varied forms and diverse names to their treatises. The "Margaritae" are collections specially intended to help the memory.
Born at Valencia, Spain, 18 August, 1657; died at Mexico, 6 Aug., 1726. He entered the Franciscan Order in his native city on 22 April, 1673. After his ordination to the priesthood he volunteered for the Indian missions in America, and arrived at Vera Cruz on 6 June, 1683.
A Catholic publicist, born 11 May, 1823; died 6 May, 1887. He was a native of San Remo, where his father was president of the Chamber of Commerce, and there he studied the classics and philosophy, after which he entered the seminary of Ventimiglia; in 1845, he obtained the doctorate at the University of Genoa and was received into the Royal Academy of Superga, where he remained until 1849.
Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria, Roman-German Empress, born 1717; died 1780.
A Benedictine abbey on the southwest bank of Lake Laach, near Andernach in Rhineland, Germany.
A Dominican, born about 1580; died at Venice in April, 1660.
This term is applied to those English priests who being ordained in or before the reign of Queen Mary (1553-1558), survived into the reign of Elizabeth.
Situated in the centre of Minas Geraes, the great mining state of Brazil, is bounded on the north, south and west respectively by its suffragan sees, Diamantina, Pouso Alegre, Goyaz, and Uberaba.
The Marianas Archipelago (also called the Ladrone Islands) is a chain of fifteen islands in the Northern Pacific, first discovered in 1521 by Magellan.
Author and Jesuit, b. at Talavern, Toledo, Spain, probably in April, 1536; d. at Toledo, 16 February, 1624.
Mariannhill, Congregation of the Missionaries of
Located in Natal, near Pinetown, 15 miles from Durban, and 56 from Pietermaritzburg.
Marianus of Florence
A Friar Minor and historian, born at Florence about the middle of the fifteenth century, exact date of birth uncertain; died there, 20 July, 1523.
Two Irish scholars of this name attained distinction in the eleventh century. Both spent the greater part of their lives in Germany.
Biography of the Queen of France.
Marie Christine of Savoy, Blessed
The daughter of Victor Emanuel I, married King Ferdinand II of Sicily, d. 1836 at the age of 23.
Marie de France
Twelfth-century French poetess.
Marie de l'Incarnation, Blessed
A.k.a. Madame Acarie. Founded the French Carmel, d. 1618.
Marie de l'Incarnation, Blessed
Baptismal name Marie Guyard. First superior of the Ursulines of Quebec. Biography.
Marie-Marguérite d'Youville, Saint
Biography of the founder of the Gray Nuns, or Sisters of Charity. She died in 1771.
A Benedictine abbey of the Congregation of St. Joseph near Mals, Tyrol (in Vintschau).
Marignolli, Giovanni de'
Franciscan missionary to Asia (b. 1290).
The name of an ancient and noble family of the Republic of Genoa, distinguished alike in the Island of Chios, one of its dependencies, where it possessed many beautiful and valuable estates.
Marini, Luigi Gaetano
A natural philosopher, jurist, historian, archeologist, born at Sant' Orcangelo (pagus Acerbotanus), 18 Dec., 1742; died at Paris, 7 May, 1815.
Marinus I, Pope
Marinus II, Pope
Reigned 942-946; died in April or May, 946.
French physicist, b. at Dijon, France, about 1620; d. at Paris, 12 May, 1684.
Maris, Martha, Audifax, and Abachum, Saints
Family martyred at Rome in 270. SS. Maris and Martha were husband and wife.
Marisco, Adam de
A Franciscan who probably came from the county of Somerset, but the date of his birth is unknown; died at the end of 1257 or the beginning of 1258.
Marius Aventicus, Saint
Or Aventicensis, so called because he was bishop of Avenches. Goldsmith, chronicler, d. 594.
Marius Maximus, Lucius Perpetuus Aurelianus
Roman historian, lived c. 165-230.
Ecclesiastical writer, born probably in Northern Africa about 390; died shortly after 451.
Mark and Marcellian, Saints
Blood brothers martyred at Rome in the Diocletian persecution, probably in 286.
Mark Barkworth, Blessed
Short biography of the English convert, martyred in 1601.
Mark of Lisbon
Friar minor, historian, and Bishop of Oporto in Portugal, b. at Lisbon (date of birth uncertain); d. in 1591.
Mark, Gospel of
The Second Gospel, like the other two Synoptics, deals chiefly with the Galilean ministry of Christ, and the events of the last week at Jerusalem.
Mark, Pope Saint
Reigned for less than 9 months, d. 336.
What can be pieced together of St. Mark's life from Scripture. Also reports on tradition surrounding the saint.
Missionary, b. 1 Nov., 1695.
A titular see in the province of Rhodopis, suffragan of Trajanopolis.
History of the Maronite nation and Church.
Located in Polynesia, includes all the Marquesas Islands.
The Diocese comprises the upper peninsula and the adjacent islands of the State of Michigan, U.S.A.
A society founded in New York, in May, 1904, by Rev. H.G. Ganss, of Lancaster, Pa.
Marquette University of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is an outgrowth of Marquette College, which was opened in 1881, although it had been planned by Right Rev. John Martin Henni as far back as 1850.
Jesuit missionary and discoverer of the Mississippi River, b. in 1636, at Laon, a town in north central France; d. near Ludington, Michigan, 19 May, 1675.
The municipal law deals with this status only as a civil institution.
Marriage, History of
The Catholic views of marriage.
Those between Catholics and non-Catholics, when the latter have been baptized in some Christian sect. The term is also used to designate unions between Catholics and infidels.
Marriage, Moral and Canonical Aspect of
Marriage is that individual union through which man and woman by their reciprocal rights form one principle of generation.
In the Old and the New Testament, the love of God for man, and, in particular His relations with His chosen people (whether of the Synagogue or of the Church), are frequently typified under the form of the relations between bridegroom and bride. In like manner, Christian virginity been considered from the earliest centuries as a special offering made by the soul to its spouse, Christ.
Marriage, Ritual of
The form for the celebration of the Sacrament of Matrimony is detailed.
Marriage, Sacrament of
Christian marriage (i.e. marriage between baptized persons) is really a sacrament of the New Law in the strict sense of the word is for all Catholics an indubitable truth.
English novelist and actress (1838-1899).
Diocese of Marseilles (Massiliensis), suffragan of Aix, comprises the district of Marseilles in the Department of Bouches-du-Rhône.
These islands, a German possession since 1885, lying in the Pacific Ocean, east of the Caroline islands, between 4 and 13 N. lat., and 161 and 171 E. longitude, were discovered in 1529 by Saavedra, Villalobos and other Spanish mariners, and explored by Marshall and Gilbert in 1788.
Marshall, Thomas William
Controversial writer, b. 1818; d. at Surbiton, Surrey, 14 Dec., 1877.
Diocese in the province of Aquila, Central Italy, with its seat at Pescina.
Marsico Nuovo and Potenza
Suffragan diocese of Salerno.
Marsigli, Luigi Ferdinando, Count de
Italian geographer and naturalist, b. at Bologna 10 July, 1658; d. at Bologna 1 Nov., 1730.
Marsilius of Padua
Physician and theologian, b. at Padua about 1270; d. about 1342.
Sister of Mary of Bethany and of Lazarus.
Third-century bishop of Limoges.
One of the six companions associated with Dr. Allen in the foundation of the English College at Douai in 1568.
Born 30 Dec., 1647, at Saint-Sever-Cap, Diocese of Aire; died 16 June, 1717, at Saint Germain-des-Prés, Paris. He entered the Benedictine Congregation of St. Maur at an early age, and devoted himself to Biblical studies.
Roman writer of Africa who flourished in the fifth century.
Canon of Belley, archaeologist; b at Sauverny, Ain, in 1808; d at Belley, 19 August, 1880.
Benedictine Abbot of the Schottenkloster of Vienna, b. about 1400; d. 28 July, 1464 (29 July 1470).
Martin I, Pope Saint
Opposed the Monothelites, who were supported by the emperor. He was taken prisoner to Constantinople, but refused to sign a heretical declaration. He died in exile in 655.
Martin IV, Pope
Born at the castle of Montpensier in the old French province of Touraine at an unknown date; d. at Perugia 28 March, 1285. As priest he held a benefice at Rouen for a short time, whereupon he became canon and treasurer at the church of St. Martin in Tours.
Martin of Braga, Saint
Missionary, monastic founder, archbishop, ecclesiastical writer, d. 580.
Martin of Leon, Saint
Augustinian priest, d. 1203.
Martin of Tours, Saint
Fairly lengthy biographical article on this bishop, who died in around 397.
Martin of Troppau
A chronicler, date of birth unknown; died 1278.
Martin of Valencia, O.F.M.
Born at Villa de Valencia, Spain, about the middle of the fifteenth century; died in the odour of sanctity at Tlalmanalco, Mexico, 31 August, 1534. He entered the Franciscan Order at Mayorga in the Province of Santiago, built the monastery of Santa Maria del Berrogal, and was the thief founder of the Custody of San Gabriel, for which he visited Rome.
Martin V, Pope
Born at Genazzano in the Campagna di Roma, 1368; died at Rome, 20 Feb., 1431.
Martin y Garcia, Luis
Jesuit General (1846-1906).
Antiquary, historiographer, architect, educationist, b. 4 October, 1804, at Auray, seat of the famous shrine of St. Ann in Brittany, France; d. at Vaugirard, Paris, 25 November, 1886.
Translator of the Douai Version of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate; b. in Maxfield, parish of Guestling, near Winchelsea, in Sussex; d. at Reims, 28 October, 1582.
Bishop of Paderborn; b. 18 May, 1812, at Geismar, Province of Saxony; d. 16 July, 1879, at Mont St Guibert, near Brussels, Belgium.
French Biblical scholar. (1840 - 1890)
Roman virgin and martyr, d. 226 or (more likely) 228.
Archbishop of Florence, Biblical scholar; b. at Prato in Tuscany, 20 April, 1720; d. at Florence, 31 December 1809.
Austrian Jesuit missionary to the Chinese, in the seventeenth century.
Sienese painter, born in Siena, 1283; died either in the same place or at Avignon in 1344 or 1349.
Diocese; Martinique is one of the French Lesser Antilles, 380 sq. miles in area; It was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1493, and colonized by the French about 1625; it was in the hands of the English from 1762-1783, and was again occupied by them in 1792, 1802, 1809, 1815 and again became French territory in 1818.
Jesuit and writer. Born 7 October, 1821; died 26 April, 1894.
A Benedictine abbey in Hungary about fourteen English miles south of Raab, and sixty west of Buda-Pesth.
Monk, bishop, cardinal, b. at Kamicac, Dalmatia, 1482; d. 16 December, 1551. His real name was George Utjesenovic.
The Greek word martus signifies a witness who testifies to a fact of which he has knowledge from personal observation. The term martyr came to be exclusively applied to those who had died for the faith.
Martyr d'Anghiera, Peter
Historian of Spain and of the discoveries of her representatives, b. at Arona, near Anghiera, on Lake Maggiore in Italy, 2 February, 1457; d. at Granada in October, 1526.
By martyrology is understood a catalogue of martyrs and saints arranged according to the order of their feasts, i. e., according to the calendar.
A titular see, suffragan of Amida in the Province of Mesopotamia or Armenia Quarta.
Martyrs in China
With the revival of the missions in China with Matteo Ricci, who died at Peking in 1610, the blood of martyrs was soon shed to fertilize the evangelical field; the change of the Ming dynasty to the Manchu dynasty, giving occasion for new prosecution.
Martyrs, Acts of the
Records of the trials of early Christian martyrs made by the notaries of the court.
The most famous of the Japanese martyrs are the twenty-six who were crucified in Nagasaki in 1597, but thousands of other Japanese died for the faith between 1560 and 1860.
Martyrs, The Ten Thousand
On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology.
An historian and liturgist, born 22 December, 1654, at Saint-Jean-de-Losne near Dijon; died 20 June, 1739, at Saint-Germain-des-Prés near Paris.
Date and place of birth unknown; d. in Mexico in 1632. According to some he was of Spanish descent; Humboldt says that he was either a German or Dutchman, and according to others a Mexican educated in Spain, but in all probability he was a Frenchman.
Writer, greatly devoted to the martyrs, Mesopotamian bishop, d. before 420.
Mary Anne de Paredes, Saint
Of Quito, Ecuador, lived as a solitary in her own home and had many extraordinary spiritual gifts. She died in 1645.
Mary de Cervellione, Saint
Popularly called Maria de Socos. First superior of a Third Order branch of the Mercedarians, for women. She died in 1290.
Mary de Sales Chappuis, Venerable
Belonging to the Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary, born at Soyhières, a village of the Bernese Jura (then French territory), 16 June, 1793; died at Troyes, 6 October, 1875.
Mary Frances of the Five Wounds of Jesus, Saint
Third Order Franciscan, d. 1791.
Mary Magdalen de' Pazzi, Saint
Biography of the 17th-century Carmelite mystic.
Mary Magdalen, Saint
Article on the Apostle to the Apostles.
Mary of Cleophas
This title occurs only in John, xix, 25. A comparison of the lists of those who stood at the foot of the cross would seem to identify her with Mary, the mother of James the Less and Joseph ( Mark, xv, 40; cf. Matt., xxvii, 56).
Mary of Egypt, Saint
Biographical article on the penitent and hermit, who died around 421.
Mary of Romans 16:6
She had "laboured much among" the Roman Church, hence St. Paul's salutation to her.
Mary Queen of Scots
Mary Stuart, born at Linlithgow, 8 December, 1542; died at Fotheringay, 8 February, 1587. She was the only legitimate child of James V of Scotland.
Queen of England from 1553 to 1558; born 18 February, 1516; died 17 November, 1558. Mary was the daughter and only surviving child of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon.
Mary, Little Brothers of
Generally known as Marist School Brothers. This religious teaching institute is modern in its origin, having been founded in 1817, in France, by Benedict Marcellin Champagnat.
Mary, Missionaries of the Company of
The Company of Mary was founded by Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort in 1713.
Mary, Name of
In Scripture and in Catholic use.
Mary, Society of (Marist Fathers)
A religious order of priests, so called on account of the special devotion they profess toward the Blessed Virgin.
Mary, Society of, of Paris
Founded in 1817 by Very Reverend William Joseph Chaminade at Bordeaux, France.
One of the thirteen English colonies which after the Revolution of 1776 became the original States of the American Union.
Italian painter, born about 1402, at San Giovanni di Valdarno, a stronghold situated between Arezzo and Florence; died, probably at Rome, in 1429.
A Wisconsin tribe of Algonquian stock of considerable missionary importance in the seventeenth century, but long since entirely extinct.
Masolino da Panicale
Son of Cristoforo Fini; b. in the subrub of Panicale di Valdese, near Florence, 1383; d, c. 1440.
Mason, Richard Angelus a S. Francisco
Franciscan writer; b. in Wiltshire, 1599; d. at Douai, 30 Dec, 1678.
An overview of Freemasonry and description of its condemnation by the Catholic Church.
Name of several places in the Bible.
Mass, Chapter and Conventual
A conventual Mass sung or said in all cathedrals and collegiate churches that have a chapter; in this case it is often called the "chapter" Mass.
Mass, Liturgy of the
The complex of prayers and ceremonies that make up the service of the Eucharist in the Latin rites.
Mass, Music of the
Article covers exclusively the texts of the Mass (not seasonal) which receive a musical treatment.
"Missa pro sponso et sponsa", the last among the votive Masses in the Missal. It is composed of lessons and chants suitable to the Sacrament of Matrimony, contains prayers for persons just married and is interwoven with part of the marriage rite, of which in the complete form it is an element.
Mass, Sacrifice of the
The word Mass (missa) first established itself as the general designation for the Eucharistic Sacrifice in the West after the time of Pope Gregory the Great, the early Church having used the expression the "breaking of bread" (fractio panis) or "liturgy".
The fame of the Massa Candida has been perpetuated chiefly through two early references to them: that of St. Augustine, and that of the poet Prudentius (q.v.).
Diocese in Central Italy (Lunigiana and Garfagnana).
In the Province of Grosseto, in Tuscany, first mentioned in the eighth century.
One of the thirteen original United States of America. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts covers part of the territory originally granted to the Plymouth Company of England.
A Cardinal, born 9 June, 1809, at Piova in Piedmont, Italy; died at Cremona, 6 August, 1889.
Masses, Bequests for
Information on court cases about the subject.
Masses, Bequests for (Canada)
Information on the laws.
Masses, Bequests for (England)
Before the Reformation dispositions of property, whether real or personal, for the purposes of Masses, were valid, unless where, in the case of real property, they might happen to conflict with the Mortmain laws by being made to religious congregations.
Masses, Devises and Bequests for (United States)
Laws from various states discussed.
A celebrated French preacher and bishop; born 24 June, 1663; died 28 September, 1742.
The textual tradition of Hebrew Bible, an official registration of its words, consonants, vowels and accents.
Theologian, born at Toulouse, 28 Oct., 1632; died at Rome, 23 Jan., 1706.
Benedictine patrologist, of the Congregation of St. Maur; born 13 August, 1666, at St. Ouen de Mancelles in the diocese of Evreux; died 11 Jan. 1716, at St. Germain des Prés in Paris.
A painter, born at Louvain in 1466; died at Antwerp in 1530 (bet. 13 July and 16 September), and not in 1529, as his epitaph states (it dates from the seventeenth century).
One of the first Jesuits sent to New France; born at Lyons, 1574; died at Sillery, l2 May, 1646.
Master of the Sacred Palace
This office (which has always been entrusted to a Friar Preacher) may briefly be described as being that of the pope's theologian. St. Dominic, appointed in 1218, was the first Master of the Sacred Palace (Magister Sacri Palatii).
Franciscan, philosopher, and theologian, born near Forli, at Meldola, ltaly, in 1602; died 3 January, 1673.
Tribes ranging over a great part of the Chaco region, about the headwaters of the Vermejo and the Picomayo, in the Argentine province of Salta and the Bolivian province of Tarija, and noted for the efforts made by Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries in their behalf in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
A titular bishopric in the province of Byzantium.
As the word itself signifies, Materialism is a philosophical system which regards matter as the only reality in the world, which undertakes to explain every event in the universe as resulting from the conditions and activity of matter, and which thus denies the existence of God and the soul.
Maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the
Second Sunday in October. The object of this feast is to commemorate the dignity of the Mary as Mother of God.
The name of ten persons of the Bible, variant in both Hebrew and Greek of Old Testament and in Greek of New Testament; uniform in Vulgate.
Mathew Flathers, Blessed
English priest martyred at York in 1607.
Apostle of Temperance, born at Thomastown Castle, near Cashel, Tipperary, Ireland, 10 October, 1790; died at Queenstown, Cork, 8 December, 1856.
Bishop and cardinal, born 27 May, 1839; died 26 October, 1908.
Matilda of Canossa
Countess of Tuscany, daughter and heiress of the Marquess Boniface of Tuscany, and Beatrice, daughter of Frederick of Lorraine, b. 1046; d. 24 July, 1114.
Biography of the Queen of Germany, wife of Henry I (the Fowler). She died in 968.
Not Morning Prayer, but a nighttime prayer, which has now been replaced by the Office of Readings.
A term having several meanings in the field of Christian antiquity.
Matteo da Siena
Matteo of Aquasparta
Italian Franciscan (1235-1302).
Taking the term in its widest sense, matter signifies that out of which anything is made or composed.
Physicist, born at Forli, in the Romagna, 21 June, 1811; died at Ardenza, near Leghorn, 25 July, 1868.
Matthew of Cracow
Renowned scholar and preacher of the fourteenth century, b. at Cracow about 1335, d. at Pisa, 5 March, 1410.
Matthew, Gospel of Saint
Detailed article about the first Gospel.
The Apostle and Evangelist, in Scripture and tradition.
Matthew, Sir Tobie
English priest, born at Salisbury, 3 October, 1577, died at Ghent, 13 October, 1655.
King of Hungary (1440-1490).
Matthias of Neuburg
Chronicler, born towards the close of the thirteenth century, possibly at Neuburg, in Baden; died between 1364 and 1370, probably at Strasburg, in Alsace.
The Apostle, in Scripture and legend.
The feast of Maundy (or Holy) Thursday solemnly commemorates the institution of the Eucharist and is the oldest of the observances peculiar to Holy Week.
Hellenist and exegete (1811-1898).
Roman Emperor, born in 539; died in November, 602.
Leader of the Theban Legion, killed around 287.
A congregation of Benedictine monks in France, whose history extends from 1618 to 1818.
Deacon, disciple of St. Benedict. Portrayed by St. Gregory the Great as a model of monastic obedience. Died 584.
Writer on philosophy and theology, b. at Spoleto, 31 Dec., 1619; d. in Rome, 13 Jan., 1687.
Cardinal and statesman, born at Valréas, near Avignon, 26 June, 1746; died at Rome on 10 May, 1817.
Leader of the so-called Scythian monks, appears in history at Constantinople in 519 and 520.
Maxentius, Marcus Aurelius
Roman Emperor 306-12, son of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and son-in-law of the chief Emperor Galerius.
A titular see of Palestina Secunda, suffragan of Scythopolis.
Roman emperor (d. 310).
Brief profiles of three saints of this name.
Duke of Bavaria (1573-1651).
Roman emperor 235-238.
Maximinus, Caius Valerius Daja
Under his uncle Augustus Galerius, the Caesar of Syria and Egypt, from the year 305; in 307 following the example of Constantine, he assumed the title of Augustus.
Bishop of Trier, d. 349 or 352.
Titular see of Arabia.
Maximus of Constantinople, Saint
Also known as Maximus the Theologian or Maximus Confessor. Monk, abbot, wrote on ascetic mysticism, and on the Incarnation against the Monothelites. Died in exile, 662.
Maximus of Turin, Saint
Bishop and theological writer (380-465).
Fifth Earl of Nithsdale (Lord Nithsdale signed as Nithsdaill) and fourteenth Lord Maxwell, b. in 1676; d. at Rome, 2 March, 1744.
Countess of Nithsdale, d. at Rome, May, 1749.
The most important of the cultured native peoples of North America, both in the degree of their civilization and in population and resources, formerly occupying a territory of about 60,000 square miles, including the whole of the peninsula of Yucatan, Southern Mexico, together with the adjacent portion of Northern Guatemala.
Franciscan writer; b. in Wiltshire, 1599; d. at Douai, 30 Dec, 1678.
Born in 1569; died 14 September, 1625. He belonged to the old English family of Mayhew or Mayow of Winton, near Salisbury, Wiltshire.
The National College of Saint Patrick, at Maynooth in County Kildare, about twelve miles from Dublin, founded in the year 1795.
A tribe that occupied some fifteen towns on Mayo and Fuerte rivers, southern Sonora and northern Sinaloa, Mexico.
Mayo, School of
Was situated in the present parish of Mayo, County Mayo, almost equidistant from the towns of Claremorris and Castlebar. The founder, St. Colman, who flourished about the middle of the seventh century, was in all probability a native of the West of Ireland, and made his ecclesiastical studies at Iona during the abbacy of the renowned Segenius.
A Scotch philosopher and historian, b. at Gleghornie near Haddington, 1496; d. at St. Andrew's, 1550.
A tribe of Panoan linguistic stock, ranging the forests between the Ucayali, the Yavari and the Marañon (Amazon) rivers in north-east Peru and the adjacent portions of Brazil.
Mayotte, Nossi-Bé, and Comoro
Mayotte is the farthest south and most important of the group of Comoro Islands: Mayotte (Maote), Anjuan (Inzuani), Mohilla (Moheli), and Great Comoro (Komoro, i.e. where there is fire, or Angazidya).
A Bavarian Benedictine philosopher, apologist, and poet, b. 15 January, 1742 at Daiting near Augsburg; d. 28 April, 1794, in the monastery of Heillgenkreuz in Donauworth.
Born about 1280, probably at Mayronnes, Department of Basses-Alpes, he entered the Franciscan order at the neighbouring Digne (or Sisteron).
Born either at Rome or at Piscina in the Abruzzi, of a very old Sicilian family, 14 July, 1602; died at Vincennes, 9 March, 1661.
Mexican tribe of Zapotecan linguistic stock, occupying the mountain region of north-east Oaxaca, chiefly in the districts of Cuicatlan and Teotitlan.
Mazzara del Vallo
The city is situated in the province of Trepani, Sicily, on the Mediterranean, at the mouth of the Mazzara River.
Theologian and cardinal, born at Vitulano, 10 Feb., 1833; d. at Rome, 26 March, 1900.
Italian painter, b. in Ferrara in 1480, d., according to one account, in 1528, and to another, in 1530; place of death unknown.
Theologian, b. at Priero, Piedmont, 1460; d. at Rome, 1523, sometimes confounded with Sylvester Ferrariensis (d. 1526).
Mazzuchelli, Pietro Francesco
Milanese painter, b. at Moranzone near Milan, either in 1571 or 1575; d. at Piacenza in 1626.
A tribe formerly ranging on both sides of the Paraguay River, on the north and northwestern Paraguay frontier, and in the adjacent portion of the province of Matto Grosso, Brazil.
Cardinal, born in Dublin, 1816; died at Kingstown, 11 February, 1885; he was the son of poor parents, educated at Father Doyle's school on the Quays and at Maynooth College, and was ordained priest in 1839.
Irish politician and writer (1830-1912).
McCloskey, William George
Bishop of Louisville, Kentucky (1823-1909).
McGee, Thomas D'Arcy
An editor, politician, and poet, born at Carlingford, Co. Louth, Ireland, 13 April, 1825; assassinated at Ottawa, Canada, 7 April, 1868.
Physician and pioneer, born in the parish of La Riviere du Loup, Canada, 19 October, 1784; died at Oregon City, 3 September, 1857.
McMahon, Martin Thomas
Soldier, jurist; born at Laprairie, Canada, 21 March, 1838; died in New York, 21 April, 1906.
McMaster, James Alphonsus
An editor, convert, born at Duanesburg, New York, U. S. A., 1 April, 1820; died in Brooklyn, New York, 29 December, 1886.
McQuaid, Bernard John
The first Bishop of Rochester, U. S. A.; born in New York City, 15 December, 1823; died at Rochester, 18 January, 1909.
McSherry, James Jr.
Jurist, son of the author James McSherry; born at Frederick, Maryland, 30 December, 1842; died there 23 October, 1907.
McSherry, James Sr.
Author; born at LibertyTown, Frederick County, Maryland, 29 July, 1819; died at Frederick City, Maryland, 13 July, 1869, was the son of James McSherry and Anne Ridgely Sappington, and the grandson of Patrick McSherry, who came from Ireland in 1745 to Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, and removed later to Maryland.
Physician; born at Martinsburg, Virginia (now West Virginia), 21 November, 1817; died Baltimore, Md., 7 Ocbober, l885, son of Dr. Richard McSherry.
Meagher, Thomas Francis
Soldier, politician, b. at Waterford, Ireland, 3 August, 1823; accidentally drowned in the Missouri River, Montana Territory, U.S.A., 1 July, 1867.
Diocese in Ireland, suffragan of Armagh.
English Cistercian abbey.
Meaux, Diocese of
Comprises the entire department of Seine and Marne, suffragan of Sens until 1622, and subsequently of Paris.
The birthplace of Mohammed and the seat of the famous Kaaba, it was celebrated even in pre-Islamic times as the chief sanctuary of the Arabs, and visited by numerous pilgrims and devotees.
There is no constant meaning in the history of philosophy for the word Mechanism. Originally, the term meant that cosmological theory which ascribes the motion and changes of the world to some external force.
The name taken by Peter Manuk, founder of the religious order of Mechitarists, when he became a monk.
Armenian Benedictines, founded by Mechitar in 1712.
Archdiocese comprising the two Belgian provinces of Antwerp and Brabant.
Chronicler; b. 1562 at Pfalzel near Trier (Germany); d. after 1631, perhaps as late as 1653 at Trier.
Born Matilda von Hackeborn-Wippra, blood sister of the Abbess Gertrude von Hackeborn, monastic herself. Quite plausibly the model for Matelda in Dante's "Purgatorio." She died in 1298.
A division of the German Empire, consists of the two Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Medaille, Jean Paul
Jesuit missionary; b. at Carcassonne, the capital of the Department of Aude, France, 29 January, 1618; d. at Auch, the capital of the Department of Gers, France, 15 May, 1689.
The devotion owes its origin to Zoe Labore, a member of the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, known in religion as Sister Catherine, to whom the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared three separate times in the year 1830, at the mother-house of the community at Paris.
A medal may be defined to be a piece of metal, usually in the form of a coin, not used as money, but struck or cast for a commemorative purpose, and adorned with some appropriate effigy, device, or inscription. In the present article we are concerned only with religious medals.
Bishop of Noyon, d. around 545.
A titular see of Thrace, suffragan of Heraclea.
Archdiocese in the Republic of Colombia, Metropolitan of Antioquia and Manizales, in the Departments of Medellín, Antioquia, and Manizales.
Media and Medes
An ancient country of Asia and the inhabitants thereof.
Mediator (Christ as Mediator)
A mediator is one who brings estranged parties to an amicable agreement. In New Testament theology the term invariably implies that the estranged beings are God and man, and it is appropriated to Christ, the One Mediator.
Illustrious as a scholastic of acumen and penetration, b. at Camerino in Umbria, 1569, whence the surname de Medicis a Camerino.
Medici, House of
A Florentine family, the members of which, having acquired great wealth as bankers, rose in a few generations to be first the unofficial rulers of the republic of Florence and afterwards the recognized sovereigns of Tuscany.
Medici, Maria de'
Queen of France; b. at Florence, 26 April, 1573; d. at Cologne, 3 July, 1642.
Medicine and Canon Law
In the early centuries the practice of medicine by clerics, whether secular or regular, was not treated with disapproval by the Church, nor was it at all uncommon for them to devote a considerable part of their time to the medical avocation. Abuses, however, arose, and in the twelfth century ecclesiastical canons were framed which became more and more adverse to clerics practising the art of medicine.
Medicine, History of
Presents the history of modern medical science from its Greek foundation.
Dominican theologian, b. at Medina, 1527; d. at Salamanca, 1581.
Medina, Juan de
Theologian; born 1490; died 1547; he occupied the first rank among the theologians of the sixteenth century.
Medina, Miguel de
Theologian, born at Belalcazar, Spain, 1489; died at Toledo, May, 1578.
A Spanish lyric poet, b. in Seville, not to be confounded with Sebastian Francisco de Medrano who was also a poet and lived at about the same time.
A Croatian painter and engraver, called by Italian authors Medola, Medula, Schiavone, Schiaon, etc., b. at Sibenik, Dalmatia, 1522; d. at Venice 1582.
Meehan, Charles Patrick
Irish historical writer and translator, b. in Dublin, 12 July, 1812; d. there 14 March 1890.
A titular see, suffragan to Corinth, in Achaia.
Short article on the history and teachings of this school of philosophy by William Turner.
Formerly a Benedictine, now a Cistercian Abbey, is situated on Lake Constance, west of Bregenz, in the district of Vorarlberg, Austria.
Cardinal Archbishop of Tours, French apologist and Scriptural exegete, b. at Chauvigné, France, 12 April, 1817; d. at Tours, 20 January 1896.
French Canadian physician and educator, b. at St. Laurent, P.Q., 9 May, 1796; d. 7 Dec., 1878.
Also called Meginwerk. The energetic tenth bishop of Paderborn, d. 1036.
A former see of north-east Germany.
French painter, b. at Lyons 21 February,1815; d. at Paris, 31 January, 1891.
Extensive article, informative. Thorough examination of his humanism and his contributions to western educational theory and practice.
Melania (the Younger), Saint
Granddaughter of St. Melania the Elder, and a friend of St. Jerome.
Located in the state of Victoria, Southeastern Australia.
Cardinal, Archbishop of Cologne, b. 6 Jan., 1813, at Münster, Westphalia; d. 14 December, 1895, at Rome.
King of Salem (Gen. xiv, 18-20).
A branch of the Monarchians, founded by Theodotus the banker.
The people of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt who remained faithful to the Council of Chalcedon (451) when the greater part turned Monophysite.
Meletius of Antioch, Saint
Lengthy article on the career of the gentle bishop who longed for unity in the Church.
Meletius of Lycopolis
Bishop of Lycopolis in Egypt, gave his name to a schism of short duration.
Melfi and Rapolla
Diocese in the province of Potenza, in Basilicata, southern Italy.
Sicilian poet, b. at Palermo, 4 March, 1740, d. 20 Dec., 1815.
Italian theologian, b. at Rome, 12 Jan., 1800; d. in London, June 1883.
Melissus of Samos
A Greek philosopher, of the Eleatic School, b. at Samos about 470 B C.
The residence of an Armenian Catholic see, also a titulary archbishopric.
Bishop of Sardis, ecclesiastical writer, latter half of the second century.
Melk, Abbey and Congregation of
Situated on an isolated rock commanding the Danube, Melk has been a noted place since the days of the Romans.
Situated in Brittany, Diocese of Nantes, in the vicinity of Chateaubriand, was founded about the year 1134.
Located three miles from Drogheda, Co. Louth, Diocese of Armagh, it was the first Cistercian monastery established in Ireland.
Archbishop of Canterbury, died in 624. Abbot sent to Canterbury by St. Gregory the Great, and the recipient of a letter from Gregory regarding pagan temples, idols, and festivals.
Located in Uruguay.
A titular see, suffragan of Naxos in the Cyclades.
Melozzo da Forlí
An Italian painter of the Umbrian School, b. at Forlí, 1438; d. there 1494.
Located in Roxburghshire, founded in 1136 by King David I, was the earliest Cistercian monastery established in Scotland.
Melrose, Chronicle of
It opens with the year 735, ends abruptly in 1270, and is founded solely upon the Cottonian Manuscript, Faustina B. ix, in the British Museum, the only ancient copy preserved.
Born at Milan, about 1490; died 1568. He was a friend of Leonardo da Vinci, and Vasari tells that he was a Milanese nobleman, and that he possessed the principal part of the anatomical drawings of Leonardo.
Meléndez Valdés, Juan
Spanish poet and politician, b. at Ribera del Fresno (Badajoz) 11 March, 1754; d. in exile at Montpelier, France, 24 May, 1817.
Principal chief of the Micmac Indians of Nova Scotia at the time of the establishment of the French colony under de Monts and Poutrincourt in 1605, and noted in mission annals of the first Christian in the tribe.
Born 1645 at Bapaume, Department of Pas-de-Calais, France, he was a member of the Franciscan province of St. Antony.
Flemish painter, d. 1494. Artist's biography with bibliography.
Memory is the capability of the mind, to store up conscious processes, and reproduce them later with some degree of fidelity.
Ancient capital of Egypt; diocese of the province of Arcadia or Heptanomos, suffragan of Oxyrynchus.
Men of Understanding
Name assumed by a heretical sect which in 1410-11 was cited before the Inquisition at Brussels.
Mena, Juan de
Spanish poet, born 1411 at Cordova; died 1456 at Torrelaguna.
The name of the twelve books, one for every month, that contain the offices for immovable feasts in the Byzantine rite.
Martyred under Diocletian, c. 295. Most likely Menas of Mareotis, Menas of Cotyaes, and Menas of Constantinople, surnamed Kallikelados, are all the same person honored in different places.
Chinese philosopher (b. 371 B.C.).
Mendaña de Neyra, Alvaro de
A Spanish navigator and explorer, born in Saragossa, 1541; died in Santa Cruz, Solomon Islands, 18 October, 1596.
This diocese includes the department of Lozère, in France. Suffragan of Bourges under the old régime, it was re-established by the Concordat of 1801 as a suffragan of Lyons and united with the department of Ardèche.
Gregor Johann Mendel (the first name was taken on entrance to his order), b. 22 July, 1822, at Heinzendorf near Odrau, in Austrian Silesia; d. 6 January 1884, at the Augustinian Abbey of St. Thomas, Brunn.
Mendes de Silva, João
Better known as Amadeus of Portugal, b. 1420, d. at Milan, 1482, began his religious life in the Hieronnymite monastery of Notre-Dame de Guadalupe (Spain), where he spent about ten years.
Members of those religious orders which, originally, by vow of poverty renounced all proprietorship not only individually but also (and in this differing from the monks) in common, relying for support on their own work and on the charity of the faithful. Hence the name of begging friars.
A Spanish missionary; born at Vitoria, Spain, 1525; died in the City of Mexico, 9 May, 1604.
Mendoza, Diego Hurtade de
A Spanish diplomat and writer, and one of the greatest figures in the history of Spanish politics and letters; born in Granada, of noble parentage, about 1503; died in Madrid, 1575.
Mendoza, Francisco Sarmiento de
A Spanish canonist and bishop; b. of a noble family at Burgos; d. 1595, at Jaen.
Mendoza, Pedro Gonzalez de
Cardinal and Primate of Spain, b. at Guadalajara, 3 May, 1428; d. there, 11 January, 1495.
Mendíburu, Manuel de
Nineteenth-century Peruvian-born soldier and diplomat.
Meneses, Osorio Francisco
Spanish painter, b. at Seville, 1630; d. probably in the same place, 1705.
French antiquarian (1631-1705).
Said to be derived from Menapia, the name of an ancient Roman settlement supposed to have existed in Pembrokeshire, or Hen Meneu (vetus rubus) where St. David was born.
Pioneer missionary of the Flathead tribe and philologist of their language, b. in Rome, 21 July, 1811; d. at Santa Clara, California, 23 September, 1886.
Mengs, Anthon Rafael
A Bohemian painter, usually regarded as belonging to the Italian or Spanish school, b. at Aussig in Bohemia, 12 March, 1728; d. in Rome, 29 June, 1779.
Patriarch of Constantinople from 536 to 552.
A Protestant denomination of Europe and America which arose in Switzerland in the sixteenth century and derived its name from Menno Simons, its leader in Holland.
Menochio, Giovanni Stefano
Jesuit biblical scholar, b. at Padua, 1575; d. in Rome, 4 Feb., 1655.
A particular service-book of the Greek Church. From its derivation the term Menologium means "month-set", in other words, a book arranged according to the months.
A considerable tribe of Algonquian linguistic stock, formerly ranging over north-eastern Wisconsin to the west of Menominee River and Green Bay.
Mensa, Mensal Revenue
The Latin word mensa has for its primitive signification "a table for meals"; it designates by extension the expenses, or better, the necessary resources of sustenance, and generally, all the resources for personal support. He who lives at the expense of another, and at his table, is his "commensal". In ecclesiastical language, the mensa is that portion of the property of a church which is appropriated to defraying the expenses either of the prelate or of the community which serves the church, and is administered at the will of the one or the other.
A theologian and celebrated opponent of Luther, born according to some at Zütphen, Holland, but more probably at Magdeburg, Saxony, date unknown; died about 1541.
The name applied to a doctrine which has grown out of the common Catholic teaching about lying and which is its complement.
Born c. 1410; died 12 Dec., 1478; an eminent German typographer of the fifteenth century, and the first printer and bookseller at Strasburg (Alsace).
Priest and poet, b. at Florence, 1646; d. at Rome, 7 Sept., 1704.
Menéndez y Pelayo, Marcelino
Spanish poet and historian (1856-1912).
French dramatic poet of the fifteenth century.
A congregation of men founded in 1218 by St. Peter Nolasco, born 1189, at Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, Department of Aude, France.
French Canadian statesman (1840-1894).
Italian philologist and physician (1530-1606).
Mercy, Brothers of Our Lady of
Founded at Mechlin in 1839 by Canon J. B. Cornelius Scheppers for the instruction and care of prisoners and of the sick.
Mercy, Corporal and Spiritual Works of
Mercy as it is here contemplated is said to be a virtue influencing one's will to have compassion for, and, if possible, to alleviate another's misfortune.
Mercy, Sisters of
A congregation of women founded in Dublin, Ireland, in 1827, by Catherine Elizabeth McAuley, born 29 September, 1787, at Stormanstown House, County Dublin.
Mercy, Sisters of, of St. Borromeo
Originally a pious association of ladies formed in 1626 for the care of the sick in the hospital of St. Charles at Nancy, but constituted a religious community in 1652 after being generously endowed by the father of Emmanuel Chauvenel, a young advocate who had given his life in the service of the sick.
English Catholic controversialist, b. in 1648, was a son of the rector of Landulph, Cornwall.
By merit (meritum) in general is understood that property of a good work which entitles the doer to receive a reward from him in whose service the work is done.
Bishop of Lausanne and cardinal, born at Carouge, Switzerland, 22 September, 1824; died in Rome, 23 February, 1892.
The fourth king of the nineteenth Egyptian dynasty and the supposed Pharaoh of the Exodus, was the thirteenth son of Rameses II whom he succeeded in or about 1234 B.C., being then long past middle age.
Article by C.A. Dubray reviewing the intellectual career of this learned Minim friar.
A King of Moab in the ninth century B. C., whose history is given in IV Kings, iii.
Mesopotamia, Kurdistan, and Armenia
Created by Gregory XVI on 17 Dec., 1832. Mgr. Trioche, Archbishop of Babylon or Bagdad, became its first titular; he resided habitually in Bagdad.
One of the greatest figures in Armenian history, he was born about 361 at Hassik in the Province of Taron; died at Valarsabad, 441.
An heretical sect which originated in Mesopotamia about 360 and survived in the East until the ninth century.
A titular see, suffragan to Corinth, in Achaia.
The Greek form Messias is a transliteration of the Hebrew, Messiah, "the anointed". The word appears only twice of the promised prince (Daniel 9:26; Psalm 2:2); yet, when a name was wanted for the promised one, who was to be at once King and Saviour, it was natural to employ this synonym for the royal title, denoting at the same time the King's royal dignity and His relation to God.
Located in Sicily.
Messina, Antonello da
Painter, born at Messina, about 1430; died 1497.
An Irish hagiologist, born in the Diocese of Meath, and studied in the Irish College, Paris, proceeding to the degree of S.T.D.
Metalwork in the Service of the Church
From the earliest days the Church has employed utensils and vessels of metal in its liturgical ceremonies. This practice increased during the Middle Ages.
The principal compiler of the legends of saints in the Menologia of the Byzantine Church.
That portion of philosophy which treats of the most general and fundamental principles underlying all reality and all knowledge.
Brief biography of the Italian librettist.
Born in Yorkshire, 1792; died a martyr of charity at Leeds, 7 May, 1847.
A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, in Asia Minor.
The doctrine of the transmigration of souls, teaches that the same soul inhabits in succession the bodies of different beings, both men and animals.
Metham, Sir Thomas
A knight, confessor of the Faith, died in York Castle, 1573.
A religious movement which was originated in 1739 by John Wesley in the Anglican Church, and subsequently gave rise to numerous separate denominations.
Patriarch of Constantinople (842-846), defender of images during the second Iconoclast persecution, b. at Syracuse, towards the end of the eighth century; d. at Constantinople, 14 June, 846.
Methodius of Olympus, Saint
Bishop, ecclesiastical writer, martyr, died c. 311.
One of the Hebrew patriarchs, mentioned in Genesis 5.
A titular see in the island of Lesbos.
Metrophanes of Smyrna
A leader of the faithful Ignatian bishops at the time of the Photian schism (867). Baronius (Ann. Ecci., ad an. 843, I) says that his mother was the woman who was bribed to bring a false accusation of rape against the Patriarch Methodius I (842-846) during the Iconoclast troubles.
A titular episcopal see and suffragan of Ephesus.
In ecclesiastical language, refers to whatever relates to the metropolis, the principal city, or see, of an ecclesiastical province.
Metternich, Klemens Lothar Wenzel Von
Statesman; born at Coblenz, 15 May, 1773; died at Vienna, 11 June, 1859.
A town and bishopric in Lorraine.
Meun, Jean Clopinel de
French poet, b. c. 1260 in the little city of Meung-sur-Loire; d. at Paris between 1305 and 1320.
Situated at the extreme point of the North American continent, bounded on the north by the United States, on the east by the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, British Honduras, and Guatemala, and on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean.
Mexico, Archdiocese of
Information about the boundaries and bishops.
Mezger, Francis, Joseph, and Paul
Three brothers, learned Benedictines of the monastery of St. Peter in Salsburg, and professors at the University of Salzburg.
A cardinal, the greatest of polyglots, born 19 September, 1774; died 15 March, 1849.
An important tribe of Algonquian stock formerly claiming prior dominion over the whole of what is now Indiana and western Ohio, including the territories drained by the Wabash, St. Joseph, Maumee, and Miami rivers.
Patriarch of Constantinople (1043-58), author of the second and final schism of the Byzantine Church, date of birth unknown; d. 1058.
Michael de Sanctis, Saint
Or Michael de los Santos. Catalonian, member of the Discalced Trinitarians, d. 1625.
Michael of Cesena
A Friar Minor, Minister General of the Franciscan Order, and theologian, born at Cesena, a small town in Central Italy, about 1270; died at Munich, 29 Nov., 1342.
A thirteenth century mathematician, philosopher, and scholar.
Michael the Archangel, Saint
Article about this angel in Scripture and tradition.
Michael, Military Orders of Saint
Information on three groups by this name.
Historian, born at Albens, Savoy, 1767; died at Passy, 30 September, 1839.
Micheas of Ephraim
The Book of Judges (17-18) contains the history of a certain Michas (Hebrews 17:1 and 4: Mikhayehu; elsewhere Mikhah), a resident of the hill country of Ephraim who founded an idolatrous sanctuary.
Micheas, Book of
Micheas (Hebr. Mikhah; Jeremiah 26:18: Mikhayah keth.), the author of the book which holds the sixth place in the collection of the Twelve Minor Prophets, was born at Moresheth (Micheas 1:1; Jeremiah 26:18), a locality not far from the town of Geth (Micheas 1:14).
Micheas, Son of Jemla
A prophet of the Kingdom of Samaria, contemporary with Elias and Eliseus.
A French dramatic poet of the fifteenth century.
A German Protestant sect which derives its name from "Michel", the popular designation of its founder Johann Michael Hahn.
A theologian, born in St. Mauritz, 6 Feb., 1813; died in Luxembourg, 8 June, 1855.
Michelozzo di Bartolommeo
An architect and sculptor, born at Florence circa 1391; died 1472.
Information on history, geography, statistics, religion, and education of the state.
Located in Mexico, the Diocese of Michoacan was established in 1536 by Pope Paul III at the instance of the Emperor Charles V, its boundaries to coincide with those of the ancient Kingdom of Michoacan.
Born near Novogrodek, Lithuania, 1798; died at Constantinople, 1855.
The easternmost of the Algonquin tribes and probably the first visited by a white man, formerly occupied what is now Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Cape Breton, as well as part of New Brunswick, Quebec, and south-western Newfoundland.
Either a "synopsis" or a "short explanation", and in the Middle Ages used as an equivalent for "Manual".
Theologian and historian; b. about 1537 at Oldenzaal, or, according to others, at Ootmarsum, Overyssel, Holland; d. at Cologne, 13 Jan., 1611.
A term commonly used to designate that period of European history between the Fall of the Roman Empire and about the middle of the fifteenth century.
In medieval history it was known as Myddilburga or Middilburga, with many other variations of form.
The term commonly designates ancient rabbinical commentaries on the Hebrew Scriptures.
Come under the canon law of the Church in their relation towards two of the sacraments, baptism and matrimony.
Migazzi, Christoph Anton
Cardinal, Prince Archbishop of Vienna, b. 1714, in the Tyrol, d. 14 April, 1803, at Vienna.
A French painter, born at Troyes, 7 November, 1612; died at Paris, 30 May, 1695.
Priest, and publisher of theological works, born at Saint-Flour, 25 October, 1800; died at Paris, 24 October, 1875.
The movement of populations from place to place.
Located in Lombardy, northern Italy.
Milde, Vinzenz Eduard
Prince-Archbishop of Vienna, born at Brünn, in Moravia, in 1777; died at Vienna in 1853.
Miles Gerard, Blessed
Priest martyred in 1590.
Miles, George Henry
A dramatist and man of letters, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 31 July, 1824; died near Emmitsburg, 23 July, 1871.
Mileto, Diocese of
Located in Calabria, in the province of Reggio, southern Italy.
A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Cyzicus.
A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Aphrodisias, in Caria.
A Catholic theologian, born 1549; died at Mainz, 11 Sept., 1615.
A titular see of Numidia.
A pre-Hussite reform preacher and religious enthusiast, born at Kremsier in Moravia, died 29 June, 1374, at Avignon.
Military Orders, The
A historical review of dozens of military orders.
Millennium and Millenarianism
At the end of time Christ will return in all His splendour to gather together the just, to annihilate hostile powers, and to found a glorious kingdom on earth for the enjoyment of the highest spiritual and material blessings; He Himself will reign as its king, and all the just, including the saints recalled to life, will participate in it.
Miller, Ferdinand Von
Born 1813; died at Munich, 1887. He laboured for the development of the bronze founders' craft and the uplifting of the artistic profession, far beyond the borders of Bavaria.
French painter; b. at Gruchy, near Cherbourg, 4 October, 1814; d. at Barbizon, 20 January, 1875.
A celebrated early Jesuit missionary in New York State, b. at Bourges, France, 19 November, 1635 (al. 1631); d. at Quebec, 31 December, 1708.
Writer and controversialist. Born in London, 14 October, 1752: died at Wolverhampton, 19 April, 1826.
Monk, and cantor of the Benedictine Abbey of Bec, wrote the lives of five of its abbots: Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, Gulielmus de Bellomonte, Boso, Theobaldus, and Letardus.
A titular see of Crete, suffragan of Candia.
Miltiades, Pope Saint
Died in 314. An African, his name is also sometimes given as Miltiadea or Melchiades.
Miltiz, Karl von
Papal chamberlain and nuncio. (1480-1529)
Established as a diocese, 28 Nov., 1843.
Explores the term in relation to consciousness, matter, and mechanism.
Minden on the Weser is first heard of in 798, and in 803 in the Treaty of Salz, made with the Saxons, it is spoken of as a see.
A philosopher and writer, born at Gyswyl, Unterwalden, Switzerland, 20 Sept., 1838; died at Brooklyn, Ohio, U. S. A., 17 June, 1910.
Members of the religious order founded by St. Francis of Paula.
Even before the Reformation the word minister was occasionally used in English to describe those of the clergy actually taking part in a function, or the celebrant as distinguished from the assistants, but it was not then used sine addito to designate an ecclesiastic. This employment of the term dates from Calvin.
Inventor of illuminating gas. (1748-1824)
One of the North Central States of the American Union, lies about midway between the eastern and western shores of the continent, and about midway between the gulf of Mexico and Hudson's Bay.
Mino di Giovanni
That which is less, or inferior in comparison with another, the term being employed as well of things as of persons.
The lower degrees of the hierarchy are designated by the name of minor orders, in opposition to the "major" or "sacred" orders.
Suffragan of Valencia, comprises the Island of Minorca, the second in size of the Balearic Islands, which are possessions of Spain.
A suffragan of Mohileff, in Western Russia.
History of the coins.
Christian apologist, flourished between 160 and 300; the exact date is not known.
Mirabilia Urbis Romæ
The title of a medieval Latin description of the city of Rome, dating from about 1150.
In general, a wonderful thing, the word being so used in classical Latin; in a specific sense, the Latin Vulgate designates by miracula wonders of a peculiar kind, expressed more clearly in the Greek text by the terms terata, dynameis, semeia, i.e., wonders performed by supernatural power as signs of some special mission or gift and explicitly ascribed to God.
Miracle Plays and Mysteries
These two names are used to designate the religious drama which developed among Christian nations at the end of the Middle Ages.
Miracles, Gift of
The gift of miracles is one of those mentioned by St. Paul in his First Epistle to the Corinthians (xii, 9, 10), among the extraordinary graces of the Holy Ghost.
Ecclesiastical historian, born at Brussels, 30 Nov., 1573; died at Antwerp, 19 October, 1640.
Mirandola, Giovanni Francesco Pico della
Italian philosopher, nephew of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, b. about 1469; d. 1533.
Mirandola, Giovanni Pico della
Italian philosopher and scholar (1463-1494).
Miridite, Abbey of
The name of an abbatia nullius in Albania, where there formerly stood a Benedictine abbey, now destroyed, dedicated to St. Alexander, martyr.
The first word of the Vulgate text of Psalm 1.
Misericorde, Congregation of the Sisters of
Founded 16 January, 1848, for the purpose of procuring spiritual and corporal assistance for poor mothers and unfortunate girls.
Misocco and Galanca
This prefecture in the canton of Grisons, Switzerland, comprises the valley of the Moesa which starts at the pass of San Bernardino and flows into the Ticino, and also the valley of Calanca, through which the Calasanca flows.
The book which contains the prayers said by the priest at the altar as well as all that is officially read or sung in connection with the offering of the holy Sacrifice of the Mass throughout the ecclesiastical year.
Mission Indians (of California)
A name of no real ethnic significance, but used as a convenient popular and official term to designate the modern descendants of those tribes of California, of various stocks and languages, evangelized by the Franciscans in the latter part of the eighteenth and early part of the nineteenth centuries, beginning in 1769.
Mission, Congregation of Priests of the
A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul.
Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo, Congregation of
Founded by John Baptist Scalabrini, Bishop of Piacenza, Italy (d. 1 June, 1905); approved in principle by Leo XIII in a Brief dated 25 November, 1887; constitution definitively approved by a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda, 3 October, 1908.
Missionaries of St. Francis de Sales of Annecy
Society of missionary priests.
Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle
A community of priests for giving missions and doing other Apostolic works, especially for making converts to the Catholic faith.
A general survey of the missionary activity of the Catholic Church at the time the article was written. (1908)
Missions, Catholic Indian, of Canada
History of the missions.
Missions, Catholic Indian, of the United States
Includes the history of the missions and a list of the missionary martyrs.
Missions, Catholic Parochial
This term is used to designate certain special exertions of the Church's pastoral agencies, made, for the most part, among Catholics, to instruct them more fully in the truths of their religion, to convert sinners, rouse the torpid and indifferent, and lift the good to a still higher plane of spiritual effort.
The state takes its name from the Mississippi River that forms its western boundary.
The State of Missouri was carved out of the Louisiana Territory, and derives its name from the principal river flowing through its center.
A pagan religion consisting mainly of the cult of the ancient Indo-Iranian Sun-god Mithra.
A kind of folding-cap consisting of two like parts, each stiffened by a lining and rising to a peak; these are sewn together on the sides, but are united above by a piece of material that can fold together.
Mittarelli, Nicola Giacomo
A monastic historian, born 2 September, 1707, at Venice; died 4 August, 1777, in the monastery of San Michele di Murano near Venice.
A titulary archbishopric on the island of Lesbos.
Mivart, St. George Jackson
Corresponding member of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; Member of the Council of Linnean Society, etc., b. in London, 30 November, 1827, d. there 1 April, 1900.
A mountain tribe in southern Mexico, noted for their extreme conservatism, constituting together with the neighbouring Zoque, a distinct linguistic stock, the Zoquean.
One of the most important civilized tribes of southern Mexico, occupying an extensive territory in western and northern Oaxaca and extending into Guerrero and Puebla.
In the Old Testament, the word Moab designates (1) a son of Lot by his elder daughter (Gen., xix, 37); (2) the people of whom this son of Lot is represented as the ancestor (Ex., xv, 15, etc.), and who are also called "the Moabites" (Gen., xix, 37); and possibly (3) the territory occupied by the Moabites (Num., xxi, 11).
Suffragan of New Orleans, comprises the State of Alabama and western Florida.
A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia.
A tribe of the Guaycuran stock closely related linguistically to the Toba, Mbaya, and Abipon, their usual allies, settled principally along the middle and upper Vermejo River.
Located in central Italy, between the rivers Secchia and Panaro.
Etymologically, modernism means an exaggerated love of what is modern, an infatuation for modern ideas.
Located in the Province of Florence, in Tuscany.
A titular see of Bithynia Secunda.
Mohammed and Mohammedism
Mohammed, "the Praised One", the prophet of Islam and the founder of Mohammedanism, was born at Mecca (20 August?) A.D. 570.
The countries where Mohammedanism prevails are full of religious associations, more or less wrapped in secrecy, which are also political.
Latin Catholic archdiocese and ecclesiastical province in Russia.
Born at Andernach, 1823; died at Cologne, 1888. He practised his profession of sculptor chiefly at Cologne under the cathedral architect Zwirner.
Born at Siegburg, Rhine Province, 11 Jan., 1834; died at Munich, 7 February, 1892.
Physicist and author, b. at Guéméné (Morbihan), 15 April, 1804; d. at Saint-Denis (Seine), 14 July, 1884.
Molai, Jacques de
Born at Rahon, Jura, about 1244; d. at Paris, 18 March, 1314. A Templar at Beaune since 1265, Molai is mentioned as Grand Master of the Templars as early as 1298.
Molesme, Notre-Dame de
A celebrated Benedictine monastery in a village of the same name, Canton of Laignes, ancient Burgundy, on the confines of the Diocese of Langres and Troyes.
Molfetta, Terlizzi, and Giovinazzo
Molfetta is a city of the province of Bari, in Apulia, southern Italy, on the Adriatic Sea; its origin is unknown, but many objects of the neolithic, bronze, and the Mycenæan epoch have been found at a place called Pulo, which shows that the site of Molfetta was inhabited in prehistoric times.
Molina, Antonio De
A Spanish Carthusian and celebrated ascetical writer, born about 1560, at Villanueva de los infantes; died at Miraflores, 21 September, 1612 or 1619.
Molina, Juan Ignacio
Naturalist and scientist; b. 20 July, 1740, at Guaraculen near Talca (Chile); d. 23 Oct. (12 Sept.?), 1829, at Imola or Bologna (Italy).
Molina, Luis de
One of the most learned and renown theologians of the Society of Jesus, b. of noble parentage at Cuenca, New Castle, Spain, in 1535; d. at Madrid, 12 October, 1600.
The name used to denote one of the systems which purpose to reconcile grace and free will.
Molinos, Miguel de
Founder of Quietism, born at Muniesa, Spain, 21 December, 1640; died at Rome, 28 December, 1696.
A poet, novelist, canonist and publicist, born at Zweibruecken in the Rhine Palatinate, 24 August, 1819; died at Speyer, 11 January, 1880.
Molière, Jean-Baptiste Poquelin
French comic poet; b. at Paris, 15 Jan., 1622; d. there 17 Feb., 1673.
A theologian, grammarian born in King's County, Ireland, at the beginning of the seventeenth century; died at St. Isidore's, Rome, about 1684.
A theologian and scientist, born at Mount Tallant House, near Dublin, 10 Sept., 1834; died at Aberdeen, 1 Oct., 1906.
Italian goldsmith and planisher, chiefly known as a medalist, born (according to Forrer) in Breglio near Como or (according to older records) in Lugano; date of death unknown.
A divinity worshipped by the idolatrous Israelites.
Information about this Hawaiian island and the leper colony there.
Molyneux, Sir Caryll
Baronet of Sefton, and third Viscount Molyneux of Maryborough in Ireland, born 1624; died 1699.
A philologist, humanist, and editor of ancient writings, born 1424; died between 1482 and 1502.
Monaco, Principality and Diocese of
Situated on the Mediterranean Sea, surrounded on all sides by the French department of the Maritime Alps, and has an area of 5337 acres.
The word monad is used by the neo-Platonists to signify the One; for instance, in the letters of the Christian Platonist Synesius, God is described as the Monad of Monads.
A right exercised from the beginning of the sixteenth century by the secular rulers of Sicily, according to which they had final jurisdiction in purely religious matters, independent of the Holy See.
The so-called Dynamic Monarchians were actually a form of adoptionism. Monarchianism, properly speaking, refers to the Modalists. Denial of the Trinity, assertion that there is only one Divine Person, who appears in three different roles. Noetians and Sabellians were two schools of Modalism.
Monasteries in Continental Europe, Suppression of
The suppressions of religious houses (whether monastic in the strict sense or houses of the mendicant orders) since the Reformation.
Monasteries in England, Suppression of
From any point of view the destruction of the English monasteries by Henry VIII must be regarded as one of the great events of the sixteenth century.
Religious houses comprising communities of both men and women, dwelling in contiguous establishments, united under the rule of one superior, and using one church in common for their liturgical offices.
Monastery, Canonical Erection of a
Details the conditions for the legitimate erection of a monastery.
The act of "dwelling alone" (Greek monos, monazein, monachos), has come to denote the mode of life pertaining to persons living in seclusion from the world, under religious vows and subject to a fixed rule, as monks, friars, nuns, or in general as religious.
Includes the origin and history.
Monasticism, Eastern, Before Chalcedon (A.D. 451)
Egypt was the Motherland of Christian monasticism. It sprang into existence there at the beginning of the fourth century.
The introduction of monasticism into the West may be dated from about A.D. 340 when St. Athanasius visited Rome accompanied by the two Egyptian monks Ammon and Isidore, disciples of St. Anthony.
Moncada, Francisco De
Count of Osona, Spanish historian, son of the Governor of Sardinia and Catalonia, born at Valencia, 29 December, 1586; died near Goch, Germany, 1635.
Mondino dei Lucci
Anatomist, b. probably at Bologna, about 1275; d. there, about 1327.
Located in Piedmont, province of Cuneo, northern Italy.
Mondoñedo, Diocese of
It comprises the civil Provinces of Lugo and Corunna, and is bounded on the north by the Bay of Biscay, on the east by the Austurias, on the south by the Diocese of Lugo, and on the west by the Archdiocese of Compostela (or Santiago de Galicia), of which it has been a suffragan since 1114.
A historian and archeologist, born at Mingolsheim near Bruchsal, Baden, 12 May, 1796; died at Karlsruhe, 12 March, 1871.
A theologian, born at Cremona, Italy, date unknown; died at Bologna, 1240.
The name used to designate an immense uneven plateau, part of the Chinese Empire, extending, roughly speaking, from the Tarbagatal to the great K'ingan chains.
Widow, d. 387. The mother of St. Augustine of Hippo.
A philosophical term which, in its various meanings, is opposed to Dualism or Pluralism.
A code of instructions alleged to be addressed by Acquaviva, the fifth general of the Society, to its various superiors, and laying down the methods to be adopted for the increase of its power and influence.
A member of a community of men, leading a more or less contemplative life apart from the world, under the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, according to a rule characteristic of the particular order to which he belongs.
Monogram of Christ
By the Monogram of Christ is ordinarily understood the abbreviation of Christ's name formed by combining the first two letters of the Greek form; this monogram was also known as the Chrismon.
Whatever may be the etymological meaning of the word Monomotapa, the origin of which is much disputed, it is certain, at any rate, that the Portuguese of the sixteenth century employed it to denote the paramount chief of the Makaranga, a powerf ul South African tribe dwelling between the Zambesi and Limpopo rivers and extending westward from the Indian Ocean probably as far as the twenty-fifth parallel of east longitude.
Monophysites and Monophysitism
Rejected the dual nature of Christ. Rejected by the Council of Chalcedon (451).
Monopoli, Diocese of
A diocese in the Province of Bari, in Apulia, southern Italy.
Monopoly, Moral Aspects of
According to its etymology, monopoly (monopolia) signifies exclusive sale, or exclusive privilege of selling. Present usage, however, extends the term to any degree of unified control over a commodity sufficient to enable the person or corporation in control to limit supply and fix price.
A word coined in comparatively modern times to designate belief in the one supreme God, the Creator and Lord of the world, the eternal Spirit, All-powerful, All-wise, and All-good, the Rewarder of good and the Punisher of evil, the Source of our happiness and perfection.
Monothelitism and Monothelites
A modification of Monophysitism proposing that Christ had no human free will. Rejected by the Third Council of Constantinople (680).
In the province of Palermo, Sicily, on the skirts of Mount Caputo.
A soldier, convert, born in Albemarle county, Virginia, U.S.A., 10 Sept., 1799; died at Orange, New Jersey, 7 Sept., 1870.
A celebrated pulpit orator, born at Blois, France, 10 Dec., 1827; died at Havre, 21 Feb., 1907.
A French honorific appellation, etymologically corresponding to the English "my lord," and the Italian monsignore.
Monsell, William, Baron Emly
Politician, born 21 Sept., 1812; died at Tervoe, Co. Limerick, Ireland, 20 April, 1894.
As early as the fourteenth century it was the custom to address persons high in rank or power with the title Monseigneur or Monsignore.
Monstrelet, Enguerrand de
A French chronicler, born about 1390 or 1395; died in July, 1453.
A Benedictine Abbey, in the Diocese of Avranches, Normandy, France.
Italian painter, chief representative of the Vicenza School, b. at Orzinuovi about 1450; d. at Vicenza, 11 October, 1523.
Montagnais Indians (Chippewayans)
A name given in error to the Chippewayans, owing to a fancied resemblance to the Montagnais Indians of Quebec.
Montagnais Indians (Quebec)
The collective designation of a number of bands speaking dialects of a common language of Algonquian stock, and ranging over the sores of the St. Lawrence River and Gulf, from about the St. Maurice River to Cape Whittle, and inland to about the main divide at the heads of the rivers.
Montaigne, Michel-Eyquen de
A concise study of the thinker, by Georges Bertrin.
Montalcino is a small town about twenty miles from Siena, some 1900 feet above sea-level and overlooking the valley of the Ombrone.
Montalembert, Charles-Forbes-René, Comte de
Born in London, 15 April, 1810; died in Paris 13 March, 1870.
Located in Ascoli Piceno.
Includes geography, history, statistics, education, and religious information.
Schismatics of the second century, first known as Phrygians, or "those among the Phrygians" (oi kata Phrygas), then as Montanists, Pepuzians, and (in the West) Cataphrygians.
A suffragan of Toulouse, comprises the entire department of Tarn and Garonne.
Montault, Xavier Barbier De
Wrote numerous articles for other reviews as well as several separate works on iconography, ecclesiastical furniture, liturgy, and canon law. (1830-1901)
Montañés, Juan Martínez
A noted Spanish sculptor of the seventeenth century, died 1649, sometimes called "the Sevillian Phidias."
Montcalm-Gozon, Marquis de Louis-Joseph
A French general, born 28 Feb., 1712, at Candiac; died at Quebec 14 Sept., 1759.
Monte Cassino, Abbey of
An abbey nullius situated about eighty miles south of Rome, the cradle of the Benedictine Order.
History of the abbey near Mercogliano, Italy, established by William of Vercelli.
Located in the province of Urbino, in the Marches, Central Italy.
Located in the province of Rome.
Montemayor, Jorge De
A writer, born at Montemôr, province of Coimbra, Portugal, about 1520; died at Turin, 26 February, 1561.
A kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea; the territory was in ancient times a portion of the Roman province of Dalmatia.
Diocese in the province of Siena, in Tuscany.
Monterey and Los Angeles
Comprises that part of the State of California which lies south of 37 deg. 5 min. N. lat. and covers an area of 80,000 square miles.
Charitable institutions of credit that lend money at low rates of interest, or without interest at all, upon the security of objects left in pawn, with a view to protecting persons in want from usurers.
Montesa, Military Order of
This order was established in the Kingdom of Aragon to take the place of the Order of the Temple, of which it was in a certain sense the continuation.
A Spanish missionary, date of birth unknown; died in the West Indies, 1545.
Montesqieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de
Detailed study of this writer's intellectual career, by Antoine Degert.
A distinguished musician, born at Cremona, May, 1567; died at Venice, 29 Nov., 1643.
Montevideo, Archdiocese of
Located in Uruguay, comprises the whole of the republic.
Montfaucon, Bernard de
French scholar, b. 1655; d. 1741.
Montford Scott, Blessed
Biography of the English priest, martyred in 1591 after an imprisonment of seven years.
Montfort, Simon de
An Earl of Leicester, date of birth unknown, died at Toulouse, 25 June, 1218.