L'Enfant, Pierre-Charles
French engineer. (1755-1833)
L'Hospital, Michael de
Born at Aigueperse, about 1504; d. at Courdimanche, 13 March, 1573. While very young he went to Italy to join his father, who had been a follower of the traitor, the Constable of Bourbon, in the camp of Charles V.
La Bruyère, Jean de
Born at Paris in 1645; died at Chantilly in 1696. He was the son of a comptroller general of municipal revenue.
La Chaise, François d'Aix de
Confessor of King Louis XIV, born at the mansion of Aix, in Forez, Department of Loire, 25 August, 1624; died at Paris, 20 January, 1709.
La Crosse
Diocese erected in 1868; included that part of the State of Wisconsin, U.S.A., lying north and west of the Wisconsin River.
La Fayette, Marie Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, Comtesse de
Author of memoirs and novels, born in Paris, 1634; died there, 1693.
La Fontaine, Jean de
French poet, b. at Chateau-Thierry, 8 July, 1621; d. at Paris, 13 April, 1695.
La Fosse, Charles de
Painter, b. in Paris, 15 June, 1636; d. in Paris, 13 December, 1716, and buried in the church of Saint Eustache.
La Harpe, Jean-François
A French critic and poet, b. at Paris, 20 November, 1739; d. February, 1803.
La Haye, Jean de
Franciscan Biblical scholar, b. at Paris, 20 March, 1593; d. there 15 Oct., 1661.
La Hire, Philippe de
Mathematician, astronomer, physicist, naturalist, and painter, b. in Paris, 18 March, 1640; d. in Paris, 21 April, 1718.
La Luzerne, César-Guillaume
French cardinal b. at Paris, 1738; d. there, l821.
La Moricière, Louis-Christophe-Leon Juchault de
French general and commander-in-chief of the papal army, b. at Nantes, 5 February, 1806; d. at the château of Prouzel, near Amiens, 11 September, 1865.
La Paz
Diocese in Bolivia.
La Plata
The city of La Plata, capital of the Argentine Province of Buenos Aires, is situated on the right bank of the Rio de la Plata, about 35 miles south-east of the city of Buenos Aires.
La Plata
The metropolitan see of Bolivia.
La Richardie, Armand de
Born at Perigueux, 7 June, 1686; died at Quebec, 17 March, 1758. He entered the Society of Jesus at Bordeaux, 4 Oct., 1703, and in 1725 was sent to the Canada mission.
La Roche Daillon, Joseph de
Recollect, one of the most zealous missionaries of the Huron tribe, d. in France, 1656.
La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, The Duke of
Opposed during the last years of the reign of Louis XV to the government of Maupeou, and the friend of all the reformers who surrounded Louis XVI, he owed to the influence of these economists the favour of the king.
La Rochejacquelein, Henri-Auguste-Georges du Vergier, Comte de
French politician, b. at the château of Citran (Fironde), on 28 September, 1805; d. on 7 January, 1867.
La Rochelle
The Diocese of La Rochelle (Rupellensis), suffragan of Bordeaux, comprises the entire Department of Charente-Inférieure.
La Rue, Charles de
French Jesuit orator. (1643-1725)
La Salette
Located in the commune and parish of La Salette-Fallavaux, Canton of Corps, Department of Isere, and Diocese of Grenoble.
La Salette, Missionaries of
Founded in 1852, at the shrine of Our Lady of La Salette, where some priests banded together to care for the numerous pilgrims frequenting the mountain.
La Salle, René-Robert-Cavelier, Sieur de
Explorer, born at Rouen, 1643; died in Texas, 1687.
La Trappe
Abbey of the Order of Reformed Cistercians.
La Valette, Jean Parisot de
Forty-eighth Grand Master of the Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem; b. in 1494; d. in Malta, 21 Aug., 1568.
A pietist sect of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries founded by Jean de Labadie, who was born at Bourg, near Bordeaux, 13 February, 1610, and died at Altonia, 13 February, 1674.
Son of Bathuel, the Syrian.
Labarum (Chi-Rho)
The name by which the military standard adopted by Constantine the Great after his celebrated vision (Lactantius, "De mortibus persecutorum", 44), was known in antiquity.
Labat, Jean-Baptiste
Dominican missionary, born at Paris, 1664; died there, 1738.
Labbe, Philippe
Born at Borges, 10 July, 1607; died at Paris, at the College of Clermont, 17 (16) March, 1667; a distinguished Jesuit writer on historical, geographical, and philological questions.
Labour and Labour Legislation
Labour is work done by mind or body either partly or wholly for the purpose of producing utilities.
Labour Unions, Moral Aspects of
Since a labour union is a society, its moral aspects are determined by its constitution, its end, its results, and the means employed in pursuit of the end.
A complicated arrangement of paths and passages; or a place, usually subterraneous, full of windings, corridors, rooms, etc., so intricately arranged as to render the getting out of it a very difficult matter.
Lac, Stanislaus du
Jesuit educationist and social work, b. at Paris, 21 November, 1835; d. there, 30 August, 1909.
The two earliest known specimens of lace-worked linen albs are that of St. Francis, preserved at St. Clare's convent, Assisi, and the alb of Pope Boniface VIII, now in the treasury of the Sistine Chapel.
Lacedonia, Diocese of
Located in the province of Avellino, Southern Italy.
Lacordaire, Jean-Baptiste-Henri-Dominique
Dominican orator. (1802-1861)
Lactantius, Lucius Cæcilius Firmianus
Fourth-century Christian apologist.
Laderchi, James
An Italian Oratorian and ecclesiastical historian, born about 1678, at Faenza near Ravenna; died 25 April, 1738, at Rome.
Ladislaus, Saint
King of Hungary, d. 1095.
Laennec, René-Théophile-Hyacinthe
Born at Quimper, in Brittany, France, 17 February, 1781; died at Kerlouanec, 13 August, 1826, a French physician, discoverer of auscultation, and father of modern knowledge of pulmonary diseases.
Laetare Sunday
The fourth, or middle, Sunday of Lent, so called from the first words of the Introit at Mass.
Laetus, Pomponius
Humanist, b. in Calabria in 1425; d. at Rome in 1497.
LaFarge, John
Painter, decorator, and writer. (1835-1910)
Lafitau, Joseph-Françs
Jesuit missionary and writer, born at Bordeaux, France, 1 January, 1681; died there, 1746.
Laflèche, Louis-François Richer
French-Canadian bishop, b. 4 Sept., 1818, at Ste-Anne de la Perade, Province of Quebec; d. 14 July, 1898.
Laforêt, Nicholas-Joseph
Belgian philosopher and theologian, born at Graide, 23 January, 1823; died at Louvain, 26 January, 1872.
Lafuente y Zamalloa, Modesto
Spanish critic and historian, d. 1866.
A titular see in Galatia Prima.
Lagrené, Pierre
A missionary in New France, b. at Paris, 12 Nov. (al. 28 Oct.), 1659; d. at Quebec in 1736.
Diocese in northern India, part of the ecclesiastical Province of Agra.
Austrian bishopric and suffragan of Görz, embraces the territory of the Austrian crown-land of Carniola (Krain).
The term laity signifies the aggregation of those Christians who do not form part of the clergy. Consequently the word lay does not strictly connote any idea of hostility towards the clergy or the Church much less towards religion. Laicization, therefore, considered etymologically, simply means the reducing of persons or things having an ecclesiastical character to a lay condition.
Lainez, James
Second general of the Society of Jesus, theologian, b. in 1512, at Almazan, Castille, in 1512; d. at Rome, 19 January, 1565.
The body of the faithful, outside of the ranks of the clergy.
Lake Indians
A small tribe of Salishan stock, originally ranging along Columbia River in northeast Washington from about Kettle Falls to the British line.
Lalemant, Charles
Born at Paris, 17 November, 1587; died there, 18 November, 1674. He was the first superior of the Jesuit missions in Canada, and his letter to his brother dated 1 August, 1626, inaugurated the series of "Relations" about the missionary work in that country.
Lalemant, Jerome
Jesuit missionary, b. at Paris, 27 April, 1593, d. at Quebec, 16 November, 1665.
Lallemant, Jacques-Philippe
French Jesuit, b. at St-Valéry-sur-Somme about 1660; d. at Paris 1748.
Lallemant, Louis
French Jesuit, b. at Châlons-sur-Marne, 1588; d. at Bourges, 5 April, 1635.
Lalor, Teresa
Co-foundress, with Bishop Neale of Baltimore, of the Visitation Order in the United States, b. in Ireland; d. 9 Sept., 1846.
Lamarck, Chevalier de
Distinguished botanist, zoologist, and natural philosopher, b. at Bazentin in Picardy (department of Somme), France, 1 August, 1744; d. at Paris, 18 December, 1829.
Lamartine, Alphonse de
Poet, b. at Macon Saône-et-Loire, France, 21 Oct., 1790; d. at Paris, l March, 1869.
Lamb (in Early Christian Symbolism)
One of the few Christian symbols dating from the first century is that of the Good Shepherd carrying on His shoulders a lamb or a sheep, with two other sheep at his side.
Lamb, Paschal
A lamb which the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as a part of the Passover celebration.
Lambeck, Peter
Historian and librarian, b. at Hamburg, 13 April 1628; d. at Vienna, 4 April, 1680.
Lambert Le Bègue
Priest and reformer, lived at Liège, Belgium, about the middle of the twelfth century.
Lambert of Hersfeld
A medieval historian; b. in Franconia or Thuringia, c. 1024; d. after 1077.
Lambert of St-Bertin
Benedictine chronicler and abbot, b. about 1060; d. 22 June, 1125, at St-Bertin, France.
Lambert, Louis A.
Priest and journalist. (1835-1910)
Lambert, Saint
Bishop of Maestricht, martyred between 698 and 701 for defending the sanctity of marriage. Also called St. Landebertus.
Lamberville, Jacques and Jean de
Seventeenth-century Jesuit missionaries.
Lambillotte, Louis
Belgian Jesuit and composer. (1796-1855)
Lambin, Denis
French philologist. (1520-1572)
Lambruschini, Luigi
Cardinal, b. at Sestri Levante, near Genoa, 6 March, 1776, d. at Rome, 12 May, 1854.
Diocese situated in the district of Vizeu, province of Beira, Portugal.
Lamennais, Félicité Robert de
Born at Saint-Malo, 29 June, 1782; died at Paris, 27 February, 1854.
Lamennais, Jean-Marie-Robert de
French priest, brother of Félicité Robert de Lamennais, b. at St-Malo in 1780; d. at Ploërmel, Brittany, in 1860.
Lamoignon, Family of
Illustrious in the history of the old magistracy, originally from Nivernais.
Lamont, Johann von
Astronomer and physicist, b. 13 Dec., 1805, at Braemar in Scotland, near Balmoral Castle; d.. 6 Aug., 1879, at Bogenhausen near Munich, Bavaria.
Lamormaini, Wilhelm
Confessor of Emperor Ferdinand II, b. 29 December, 1570, at Dochamps, Luxembourg; d. at Vienna, 22 February, 1648.
Lamp and Lampadarii
There is very little evidence that any strictly liturgical use was made of lamps in the early centuries of Christianity. The fact that many of the services took place at night, and that after the lapse of a generation or two the meetings of the Christians for purposes of worship were held, at Rome and elsewhere, in the subterranean chambers of the Catacombs, make it clear that lamps must have been used to provide the necessary means of illumination.
A titular see in Crete, suffragan of Gortyna, was probably a colony of Tarrha.
German poet of the twelfth century, of whom practically nothing personal is known but his name and the fact that he was a cleric.
Lamps, Early Christian
Of the various classes of remains from Christian antiquity there is probably none so numerously represented as that of small clay lamps adorned with Christian symbols.
A titular see of Hellespont, suffragan of Cyzicus.
Name of a king mentioned in Prov., xxxi, 1 and 4, but otherwise unknown.
A titular see of Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia.
Lamy, Bernard
Oratorian, b. at Le Mans, France, in June, 1640; d. at Rouen, 29 Jan., 1715.
Lamy, François
An ascetical and apologetic writer of the Congregation of St-Maur, b. in 1636 at Montireau in the Department of Eure-et-Loir; d. 11 April, 1711, at the Abbey of St-Denis near Paris.
Lamy, Thomas Joseph
Biblical scholar end orientalist, b. at Ohey, in Belgium, 27 Jan., 1827, d. at Louvain, 30 July, 1907.
Lana, Francesco
Born 10 Dec., 1631, at Brescia in Italy; died in the same place, 22 Feb., 1687. Mathematician and naturalist, he was also the scientific founder of aeronautics.
Lance, The Holy
In the Gospel of St. John (xix, 34), that, after our Saviour's death, "one of the soldiers with a spear [lancea] opened his side and immediately there came out blood and water".
Lancelotti, Giovanni Paolo
Canonist, b. at Perugia in 1522; d. there, 23 September, 1590.
Lanciano and Ortona
Lanciano is a small city in the province of Chieti, in the Abruzzi, Central Italy, between the Pescara and the Trigni, with a majestic view of Mount Maiella.
Land-Tenure in the Christian Era
The way in which land has been held or owned during the nineteen hundred years which have seen in Europe the rise and establishment of the Church is a matter for historical inquiry. Strictly speaking, the way in which such ownership or tenure was not only legally arranged, but ethically regarded, is a matter for historical inquiry also.
Lando, Pope
Reigned 913-914.
Landriot, Jean-François-Anne
French bishop, b. at Couches-les-Mines near Autun, 1816, d. at Reims, 1874.
Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Pavia c.1005; d. at Canterbury, 24 May, 1089.
Lanfranco, Giovanni
Decorative painter, b. at Parma, 1581, d. in Rome, 1647.
Lang, Matthew
Cardinal, Bishop of Gurk and Archbishop of Salzburg, b. at Augsburg in 1468; d. at Salzburg, 30 March, 1540.
Langen, Rudolph von
Humanist and divine, b. at the village of Everswinkel, near Munster, Westphalia, 1438 or 1439; d. at Munster, 25 Dec., 1519.
Langham, Simon
Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of England, b. at Langham in Rutland; d. at Avignon, France, 22 July, 1376.
A celebrated Cistercian abbey situated in Upper Franconia (Bavaria), not far from Mein, in the Diocese of Bamberg.
Diocese comprising the Department of the Haute-Marne.
Langénieux, Benoit-Marie
Cardinal, Archbishop of Reims, b. at Villefranche-sur-Saône, Department of Rhône, 1824; d. at Reims, 1 Jan., 1905.
Lanigan, John
Irish Church historian. (1758-1825)
Carthusian monk and ascetical writer, b. at Landsberg in Bavaria 1489, d. at Cologne, 11 Aug., 1539.
In Italian or modern architecture, a small structure on the top of a dome, for the purpose of admitting light, for promoting ventilation, and for ornament.
Lanzi, Luigi
An Italian archeologist, b. at Mont Olmo, near Macerata, in 1732; d. at Florence in 1810.
A titular see, of Asia Minor, metropolis of Phrygia Pacatiana, said to have been originally called Diospolis and Rhoas; Antiochus II colonized it between 261 and 246 B.C., and gave it the name of his wife, Laodice.
Separated from the Vicariate Apostolic of Siam by a decree of 4 May, 1899.
Laplace, Pierre-Simon
Mathematician and astronomer. (1749-1827)
Lapland and Lapps
This singular race is divided into three different groups: mountain, forest, and fisher Lapps.
Lapparent, Albert Auguste de
French geologist, b. at Bourges, 30 Dec., 1839; d. at Paris, 12 May, 1908.
Laprade, Victor de
French poet and critic, b. at Montbrison in 1812; d. at Lyons in 1883.
The regular designation in the third century for Christians who relapsed into heathenism, especially for those who during the persecutions displayed weakness in the face of torture, and denied the Faith by sacrificing to the heathen gods or by any other acts.
Lapuente, Venerable Luis de
Born at Valladolid, 11 November, 1554; died there, 16 February 1624. Having entered the Society of Jesus, he studied under the celebrated Suarez, and professed philosophy at Salamanca.
A titular see of Isauria, afterwards of Lycaonia.
Formerly a titular archiepiscopal see in pro-consular Africa.
Diocese in the province of Capmobasso, Southern Italy.
The seat of a titular archbishopric of Thessaly.
Larrey, Dominique-Jean
Baron, French military surgeon, b. at Baudéan, Hautes-Pyrénées, July, 1766; d. at Lyons, 25 July, 1842.
Larue, Charles de
He took the habit of St. Benedict in the Abbey of St. Faro at Meaux, and made his religious profession on 21 Nov., 1703.
Lasaulx, Ernst von
Scholar and philosopher, born at Coblenz, 16 March, 1805; died at Munich, 9 May, 1861.
Lascaris, Constantine
Greek scholar from Constantinople; born 1434; died at Messina in 1501.
Lascaris, Janus
A noted Greek scholar, born about 1445; died at Rome in 1535.
Laski, John
Archbishop of Gnesen and Primate of Poland, b. at Lask, 1456; d. at Gnesen, 19 May, 1531.
Lassberg, Baron Joseph Maria Christoph von
A distinguished German antiquary, born at Donaueschingen, 10 April, 1770; died 15 March, 1855.
Lassus, Orlandus de
Biography emphasizing his religious compositions.
Lataste, Marie
Born at Mimbaste near Dax, France, 21 February, 1822; died at Rennes, 10 May, 1847; was the youngest child of simple pious peasants.
Latera, Flaminius Annibali de
Historian, born at Latera, near Viterbo, 23 November, 1733; died at Viterbo, 27 February, 1813.
Lateran Council, Fifth
Convoked, by the Bull of 18 July, 1511, to assemble 19 April, 1512, in the church of St. John Lateran.
Lateran Council, First
It put a stop to the arbitrary conferring of ecclesiastical benefices by laymen, reestablished freedom of episcopal and abbatial elections, separated spiritual from temporal affairs, and ratified the principle that spiritual authority can emanate only from the Church; lastly it tacitly abolished the exorbitant claim of the emperors to interfere in papal elections.
Lateran Council, Fourth
From the commencement of his reign Innocent III had purposed to assemble an ecumenical council, but only towards the end of his pontificate could he realize this project, by the Bull of 19 April, 1213. The assembly was to take place in November, 1215.
Lateran Council, Second
To efface the last vestiges of the schism, to condemn various errors and reform abuses among clergy and people Innocent, in the month of April, 1139, convoked, at the Lateran, the tenth ecumenical council.
Lateran Council, Third
In September, 1178, the pope in agreement with an article of the Peace of Venice, convoked an ecumenical council at the Lateran for Lent of the following year and, with that object, sent legates to different countries.
Lateran Councils
A series of five important councils held at Rome from the twelfth to the sixteen century.
Lateran, Christian Museum of
Established by Pius IX in 1854, in the Palazzo del Laterano erected by Sixtus V on the part of the site of the ancient Lateran palace destroyed by fire in 1308. In 1843 the "profane" Museum of the Lateran was founded by Gregory XVI, in whose pontificate also was mooted the idea of establishing a museum of Christian antiquities in the same edifice.
Lateran, Saint John
This is the oldest, and ranks first among the four great "patriarchal" basilicas of Rome.
Lathrop, George Parsons
Poet, novelist. (1851-1898)
Latin Church
The Latin Church is simply that vast portion of the Catholic body which obeys the Latin patriarch, which submits to the pope, not only in papal, but also in patriarchal matters.
Latin Literature in Christianity (Before the Sixth Century)
The Latin language was not at first the literary and official organ of the Christian Church in the West. The Gospel was announced by preachers whose language was Greek, and these continued to use Greek, if not in their discourses, at least in their most important acts.
Latin Literature in Christianity (Sixth to Twentieth Century)
During the Middle Ages the so-called church Latin was to a great extent the language of poetry, and it was only on the advent of the Renaissance that classical Latin revived and flourished in the writings of the neo-Latinists as it does even today though to a more modest extent.
Latin Literature in the Church, Classical
This article deals only with the relations of the classical literature, chiefly Latin, to the Catholic Church.
Latin, Ecclesiastical
The Latin in the official textbooks of the Church (the Bible and the Liturgy), as well as in the works of those Christian writers of the West who have undertaken to expound or defend Christian beliefs.
Latini, Brunetto
Florentine philosopher and statesman, born at Florence, c. 1210; the son of Buonaccorso Latini, died 1294.
Latreille, Pierre-André
A prominent French zoologist; born at Brives, 29 November, 1762; died in Paris, 6 February, 1833.
In classical Greek originally meant "the state of a hired servant" (Aesch., "Prom.", 966), and so service generally. It is used especially for Divine service (Plato, "Apol.", 23 B). In Christian literature it came to have a technical sense for the supreme honour due to His servants, the angels and saints.
Lauda Sion
The opening words (used as a title of the sequence composed by St. Thomas Aquinas, about the year 1264, for the Mass of Corpus Christi.
Article on the canonical hour once known as Matins, then as Lauds, now as Morning Prayer. One of the two principal hours.
The Greek word laura is employed by writers from the end of the fifth century to distinguish the monasteries of Palestine of the semi-eremitical type. The word signifies a narrow way or passage, and in later times the quarter of a town.
Laurence Humphreys, Blessed
Short account of the life of this young layman who was martyred in 1591 for words allegedly uttered when he was seriously ill.
Laurentie, Pierre-Sébastien
French publicist. (1793-1876)
Lausanne and Geneva
Diocese in Switzerland, immediately subject to the Holy See.
Lauzon, Jean de
Fourth governor of Canada, b. at Paris, 1583; d. there, 16 Feb., 1666.
Lauzon, Pierre de
A noted missionary of New France in the eighteenth century, born at Poitiers, 26 September, 1687; died at Quebec, 5 September, 1742.
The first word of that portion of Psalm 25 said by the celebrant at Mass while he washes his hands after the Offertory, from which word the whole ceremony is named.
Laval University of Quebec
Founded in 1852 by the Seminary of Quebec; the royal charter granted to it by Queen Victoria was signed at Westminster, 8 December, 1852.
Laval, François de Montmorency
First bishop of Canada, b. at Montigny-sur-Avre, 30 April, 1623, of Hughes de Laval and Michelle de Péricard; d. at Quebec on 6 May, 1708.
An Austrian bishopric in the southern part of Styria, suffragan of Salzburg.
Laverdière, Charles-Honoré
French-Canadian historian, born Chateau-Richer, Province of Quebec, 1826; died at Quebec, 1873.
Laverlochère, Jean-Nicolas
Missionary, born at St. Georges d'Espérance, Grenoble, France, 6 December, 1812; died at Temiscaming, Canada, 4 October, 1884.
Lavigerie, Charles-Martial-Allemand
French cardinal, b. at Huire near Bayonne, 13 Oct., 1825; d. at Algiers, 27 Nov., 1892.
Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent
Chemist, philosopher, economist. (1743-1794)
Lavérendrye, Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de
Discoverer of the Canadian West, born at Three Rivers, Quebec, 17 November, 1685; died at Montreal, 6 December, 1749.
By law in the widest sense is understood that exact guide, rule, or authoritative standard by which a being is moved to action or held back from it.
Law, Canon
Canon law is the body of laws and regulations made by or adopted by ecclesiastical authority, for the government of the Christian organization and its members.
Law, Civil (Influence of the Church on)
Christianity is essentially an ethical religion; and, although its moral principles were meant directly for the elevation of the individual, still they could not fail to exercise a powerful influence on such a public institution as law, the crystallized rule of human conduct.
Law, Common
The term is of English origin and is used to describe the juridical principles and general rules regulating the possession, use and inheritance of property and the conduct of individuals, the origin of which is not definitely known, which have been observed since a remote period of antiquity, and which are based upon immemorial usages and the decisions of the law courts as distinct from the lex scripta; the latter consisting of imperial or kingly edicts or express acts of legislation.
Law, Divine (Moral Aspect of)
That which is enacted by God and made known to man through revelation.
Law, International
Defined to be "the rules which determine the conduct of the general body of civilized states in their dealings with each other" (American and English Encycl. of Law).
Law, Natural
In English this term is frequently employed as equivalent to the laws of nature, meaning the order which governs the activities of the material universe. Among the Roman jurists natural law designated those instincts and emotions common to man and the lower animals, such as the instinct of self-preservation and love of offspring.
Law, Roman
This subject is briefly treated under the two heads of; I. Principles; II. History.
Lawrence Justinian, Saint
Bishop and first Patriarch of Venice. He died in 1456.
Lawrence O'Toole, Saint
Confessor, abbot, and the first Irish-born bishop of Dublin, d. 1180.
Lawrence, Saint
Successor of St. Augustine of Canterbury as archbishop of that see, and died in 619.
Lawrence, Saint
Deacon, martyr, d. 258.
Lay Abbot
A name used to designate a layman on whom a king or someone in authority bestowed an abbey as a reward for services rendered.
Lay Brothers
Religious occupied solely with manual labour and with the secular affairs of a monastery or friary.
Lay Communion
Speaking generally, the expression "lay communion" does not necessarily imply the idea of the Eucharist, but only the condition of a layman in communion with the Church.
Lay Confession
This article does not deal with confession by laymen but with that made to laymen, for the purpose of obtaining the remission of sins by God.
Lay Tithes
Ecclesiastical tithes, which in the course of time became alienated from the Church to lay proprietors.
Laymann, Paul
A famous Jesuit moralist, b. in 1574 at Arzl, near Innsbruck; d. of the plague on 13 November, 1635, at Constance.
The name of two persons in the N.T.; a character in one of Christ's parables, and the brother of Martha and Mary of Bethania.
Lazarus of Bethany, Saint
Reputed first Bishop of Marseilles, died in the second half of the first century.
Lazarus of Jerusalem, Order of Saint
The military order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem originated in a leper hospital founded in the twelfth century by the crusaders of the Latin Kingdom.
Le Blant, Edmond-Frederic
French archeologist and historian, born 12 August, 1818; died 5 July, 1897 at Paris.
Le Camus, Emile-Paul-Constant-Ange
Preacher, theologian, scripturist, Bishop of La Rochelle and Saintes, b. at Paraza, France, 24 August, 1839; d. at Malvisade, near Castelnaudary, France, 28 September, 1906.
Le Camus, Etienne
French cardinal, b. at Paris, 1632; d. at Grenoble, 1707.
Le Caron, Joseph
One of the four pioneer missionaries of Canada and first missionary to the Hurons (q.v.), b. near Paris in 1586; d. in France, 29 March, 1632.
Le Coz, Claude
French bishop, b. at Plouévez-Parzay (Finistère), 1740; d. at Villevieux (Jura), 1813.
Le Fèvre, Jacques
A French theologian and controversialist, b. at Lisieux towards the middle of the seventeenth century; d. 1 July, 1716, at Paris.
Le Gobien, Charles
French Jesuit and founder of the famous collection of "Lettres édifiantes et curieuses", one of the most important sources of information for the history of Catholic missions, b. at St­Malo, Brittany, 25 November, 1671; d. at Paris, 5 March, 1708.
Le Hir, Arthur-Marie
Biblical scholar and Orientalist; b. at Morlaix (Finisterre), in the Diocese of Quimper, France, 5 Dec., 1811; d. at Paris, 13 Jan., 1868.
Le Loutre, Louis-Joseph
A missionary to the Micmac Indians and Vicar-General of Acadia under the Bishop of Quebec, b. in France about 1690: d. there about 1770.
Le Mans
Comprises the entire Department of Sarthe.
Le Mercier, François
One of the early missionaries of New France, b. at Paris, 4 October, 1604; d. in the island of Martinique, 12 June, 1690.
Le Moyne
The name of one of the most illustrious families of the New World, whose deeds adorn the pages of Canadian history.
Le Moyne, Simon
A Jesuit missionary, b. at Beauvais, 1604; d. in 1665 at Cap de la Madeleine, near Three Rivers.
Le Nourry, Denis-Nicolas
Ecclesiastical writer, b. at Dieppe in Normandy, 18 Feb., 1647; d. at the Abbey of St-Germain in Paris, 24 March, 1724.
Le Puy
Diocese in France.
Le Quien, Michel
French historian and theologian, b. at Boulogne-sur-Mer, department of Pas-de-Calais, 8 Oct., 1661; d. at Paris, 12 March, 1733.
Le Sage, Alain-René
Writer, b. at Sarzeau (Morbihan), 1668; d. at Boulogne-sur-Mer, 1747.
Le Tellier, Charles-Maurice
Archbishop of Reims, b. at Turin, 1642; d. at Reims, 1710.
Le Tellier, Michel
Born 16 October, 1643, of a peasant family, not at Vire as has so often been said, but at Vast near Cherbourg; died at La Flèche, 2 September, 1719.
Le Verrier, Urbain-Jean-Joseph
An astronomer and director of the observatory at Paris, born at Saint Lô, the ancient Briodurum later called Saint-Laudifanum, in north-western France, 11 May, 1811; died at Paris, 25 September, 1877.
Lead, Diocese of
Established on 6 August, 1902.
League of the Cross
A Catholic total abstinence confraternity founded in London in 1873 by Cardinal Manning to unite Catholics, both clergy and laity, in the warfare against intemperance, and thus improve religious, social, and domestic conditions, especially among the working classes.
League, German
Early in 1608 Duke Maximilian started negotiations with the spiritual electors and some of the Catholic states of the empire, with a view to the formation of a union of the Catholic states.
League, The
From a religious point of view it aimed at supporting Catholicism in France politically at restoring the "ancient franchises and liberties" against the royal power.
Suffragan to St. Louis, established, 22 May, 1877.
So called from the snow which covers the highest peaks during almost the entire year, or from the limestone which glistens white in the distance.
Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus.
Lebrun, Charles
French historical painter, born in Paris, 1619; died at the Gobelin tapestry works, 1690.
Lebwin, Saint
Also called Lebuinus or Liafwin. English-born missionary to the Frisians, died at Deventer around 770. Biography.
Diocese; suffragan of Otranto.
Leclerc du Tremblay, François
A Capuchin, better known as Pere Joseph, b. in Paris, 4 Nov., 1577; d. at Rueil, 18 Dec., 1638.
Leclercq, Chrestien
A Franciscan Récollet and one of the most zealous missionaries to the Micmac of Canada, also a distinguished historiographer of Nouvelle France.
Lecoy de La Marche
French historian; b. at Nemours, 1839; d. at Paris, 1897.
Support for a book, reading-desk, or bookstand, a solid and permanent structure upon which the Sacred Books, which were generally large and heavy, were placed when used by the ministers of the altar in liturgical functions.
A term of somewhat vague significance, used with a good deal of latitude by liturgical writers.
A lector (reader) in the West is a clerk having the second of the four minor orders. In all Eastern Churches also, readers are ordained to a minor order preparatory to the diaconate.
Ledochowski, Miecislas Halka
Polish cardinal. (1822-1902)
Diocese embracing the West Riding of Yorkshire, and that part of the city of York to the south of the River Ouse.
Lefebvre, Camille
Apostle of the Acadians, b. at St. Philippe, P. Q., 1831; d. at St. Joseph, N. B., 1895.
Lefèvre d'Etaples, Jacques
A French philosopher, biblical and patristic scholar; b. at Etaples in Picardy, about 1455; d. at Nérac, 1536.
Lefèvre de la Boderie, Guy
French Orientalist and poet; b. near Falaise in Normandy, 9 August, 1541; d. in 1598 in the house in which he was born.
Lefèvre, Family of
A family engaged in tapestry weaving in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
In its most restricted sense, by a pious legacy or bequest (legatum pium) is understood, the assigning, by a last will, of a particular thing forming part of an estate, to a church or an ecclesiastical institution.
In its broad signification, means that person who is sent by another for some representative office. In the ecclesiastical sense it means one whom the pope sends to sovereigns or governments or only to the members of the episcopate and faithful of a country, as his representative, to treat of church matters or even on a mission of honour.
Legends of the Saints
The legenda are stories about the saints, and often include a mix of historical fact and unhistorical embellishments.
Legends, Literary or Profane
In the period of national origins history and legend are inextricably mingled. In the course of oral transmission historic narrative necessarily becomes more or less legendary.
City in Italy. Suffragan of Pisa.
Titular see of Palestina Secunda.
Legipont, Oliver
Benedictine bibliographer. (1698-1758)
Teachers of civil or Roman law, who, besides expounding sources, explaining terms, elucidating texts, summarizing the contents of chapters, etc., illustrated by cases, real or imaginary, the numerous questions and distinctions arising out of the "Corpus Juris" enactments of the ancient Roman code.
The canonical term for the act by which the irregularity contracted by being born out of lawful wedlock is removed.
Legrand, Louis
French theologian and noted doctor of the Sorbonne, b. in Burgundy at Lusigny-sur-Ouche, 12 June, 1711, d. at Issy (Paris), 21 July, 1780.
Lehnin, Abbey of
Founded in 1180 by Otto II, Margrave of Brandenburg, for Cistercian monks.
Leibniz, System of
A thorough overview of the life and views of Leibniz.
Chief town in the Kingdom of Saxony, situated at the junction of the Pleisse, Parthe, and Weisse Elster.
Leipzig, University of
Next to Heidelberg, the oldest university in the German Empire.
In Austria, embraces the northern part of the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Lejeune, Jean
Born at Poligny in 1592; died at Limoges, 19 Aug., 1672; member of the Oratory of Jesus, founded by de Berulle in 1611.
Lelong, Jacques
A French bibliographer, b. at Paris, 19 April, 1665 d. there, 13 Aug., 1721.
Seat of a Latin, a Uniat Ruthenian, and a Uniat Armenian archbishopric.
Lemcke, Henry
Missionary in the United States, b. at Rhena, Mecklenburg, 27 July, 1796; d. at Carrolltown, Pennsylvania, 29 November, 1882.
Lemercier, Jacques
Born at Pontoise, about 1585; died at Paris, 1654. Lemercier shares with Mansart and Le Muet the glory of representing French architecture most brilliantly under Louis XIII and Richelieu.
Lemos, Thomas de
Spanish theologian and controversialist, b. at Rivadavia, Spain, 1555, d. at Rome 23 Aug., 1629.
Lennig, Adam Franz
Theologian, b. 3 Dec., 1803, at Mainz; d. there, 22 Nov., 1866.
Lenormant, Charles
French archæologist, b. in Paris, 1 June, 1802; d. at Athens, 24 November, 1859.
Lenormant, François
Archaeologist; son of Charles Lenormant, b. at Paris, 17 January, 1837; d. there, 9 December, 1883.
An article on the origins of Lenten fasting.
Lentulus, Publius
A fictitious person, said to have been Governor of Judea before Pontius.
Leo Diaconus
Byzantine historian; b. at Kaloe, at the foot of Mount Tmolos, in Ionia, about the year 950; the year of his death is unknown.
Leo I (the Great), Pope Saint
Article on his pontificate, in Christian antiquity second only to that of Gregory the Great in importance. Leo died in 461.
Leo II, Pope Saint
Biographical article on this pontiff, who died in 683.
Leo III, Pope Saint
Biography of this pope, who died in 816.
Leo IV, Pope Saint
Biographical article on this Roman, who died in 855.
Leo IX, Pope Saint
Hagiographical article on this reformer pope, who died in 1054.
Leo V, Pope
Very little is known of him. No certainty either as to when he was elected or as to exactly how long he reigned.
Leo VI, Pope
The exact dates of the election and death of Leo VI are uncertain, but it is clear that he was pope during the latter half of 928.
Leo VII, Pope
Date of birth unknown; d. 13 July, 939. A Roman and priest of St. Sixtus, and probably a Benedictine monk, he was elected pope 3 January, 936.
Leo VIII, Pope
Date of birth unknown; d. between 20 February and 13 April, 965.
Leo X, Pope
Reigned 1513-1521.
Leo XI, Pope
Reigned 1605.
Leo XII, Pope
Born at the Castello della Genga in the territory of Spoleto, 22 August, 1760; died in Rome, 10 February, 1829.
Leo XIII, Pope
Lengthy biographical article on the author of "Rerum novarum."
Leo, Brother
Companion of St. Francis of Assisi. (d. 1271)
Leocadia, Saint
Virgin and martyr, d. probably in 304.
Leodegar, Saint
Bishop of Autun, martyred in 678. Also known as St. Leger.
Provides history and geography of the area.
Leonard of Chios
Born at an uncertain date on the Island of Chios, then under Genoese domination; died in Chios or in Italy, 1842.
Leonard of Limousin, Saint
According to eleventh-century legend, he was a sixth-century Frankish nobleman.
Leonard of Port Maurice, Saint
Franciscan preacher and ascetic writer, d. 1751.
Leonidas, Saint
The Roman Martyrology mentions at least six martyrs named Leonidas or Leonides, the most famous being St. Leonidas of Alexandria, the father of Origen.
Leontius Byzantinus
An important theologian of the sixth century.
Leontius, Saint
Bishop of Fréjus, d. 488. On good terms with Honoratus, who founded the famous monastery of Lérins, and with John Cassian and Pope St. Leo I.
A titular archiepiscopal see of Augustamnica Secunda.
Leopoldine Society, The
Established at Vienna for the purpose of aiding the Catholic missions in North America.
Italian name for Naupactos (Naupactus) a titular metropolitan see of ancient Epirus
A chronic infectious disease caused by the bacillus leprœ, characterized by the formation of growths in the skin, mucous membranes, peripheral nerves, bones, and internal viscera, producing various deformities and mutilations of the human body, and usually terminating in death.
Leptis Magna
A titular see of Tripolitana.
Titular see of the Cyclades, suffragan of Rhodes.
Leroy-Beaulieu, Anatole
French publicist. (1842-1912)
A titular see in Mauretania Sitifensis, suffragan of Sitifis, or Sétif, in Algeria.
Lescarbot, Marc
French lawyer, writer, and historian, b. at Vervins, between 1565 and 1570; d. about 1629.
Lescot, Pierre
One of the greatest architects of France in the pure Renaissance style, b. at Paris about 1510; d. there, 1571.
Diocese in Dalmatia; includes the three islands of Hvar (Lesina), the ancient Pharia colonized by the Greeks in 385 B.C.; Brac, formerly Brattia or Brachia, also colonized by the Greeks; and Lissa, formerly Issa.
Leslie, John
Bishop of Ross, Scotland, born 29 September, 1527, died at Guirtenburg, near Brussels 30 May, 1596.
Lessius, Leonard
A Flemish Jesuit and a theologian of high reputation, born at Brecht, in the province of Antwerp, 1 October, 1554; died at Louvain, 15 January, 1623.
Lessons in the Liturgy
The reading of lessons from the Bible, Acts of Martyrs, or approved Fathers of the Church, forms an important element of Christian services in all rites since the beginning.
Lestrange, Louis-Henri de
Born in 1754, in the Château de Colombier-le-Vieux, Ardèche, France; died at Lyons, 16 July, 1827.
Lesueur, François Eustache
Jesuit missionary and philologist, of the Abnaki mission in Canada; born (according to notes given by Thwaites, apparently from official sources) near Coutances, Normandy, 22 July, 1685 or 1686, though Maurault gives his birthplace as Lunel, in Languedoc; died at Montreal, 28 or 26 April, 1760, or (according to Maurault) at Quebec, in 1755.
Lesueur, Jean-François
Detailed biography emphasizing religious works of this composer, with links to related material.
A titular see of Macedonia.
Letourneux, Nicolas
A well-known French preacher and ascetical writer of Jansenistic tendencies, born at Rouen, 30 April, 1640; died at Paris, 28 November, 1686.
Letters, Ecclesiastical
Publications or announcements of the organs of ecclesiastical authority, e.g. the synods, more particularly, however, of popes and bishops, addressed to the faithful in the form of letters.
A celebrated ancient Cistercian abbey, situated on the Oder, northwest of Breslau, in the Prussian Province of Silesia.
A titular see of Thrace, not mentioned by any ancient historian or geographer.
Levadoux, Michael
One of the first band of Sulpicians who, owing to the distressed state of religion in France, went to the United States and founded St. Mary's Seminary in Baltimore; born at Clermont-Ferrand, in Auvergne, France, 1 April, 1746; died at Le-Puy-en-Velay, 13 Jan., 1815.
Levau, Louis
A contemporary of Jacques Lemercier and the two Mansarts, and the chief architect of the first decade of Louis XIV's independent reign, born 1612; died at Paris, 10 Oct., 1670.
The subordinate ministers appointed in the Mosaic Law for the service of the Tabernacle and of the Temple.
The third book of the Pentateuch, so called because it treats of the offices, ministries, rites, and ceremonies of the priests and Levites.
While official or private collections of Roman Law made under the Empire are called codices, e. g. "Codex Theodosianus", probably because they were written on parchment sheets bound together in book form, the title lex was given to collections of Roman Law made by order of the barbarian kings for such of their subjects as followed that legislation.
Lezana, Juan Bautista de
Theologian, born at Madrid, 23 Nov., 1586; died in Rome, 29 March, 1659.
Suffragan of Michoacan in Mexico, erected in 1863.
León, Luis de
Spanish poet and theologian, b. at Belmonte, Aragon, in 1528; d. at Madrigal, 23 August, 1591.
A malicious publication by writing, printing, picture, effigy, sign, or otherwise than by mere speech, which exposes any living person, or the memory of any person deceased, to hatred, contempt, ridicule, or obloquy, or which causes or tends to cause any person to be ashamed or avoided, or which has a tendency to injure any person, corporation, or association of persons, in his, her, or its business or occupation.
Libellatici, Libelli
The libelli were certificates issued to Christians of the third century.
Liber Diurnus Romanorum Pontificum
A miscellaneous collection of ecclesiastical formularies used in the papal chancery until the eleventh century.
Liber Pontificalis
A history of the popes beginning with St. Peter and continued down to the fifteenth century, in the form of biographies.
Liber Septimus
Three canonical collections of quite different value from a legal standpoint are known by this title.
Libera Me
The responsory sung at funerals.
Libera Nos
The first words of the Embolism of the Lord's Prayer in the Roman Rite.
A free way of thinking and acting in private and public life.
Liberatore, Matteo
A philosopher, theologian, and writer, born at Salerno, Italy, 14 August, 1810; died at Rome, 18 October, 1892.
Liberatus of Carthage
Archdeacon author of an important history of the Nestorian and Monophysite troubles.
A republic on the west coast of Africa.
Liberius, Pope
Reigned 352-366.
Libermann, Ven. Francis Mary Paul
Founder of the Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, which was afterwards merged in the Congregation of the Holy Ghost.
Collections of books accumulated and made accessible for public or private use.
This diocese took its rise in the conversion of Mercia by St. Cedd and his three companions in 652 and subsequent years.
Lidwina, Saint
Biography of this Dutch woman who died in 1433.
Lieber, Ernst Maria
Born at Camberg in the Duchy of Nassau, 16 Nov., 1838; died 31 March, 1902.
Lieber, Moriz
Politician and publicist, b. at the castle of Blankenheim in the Eifel, 1 Oct., 1790, d. at Kamberg, in Hesse-Nassau, 29 Dec., 1860.
Liebermann, Bruno Franz Leopold
Catholic theologian, b., at Molsheim in Alsace 12 Oct., 1759; 4. at Strasburg, 11 Nov., 1844.
A former noted Benedictine Abbey in Westphalia, Germany, founded in 815; suppressed in 1803.
Liesborn, Master of
A Westphalian painter, who in 1465 executed an altar-piece of note in the Benedictine monastery of Liesborn, founded by Charlemagne.
A Benedictine monastery near Avesnes, in the Diocese of Cambrai, France (Nord), founded about the middle of eighth century and dedicated to St. Lambert.
The enigma of life is still one of the two or three most difficult problems that face both scientist and philosopher.
The existing marriage tie which constitutes in canon law a public impediment to the contracting of a second marriage.
Article concerned with the general aspects and in particular with the charge so often levelled against Catholicism of adopting wholesale the ceremonial practices of the pagan world.
A Benedictine Abbey, in the Diocese of Poitiers, France, was founded about the year A.D. 360, by St. Martin of Tours.
A Cistercian Abbey south of St. Polten, Lower Austria, founded in 1202 by Leopold the Glorious, Margrave of Austria, the first monks being supplied from the monastery of Heiligen Kreus near Vienna.
Lilius, Aloisius
Principal author of the Gregorian Calendar, was a native of Cirò or Zirò in Calabria.
The ancient capital of Flanders, now the chief town of the Département du Nord in France.
Lillooet Indians
An important tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, in southern British Columbia.
Capital of Peru.
A word of Teutonic derivation, meaning literally "hem" or "border," as of a garment, or anything joined on.
Limbourg, Pol de
A French miniaturist. With his two brothers, he flourished at Paris at the end of the fourteenth and the beginning of the fifteenth century.
Diocese in the Kingdom of Prussia, suffragan of Freiburg.
Diocese in Ireland; includes the greater part of the County of Limerick and a small portion of Clare.
Diocese comprising the Departments of Haute Vienne and Creuse in France.
A titular see of Lycia, and was a small city on the southern coast of Lycia, on the Limyrus, and twenty stadia from the mouth of this river.
Linacre, Thomas
English physician and clergyman, founder of the Royal College of Physicians, London, b. at Canterbury about 1460; d. in London, 20 October, 1524.
In 1777, at the request of Charles III of Spain, Pius VII erected the episcopal See of Linares as suffragan of the Archdiocese of Mexico.
Suffragan of Dubuque, erected 2 August, 1887, to include that part of the State of Nebraska, U.S.A., south of the Platte River.
This see was founded by St. Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, in 678, when he removed the Lindiswaras of Lincolnshire from the Diocese of Lindisfarne.
Lindanus, William Damasus
Bishop of Ruremonde and of Ghent, b. at Dordrecht, in 1525; d. at Ghent, 2 November, 1588; he was the son of Damasus van der Lint.
Linde, Justin Timotheus Balthasar, Freiherr von
Hessian jurist and stateman, b. in the village of Brilon, Westphalia, 7 Aug., 1797; d. at Bonn during the night of 8-9 June, 1870.
Lindemann, Wilhelm
A Catholic historian of German literature, b. at Schonnebeck near Essen, 17 December, 1828; d. at Niederkruechten near Erkelenz (Rhine Province) 20 December, 1879.
Lindisfarne, Ancient Diocese and Monastery of
The island of Lindisfarne lies some two miles off the Northumberland coast, nine and one-half miles southeast of the border-town of Berwick.
Lindores, Benedictine Abbey of
On the River Tay, near Newburgh, Fifeshire, Scotland, founded by David, Earl of Huntingdon, younger brother of King William the Lion, about 1191.
Lingard, John
English priest and prominent historian.
Linköping, Ancient See of
Located in Sweden; originally included Östergötland, the Islands of Gotland and Öland, and Smaaland.
A titular see of Bithynia Secunda, known only from the "Notitiae Episcopatuum" which mention it as late as the twelfth and thirteenth centuries as a suffragan of Nicaea.
Linus, Pope Saint
Reigned about A.D. 64 or 67 to 76 or 79.
Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Vienna.
One of the Confederate States of the German Empire.
Lippi, Filippino
Italian painter, d. 1515. Artist's biography with bibliography.
Lippi, Filippo
Biography of the Italian painter (1406-1469).
Lippomano, Luigi
A cardinal, hagiographer, b. in 1500; d. 15 August, 1559. Of a noble Venetian family, he devoted himself from his youth to the study of the classical languages and later to the pursuit of the sacred sciences.
A term sometimes used synonymously with reliquary, but signifying, more correctly, the little box containing the relics, which is placed inside the reliquary.
Lipsius, Justus
Biographical article on the humanist by Paul Lejay.
Patriarchate of Lisbon (Lisbonensis).
The Diocese of Lismore extends over a territory of 21,000 square miles in the north-east of New South Wales (Australia).
Lismore, School of
Founded in the year 635 by St. Carthach the Younger.
Jesuit writer, b. in Lancashire, about 1559; d. in England, probably before 1628; was the son of Christopher Lister, of Midhope, Yorks.
Liszt, Franz
Article follows the pianist and composer's life and career, showing how his religious expression waned during his middle years, then increased toward the end of his life.
Litany of Loreto
Long article examines the somewhat murky history of the Litany of Loreto. Also information on Marian litanies in general.
Litany of the Holy Name
Does not give the text of the litany itself, but mentions many of the titles of Jesus Christ.
Litany of the Saints
The model of all other litanies, of great antiquity.
An ancient grandy-duchy united with Poland in the fourteenth century.
Lithuanians in the United States
Includes information about immigration, religion, schools, and periodicals.
A noble Milanese family which gave two distinguished cardinals to the Church.
Little Office of Our Lady
Historical article on the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary, modeled on the Divine Office.
Little Rock
The State of Arkansas and the Indian Territory, parts of the Louisiana Purchase, were formed, 1843, into the Diocese of Little Rock.
Littré, Paul-Maximilien-Emile
A French lexicographer and philosopher; born at Paris, 1 February, 1801; died there, 2 June, 1881.
Liturgical Books
All the books, published by the authority of any church, that contain the text and directions for her official (liturgical) services.
Liturgical Chant
A chant, if its style, composition, and execution prove it suitable for liturgical use, may properly be called liturgical chant.
A Greek composite word meaning originally a public duty, a service to the state undertaken by a citizen.
Liutprand of Cremona
Bishop and historian, b. at the beginning of the tenth century; d. after 970.
One of the thirteen dioceses into which Pius IX divided Catholic England, 29 September, 1850, when he re-established the Catholic hierarchy.
A titular see in Palestina Prima, suffragan of Cæsarea.
The first capital of this diocese was Tongres, northeast of Liège; its territory originally belonged to the Diocese of Trier, then to Cologne; but after the first half of the fourth century Tongres received autonomous organization.
Llancarvan, Glamorganshire, Wales, was a college and monastery founded apparently about the middle of the fifth century.
The origins of this see are to be found in the sixth century monastic movement initiated by St. Dubricius, who presided over the monastery of Mochros.
Llanthony Priory
A monastery of Augustinian Canons, situated amongst the Black Mountains of South Wales, nine miles north-east of Abergavenny.
Loaisa, Garcia de
Cardinal and Archbishop of Seville, b. in Talavera, Spain, c. 1479; d. at Madrid, 21 April, 1546.
Formerly included in the great Kingdom of Congo, Loango became independent towards the end of the sixteenth century, at which time it extended from the mouth of the Kwilou to that of the River Congo.
Loaves of Proposition
Heb. "bread of the faces", i.e. "bread of the presence (of Yahweh)" (Ex., xxxv, 13; xxxix, 35, etc.), also called "holy bread".
Lobbes, Benedictine Abbey of
Located in Hainault, Belgium, founded about 650, by St. Landelin, a converted brigand, so that the place where his crimes had been committed might benefit by his conversion.
Lobera, Ann
Carmelite nun, companion of St. Teresa; b. At Medina del Campo (Old Castile), 25 November, 1545; d. at Brussels, 4 March, 1621.
A Cistercian abbey in the Diocese of Minden, formerly in Brunswick but now included in Hanover, was founded by Count Wilbrand von Hallermund in 1163.
A lake in Kinross-shire, Scotland, an island of which, known as St. Serf's Island (eighty acres in extent), was the seat of a religious community for seven hundred years.
Lochner, Stephen
A painter, born at Meersburg, on the Lake of Constance, date of birth unknown; died at Cologne, 1452.
Loci Theologici
Loci theologici or loci communes, are the common topics of discussion in theology.
Locke, Matthew
Article on the English composer includes his musical development, conversion, conflicts, and noted works.
Lockhart, William
Son of the Rev. Alexander Lockhart of Waringham, Surry; b. 22 Aug., 1820; d. at St. Etheldreda's Priory, Eby Place, Holborn, London, 15 May, 1892.
A suffragan of Milan.
Logia, Jesu
Found partly in the Inspired Books of the New Testament, partly in uninspired writings.
A historical survey from Indian and Pre-Aristotelian philosophy to the Logic of John Stuart Mill.
Logos, The
The word Logos is the term by which Christian theology in the Greek language designates the Word of God, or Second Person of the Blessed Trinity.
Lohel, Johann
Archbishop of Prague, b. at Eger, Bohemia, 1549; d. 2 Nov., 1622.
Lohner, Tobias
Professor of philosophy and speculative theology. Born 13 March, 1619, at Neuötting in the Diocese of Salzburg; died 26 (probably) May, 1697.
Loja, Diocese of
Suffragan of Quito, Ecuador, includes the greater part of the Provinces of Loja and El Oro.
The name given to the followers of John Wyclif, an heretical body numerous in England in the latter part of the fourteenth and the first half of the fifteenth century.
Loman, Saint
Brief article accepts the tradition that Loman, bishop of Trim, was a nephew of St. Patrick.
Lombard, Peter
Archbishop. (1555-1625)
A word derived from Longobardia and used during the Middle Ages to designate the country ruled over by the Longobards, which varied in extent with the varying fortunes of that race in Italy.
Loménie de Brienne, Etienne-Charles de
French cardinal and statesman. (1727-1794)
The capital of England and chief city of the British Empire, is situated about fifty miles from the mouth of the Thames.
London (Ontario)
Diocese in Canada, established 21 February, 1855; see transferred to Sandwich, 2 February, 1859, transferred back to London, 3 October, 1869.
Longstreet, James
Soldier and Catholic convert. Born 8 January, 1821, at Edgefield, South Carolina, U.S.A.; died at Gainesville, Georgia, 2 January, 1904.
Lope de Vega Carpio, Félix de
Poet and dramatist, b. at Madrid, 1562; d. 23 Aug., 1635.
Lopez-Caro, Francisco
Spanish artist, b. at Seville in 1598; d. at Madrid in 1662; he was a pupil of Juan de Las Roelas, the painter of the great altar-piece in the church of St. Isidore in Seville, of the "Martyrdom of St. Andrew" in the museum at Seville, and of the pictures in the university chapel.
Lord's Prayer
Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not seem to have been generally familiar in England before the Reformation. During the Middle Ages the "Our Father" was always said in Latin, even by the uneducated. Hence it was then most commonly known as the Pater noster.
Titular see in Arabia.
Lorenzana, Francisco Antonio de
Cardinal, b. 22 Sept., 1722 at Leon in Spain; d. 17 April, 1804, at Rome.
Lorenzetti, Pietro and Ambrogio
Sienese painters. The time of their birth and death is not known.
Lorenzo da Brindisi, Saint
An Italian Capuchin with a talent for languages, much in demand as a preacher, was chaplain of the Imperial army. Doctor of the Church. He died in 1619.
An Indian village occupied by the principal remnant of the ancient Huron tribe on the east bank of Saint Charles River.
Lorrain, Claude de
French painter and etcher, b. in 1600 at Chamagnc on the banks of the Moselle in Lorraine; d. in Rome, 21 Nov., 1681 (or 23 Nov., 1682).
By the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the empire of Charlemagne was divided in three parts: Ludwig the German received Eastern Franconia; Charles the Bald, Western Franconia; and Lothair I, the strip of land lying between the two and reaching from the North Sea to the Rhone, with Italy in addition. After the death of Lothair I, in 855, Italy passed to his son Lothair II, who gave his name to the district henceforth known as Lotharii Regnum - Lotharingen, Lothringen, or Lorraine.
Lorsch Abbey
One of the most renowned monasteries of the old Franco-German Empire, is situated about ten miles east of Worms in the Grand Duch of Hesse, Germany.
A titular see of Caria, small fortified town and harbour on the coast of Caria.
Lossada, Luis de
Spanish philosopher. (1681-1748)
Lossen, Karl August
German petrologist and geologist, born at Kreuznach (Rhine Province), 5 January, 1841; died at Berlin, 24 February, 1893.
Nephew of Abraham.
A lottery is one of the aleatory contracts and is commonly defined as a distribution of prizes by lot or by chance.
Lotti, Antonio
Biography of the Venetian composer noting his accomplishments as organist, teacher, and creator of operas and religious works.
Lotto, Lorenzo
Italian portrait painter, d. 1556. Artist's biography with bibliography.
The would-be Kuchin of some ethnologists, and the Tukudh of the Protestant missionaries; Richardson called them Quarrellers.
Louis Allemand, Blessed
Brief article on this 15th-century Cardinal Archbishop of Arles, who was a supporter of antipope Felix V.
Louis Bertrand, Saint
Spanish Dominican novicemaster and preacher, d. 1581.
Louis IX, Saint
Biographical article on St. Louis, King of France, d. 1270.
Louis of Casoria, Venerable
Friar Minor and founder of the Frati Bigi. (1814-1885)
Louis of Granada, Venerable
Spanish theologian, writer, and preacher. (1505-1588)
Louis XIV
King of France, b. at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 16 September, 1638; d. at Versailles, 1 September, 1715; was the son of Louis XIII and Anne of Austria, and became king, upon the death of his father, 14 May 1643.
Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort, Saint
Missionary to Brittany, d. 1716.
Louise de Marillac Le Gras, Saint
Founder of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, d. 1660.
Louise, Sister
Educator and organizer, b. at Bergen-op-Zoom, Holland, 14 Nov., 1813; d. at Cincinnati, Ohio, 3 Dec., 1886.
Includes history, religious information, and statistics.
Louisville, Diocese of
Comprises that part of Kentucky west of the Kentucky River and western borders of Carroll, Owen, Franklin, Woodford, Jessamine, Garrard, Rockcastle, Laurel, and Whitley Counties.
Lourdes, Brothers of Our Lady of
A community devoted to the education of youth and the care of the sick and infirm. It was founded at Renaix, Flanders, in 1830, by Etienne Modeste Glorieux, a Belgian priest, and approved in 1892 by Leo XIII.
Lourdes, Notre-Dame de
The pilgrimage of Lourdes is founded on the apparitions of the Blessed Virgin to a poor, fourteen-year-old girl, Bernadette Soubiroux. The first apparition occurred 11 February, 1858.
Louvain, University of
In order to restore the splendour of Louvain, capital of his Duchy of Brabant, John IV of the House of Burgundy petitioned the papal authority for the establishment of an educational institution called at the time studium generale. The Bull of Martin V, dated 9 December, 1425, was the result.
Love, Theological Virtue of
The third and greatest of the Divine virtues enumerated by St. Paul (1 Cor., xiii, 13), usually called charity, defined: a divinely infused habit, inclining the human will to cherish God for his own sake above all things, and man for the sake of God.
Low Church
The name given to one of the three parties or doctrinal tendencies that prevail in the Established Church of England and its daughter Churches, the correlatives being High Church and Broad Church.
Low Sunday
The first Sunday after Easter.
Loyola University (New Orleans)
Loyola University, New Orleans, Louisiana, was (in 1912) the only Catholic university in what is popularly designated "The Old South".
Loyola University, Chicago
The outgrowth of St. Ignatius College, founded by the Jesuits in 1869 for the higher education of the Catholic youth of Chicago, and empowered by the Legislature of Illinois (30 June, 1870) to confer the usual degrees in the various faculties of a university.
The city of Lublin is in Russian Poland, capital of the Government of Lublin, lies on the Bistrzyca, a tributary of the Vistula, and in 1897 had a population of 50,152, of whom 30,914 were Catholics.
Luca, Giovanni Battista de
A Cardinal and Italian canonist of the seventeenth century, b. at Venusia, Southern Italy, in 1614; d. at Rome, on 5 February, 1683.
Lucas, Frederick
A member of Parliament and journalist, b. in Westminster, 30 March, 1812, d. at Staines, Middlesex, 22 Oct., 1855.
The capital of the like named province in Tuscany, Central Italy
An ancient city in the province of Foggia in Apulia, Southern Italy.
Chief town of the Canton of Lucerne in Switzerland.
Lucian of Antioch
Biographical article on the presbyter famed for his sanctity and scholarship, who died a martyr in 312.
Lucic, John
Croatian historian, b. early in the seventeenth century, at Trojir, or Tragurion, in Dalmatia; d. at Rome, 11 January, 1679.
The name Lucifer originally denotes the planet Venus, emphasizing its brilliance.
Lucifer of Cagliari
A bishop, who must have been born in the early years of the fourth century; died in 371.
Lucina, Crypt of
The traditional title of the most ancient section of the catacomb of St. Callistus.
Lucius I, Pope Saint
Biographical article on this pope, exiled for a time, who reigned less than one year, and died in 254.
Lucius II, Pope
Born at Bologna, unknown date, died at Rome, 15 February, 1145.
Lucius III, Pope
Died 1185. Innocent II created him Cardinal-Priest of Santa Prassede on 23 February, 1141, and afterwards sent him as legate to France.
Lucy, Saint
Virgin and martyr, d. 303 in the Diocletian persecution.
Ludger, Saint
Also known as St. Lüdiger, or Liudger. Biography of this missionary, the first bishop of Munster, who died in 809.
Ludmilla, Saint
Bohemian duchess, grandmother of St. Wenceslaus. Strangled to death by assassins hired by her pagan daughter-in-law in 921.
Ludolph of Saxony
An ecclesiastical writer of the fourteenth century, date of birth unknown; d. 13 April, 1378.
Ludovicus a S. Carolo
Carmelite writer, b. at Châlons-sur-Marne (according to some at Chalon-sur-Saône), 20 Aug., 1608; d. at Paris 10 March, 1670.
Lueger, Karl
A burgomaster of Vienna, Austrian political leader and municipal reformer, born at Vienna, 24 October, 1844; died there, 10 March, 1910.
Diocese in Galicia, Spain, a suffragan of Santiago, said to have been founded (by Agapitus) in Apostolic times.
Lugo, Francisco de
Jesuit theologian, b. at Madrid, 1580; d, at Valladolid, 17 September, 1652.
Lugo, John de
Spanish Jesuit and Cardinal, one of the most eminent theologians of modern times, b. at Madrid, November, 1583, though he used to call himself "Hispalensis", because his family seat was at Seville; d. at Rome, 20 August, 1660.
Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Fogaras and Alba Julia of the Uniat-Romanian Rite, was erected in November, 1853.
Luini, Bernardino
Milanese painter, b. between 1470 and 1480; d. after 1530.
Luke, Gospel of Saint
An introduction to the book.
Lully, Jean-Baptiste
Article profiles the composer's secular and religious contributions.
Lulé Indians
A name which has given rise to considerable confusion and dispute in Argentine ethnology, owing to the fact, now established, that it was applied at different times to two very different peoples, neither of which now exists under that name, while the vocabulary which could settle the affinity of the earlier tribe is now lost.
Lumen Christi
The versicle chanted by the deacon on Holy Saturday as he lights the triple candle.
The name applied to the shafts in the roof of the passages and chambers of the Catacombs occasionally pierced for the admission of light and air.
Lummi Indians
The principal one of more than twenty small Salishan tribes originally holding the lower shores, islands, and eastern hinterland of Puget Sound, Washington; by the Treaty of Point Elliott (1855), gathered upon five reservations within the same territory under the jurisdiction of Tulalip Agency.
Lumper, Gottfried
Benedictine patristic writer, born 6 Feb., 1747, at Füssen in Bavaria; died 8 March, 1800 (Hefele says 1801), at the Abbey of St. George at Billingen in the Black Forest.
Luna, Pedro de
Antipope under the name of Benedict XIII, b. at Illueca, Aragon, 1328; d. at the Peñiscola, near Valencia, Spain, either 29 Nov., 1422, or 23 May, 1423.
Ancient Catholic diocese in the Län of Malmöhus.
Known in Germany as the lunula and also as the melchisedech, is a crescent-shaped clip made of gold or of silver-gilt which is used for holding the Host in an upright position when exposed in the monstrance.
Diocese in the province of Genoa.
Abbot of Ferrieres, French Benedictine writer, b. in the Diocese of Sens, about 805; d. about 862.
Lupus, Christian
Historian, b. at Ypres (Flanders), 23 July, 1612; d. at Louvain, 10 July, 1681.
Luscinius, Ottmar
An Alsatian Humanist, b. at Strasburg, 1487; d. at Freiburg, 1537.
Lusignan, Jean-Baptiste-Alphonse
French-Canadian writer, b. at St-Denis on the Richelieu, P.Q., 27 September, 1843; d. 5 January, 1893, son of Jean-Baptiste Lusignan, a merchant, and Onésime Masse.
Lussy, Melchior
Statesman, b. at Stans, Canton of Unterwalden, Switzerland, 1529; d. there 14 Nov., 1606.
The inordinate craving for, or indulgence of, the carnal pleasure which is experienced in the human organs of generation.
Luther, Martin
Leader of the great religious revolt of the sixteenth century in Germany; born at Eisleben, 10 November, 1483; died at Eisleben, 18 February, 1546.
The religious belief held by the oldest and in Europe the most numerous of the Protestant sects, founded by the Wittenberg reformer, Martin Luther.
Lutzk, Zhitomir, and Kamenetz, Diocese of
Diocese located in Little Russia.
The small remnant of the old duchy of this name and since 11 May, 1867, an independent neutral grand duchy, comprising 998 sq. miles of territory, lying principally between 49° 27' and 50° 12' N. lat., and 5° 45' and 6° 32' E. long.
Luxeuil Abbey
Situated in the Department of Haute-Saône in Franche-Comté, in the Diocese of Besançon.
Embraces the Department of La Vendée.
A titular see in Thebais Prima, suffragan of Antinoë.
A titular see of Palestina Prima in the Patriarchate of Jerusalem.
Lydgate, John
Writer, born at Lydgate, Suffolk, about 1370; d. probably about 1450. He entered the Benedictine abbey at Bury when fifteen and may have been educated earlier at the school of the Benedictine monks there and have been afterwards at the Benedictine house of studies at Oxford.
As defined by St. Thomas Aquinas, a statement at variance with the mind.
Lynch, John
Historian, b. at Galway, Ireland, 1599; d. in France, 1673; was the son of Alexander Lynch, who kept a classical school at Galway.
Lyndwood, William
Bishop of St. David's, b. about 1375; d. in 1446.
Lyons, Archdiocese of
Comprises the Department of the Rhône (except the Canton of Villeurbanne, which belongs to the Diocese of Grenoble) and of the Loire.
Lyons, Councils of (Introduction)
This article deals only with the two general councils of 1245 and 1275.
Lyons, First Council of
Innocent IV, threatened by Emperor Frederick II, arrived at Lyons 2 December, 1244, and early in 1245 summoned the bishops and princes to the council.
Lyons, Second Council of
One of the most largely attended of conciliar assemblies, there being present five hundred bishops, sixty abbots, more than a thousand prelates or procurators.
A titular see of Pamphylia Prima, known by its coins and the mention made of it by Dionysius, Perieg. 858, Ptolemy, V, 5, S, and Hierocles.
A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris, mentioned by Strabo, XII, 576, Pliny, V, 29, Ptolemy, V, 2, 23, Hierocles, and the "Notitiae episcopatuum", probably founded by Antiochus the Great about 200 B.C.
A titular see in the Province of Lycaonia, suffragan of Iconium.
Diocese; suffragan of Tarragona.
Lérins, Abbey of
Situated on an island of the same name, now known as that of Saint-Honorat, about a league from the coast of Provence, in the Department of the Maritime Alps, now included in the Diocese of Nice, formerly in that of Grasse or of Antibes.
A free imperial state and one of the Hanse towns, is in area the second smallest and in population the twentieth state in the German Empire.
Lütolf, Aloys
Church historian. (1824-1879)
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