Society Religion and Spirituality Christianity Denominations Catholicism Reference Catholic Encyclopedia J
Jaca, Diocese of
Located in the Spanish province of Huesca. Jaca, the chief town of the mountain district of Sobrarbe.
Jackson, Henry Moore
Knight, born in Grenada, 1849; died in London, 29 August, 1908.
The son of Isaac and Rebecca, third great patriarch of the chosen people, and the immediate ancestor of the twelve tribes of Israel.
Jacob of Jüterbogk
Theologian and canonist, born of poor parents near Jüterbogk, Brandenburg, Germany, 1381; died at Erfurt in 1465.
Jacobus de Teramo
Canonist and bishop, born in 1349 at Teramo in Italy; died in 1417 in Poland.
Jacopo de Voragine, Blessed
Became a Dominican at a very early age, was a renowned preacher, provincial, and then Archbishop of Genoa. He died in about 1298. Biographical article.
Jacopone da Todi, Blessed
More properly called Jacopo Benedetti. Biographical article on the lawyer, widower, Franciscan poet sympathetic to the Spirituals, who died about 1306.
French educator, b. at Dijon, March, 1770; d. at Paris, 30 July, 1840.
Jacques de Vitry
Historian of the crusades, cardinal Bishop of Acre, later of Tusculum, b. at Vitry-sur-Seine, near Paris, probably about 1160; d. at Rome, 1240.
French mathematician and physicist, born at Vitry-le-Francois, 7 June, 1711; died at Rome, 3 July, 1788.
Thirteenth Archbishop of Canterbury; died at Canterbury 11 or 12 August, 791.
A titular see in the Patriarchate of Jerusalem.
Jaffna, Diocese of
Situated in the northern portion of Ceylon, Jaffna comprises the northern and north-central provinces of the island.
A form of religion intermediate between Brahminism and Buddhism, originated in India in pre-Christian times.
The largest of the British West Indian islands, situated in the Caribbean Sea.
Franciscan, missionary, date and place of birth unknown; died in France, 1625; an important figure in the early history of the Church in Canada.
James Bell, Blessed
Ordained priest in Mary's reign, served the Established Church under Queen Elizabeth, but returned to the Catholic Church and became a missionary. He was martyred along with a layman, John Finch, in 1584.
James Duckett, Blessed
Convert to Catholicism, publisher and bookseller, martyred in 1601.
James of Brescia
Theologian of the fifteenth century.
James of Edessa
A celebrated Syrian writer, b. most likely in A.D. 633; d. 5 June, 708.
James of Sarugh
A writer of the Syrian Church.
James of the Marches, Saint
Surnamed Gangala, civil lawyer, Franciscan priest, d. 1476.
Born at Bologna; died in the same city in 1460.
James the Greater, Saint
What can be known of St. James, son of Zebedee and brother of John, from Scripture. Also discusses the tradition that St. James preached in Spain and that his body was translated to Compostela.
James the Less, Saint
Identifies James the Less with James the Apostle, son of Alpheus, and with James the brother of the Lord.
James Thompson, Blessed
Also called James Hudson. Priest who was imprisoned and then martyred at York in 1582.
James, Epistle of Saint
The author is commonly identified with the Lord's brother, the Bishop of Jerusalem; the view that the Lord's brother must be identified with James, the son of Alpheus, is by far the most probable.
Cistercian, born at Brünn, Moravia, 13 October, 1827; died 23 July, 1898, at Baden, near Vienna.
Jandel, Alexandre Vincent
General of the Dominican order, born at Gerbevilliers (Lorraine), 18 July, 1810; died at Rome, 11 December, 1872.
Jane Frances de Chantal, Saint
Biography of the widowed baroness, mother, founder of the Congregation of the Visitation, who died in 1641.
Theologian, born at Hirschau, in the Upper Palatinate (Bavaria), 4 Feb., 1836; died 1 November, 1895.
Janow, Matthew of
A medieval ecclesiastical author, born in the fourteenth century in Bohemia; died at Prague, 30 Nov., 1394.
Exegete, born at Hulst, Flanders, 1510; died at Ghent, 11 April, 1576.
Jansenius and Jansenism
The subject of this article lived three-quarters of a century later than his namesake. He was born 28 October, 1585, of a Catholic family, in the village of Accoi, near Leerdam, Holland; died at Ypres, 6 May, 1638.
Historian, born 10 April, 1829, at Kanten, Germany; died 24 December, 1891, at Frankfort-on-the-Main.
Flemish painter, b. at Antwerp about 1573; d. probably in the same place about 1631.
Janssens, Johann Hermann
Catholic theologian, b. at Maeseyck, Belgium, 7 Dec., 1783; d. at Engis, 23 May, 1853.
Bishop of Beneventum, martyr, believed to have died in the Diocletian persecution, c. 305. Article has a lengthy discussion of the liquefaction of the saint's blood.
Called in the language of the country Nihon or Nippon (Land of the Rising Sun), and Dai Nihon or Dai Nippon (Great Japan), situated north-west of the Pacific Ocean and east of the Asiatic continent.
Jarcke, Karl Ernst
Born 10 November, 1801, at Danzig, Prussia; died 27 December, 1852, at Vienna. He belonged to a Protestant merchant family. He took up the study of jurisprudence, and became at an early age professor of criminal law at Bonn and later in Berlin.
Foundress of the Society of the Propagation of the Faith and the Association of the Living Rosary, born at Lyons, 22 July, 1799; died there, 9 January, 1862.
Studied under St. Benen, founded a college at Cloonfush, was noted for his fasting, died about 540.
Diocese in the Philippine Islands, formerly a part of the Diocese of Cebú, was made a separate diocese on 27 May, 1865.
Jarric, Pierre de
Missionary writer, born at Toulouse in 1566; d. at Saintes, 2 March, 1617.
A Greek name adopted by many Jews whose Hebrew designation was Joshua (Jesus). In the Old Testament, it is applied to three or four persons connected with the period of the Machabees.
A titular see of Caria, and suffragan of Aphrodisias.
Diocese in Rumania.
Jauregui, Juan de
A Spanish painter and poet, born at Seville c. 1570, or, according to some, as late as 1583; died at Madrid c. 1640-1.
Diocese in Southern Spain.
Taken to be synonymous with envy.
Jean de Brébeuf, Saint
Biographical article on the Jesuit missionary and martyr.
Jean Eudes, Saint
French missionary, religious founder, writer, d. 1680.
Jean Louis Bonnard, Saint
Short biography of the French missionary priest and martyr, d. 1852.
Jean-Baptiste-Marie Vianney, Saint
The Curé of Ars, d. 1869.
Jean-Gabriel Perboyre, Saint
Vincentian priest, missionary to China, where he was tortured and martyred in 1840.
Jeanne de Valois, Saint
Biography of St. Jeanne, also known as Jéhanne de France or Jane of Valois, queen, founder of the Annonciades. She died in 1505.
French engraver, b. at Vermenton, near Auxerre, 1688; d. at Paris, 1738.
Augustinian abbey, in the town of the same name, established as a priory by David I, King of Scots, in 1118, and colonized by Canons Regular of St. Augustine from the Abbey of St-Quentin, at Beauvais, France.
Fourth King of Juda after the schism of the Ten Tribes.
Jehoshaphat, Valley of
Mentioned in only one passage of the Bible (Joel, iii-Heb. text, iv).
Proper name of God in the Old Testament.
The derivation of the name is uncertain. By some it is translated "Yahweh is he". Several by this name are noted in the article.
An Indian pueblo situated upon the north bank of the river of the same name about twenty miles north-west of Bernalillo, New Mexico.
Jeningen, Venerable Philipp
Born at Eichstätt, Bavaria, 5 January, 1642;d, at Ellwangen, 8 February, 1704. Entering the Society of Jesus, 19 January, 1663, he became a most successful popular missionary at the shrine of Our Lady of Schönenberg, near Ellwangen in Swabia.
Theologian, born in Shropshire, c. 1656; died in December, 1714.
Jennings, Sir Patrick Alfred
An Australian statesman, b. at Newry, Ireland, 1831; d. July, 1897.
One of the judges of Israel. The story of Jephte is narrated in chapters xi and xii of the Book of Judges.
Name of several Old Testament figures.
Jeremias the Prophet
Background information on his era. His life and mission. Analysis of the Biblical book which bears his name.
Three cities of this name have successively occupied sites in the same neighbourhood.
Name of two Israelitish kings.
Jerome Emiliani, Saint
Soldier, priest, founder of the Order of Somascha, d. 1537.
Lengthy article on the life and works of St. Jerome.
History in several periods to the first crusade.
Jerusalem (After 1291)
The Latin dominion over Jerusalem really came to an end on 2 October, 1187, when the city opened its gates to Saladin (Yusuf ibn Ayyub, Salah-ed-din, Emir of Egypt, 1169-93); although fragments of the Latin kingdom in Palestine lasted into another century.
Jerusalem (Before A.D. 71)
This article deals with the destruction by the Romans after it had become the scene of the Redemption.
Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom of (1099-1291)
Founded as a result of the First Crusade, in 1099. Destroyed a first time by Saladin in 1187, it was re-established around Saint-Jean d'Acre and maintained until the capture of that city in 1291.
Jerusalem, Liturgy of
The Rite of Jerusalem is that of Antioch.
Diocese in the Province of Ancona, Italy, immediately subject to the Holy See.
Jesu Dulcis Memoria
A poem ranging from forty two to fifty three stanzas (in various manuscripts), to form the three hymns of the Office of the Holy Name.
The accusations brought against the Society have been exceptional for their frequency and fierceness.
Jesuit Generals Prior to the Suppression
Details of several who held the position.
On account of its alkaloids, is the most celebrated specific remedy for all forms of malaria.
A list without details of the Jesuits. Does include links to articles when there is one about the person.
Jesuits, History of the (1773-1814)
The execution of the Brief of Suppression having been largely left to local bishops, there was room for a good deal of variety in the treatment the Jesuits might receive in different places.
Jesuits, History of the (1814-1912)
Pius VII had resolved to restore the Society during his captivity in France; and after his return to Rome he did so with little delay.
Jesuits, History of the (pre-1750)
Includes details of activities in various countries.
Jesuits, Suppression of the (1750-1773)
The most difficult part of the history of the Society.
Jesus and Mary, Sisters of the Holy Childhood of
Several groups detailed.
An index of articles on the subject.
Jesus Christ, Character of
The surpassing eminence of the character of Jesus has been acknowledged by men of the most varied type.
Jesus Christ, Chronology of the Life of
Includes absolute and relative chronologies.
Jesus Christ, Early Historical Documents on
Divided into three classes: pagan sources, Jewish sources, and Christian sources.
Jesus Christ, Origin of the Name of
Article examines the name Jesus and Christ separately.
Jesus Mary, Religious of
Founded at Lyons, France, in October, 1818, by Claudine Thevenet, in religion, Mother St. Ignatius.
Jesus, Daughters of
Founded at Kermaria, in the Diocese of Vannes, France, in 1834, for the care of the sick poor, and the education of girls.
Jews (as a Religion)
Judaism designates the religious communion which survived the destruction of the Jewish nation by the Assyrians and the Babylonians.
Jews, History of the
Of the two terms, Jews and Judaism, the former denotes usually the Israelites or descendants of Jacob (Israel) in contrast to Gentile races; the latter, the creed and worship of the Jews in contrast to Christianity and others.
Wife of Achab, King of Israel.
Joachim of Flora, Blessed
Article on this Cistercian abbot, mystic, regarded as a prophet, d. 1202.
According to apocryphal literature, the father of Mary.
Joan of Arc, Saint
Her brief life, her trial and death, swift rehabilitation, and her beatification in 1909.
The fable about a female pope, who afterwards bore the name of Johanna (Joan), is first noticed in the middle of the thirteenth century.
Joanna of Portugal, Blessed
Princess, Dominican, d. 1490.
Joannes de Sacrobosco
John Holywood, a monk of English origin, lived in the first half of the thirteenth century as professor of astronomy at Paris; died in that city, 1256.
One of the books of the Old Testament, and the chief personage in it.
Cistercian monk and Bishop of Glasgow; d. at Melrose Abbey in 1199.
Jocelin de Brakelond
An English chronicler, of the late twelfth century.
Jocelin of Wells
Bishop of Bath and Wells, d. 19 Nov., 1242.
Profile of the Old Testament prophet and analysis of the book bearing his name.
Dutch painter, b. at Calcker, or Calcar, about 1460; d. at Haarlem in 1519.
Johann Nepomuk von Tschiderer zu Gleifheim, Blessed
Bishop of Trent, d. 1860.
John Adams, Blessed
A convert to Catholicism, he was martyred at Tyburn in 1586.
John Almond, Saint
Biographical sketch of the martyr.
John Amias, Blessed
Cloth merchant, widower, priest, martyred 1589.
John and Paul, Saints
Roman martyrs, c. 362.
John Baptist de la Salle, Saint
Essay on the founder of the Christian Brothers.
John Baptist de Rossi, Saint
Priest, canon, preacher, d. 1764.
John Beche, Blessed
Benedictine abbot. When Beche refused to grant that the king had any authority to confiscate St. John's Abbey, Colchester, he was thrown in the Tower on charges of treason. Though weak, he gained the crown of martyrdom in 1539.
John Berchmans, Saint
Biography of this Jesuit, always pious, who died in 1621 at the age of 22.
John Bodey, Blessed
Short biography of the English layman and martyr, who died in 1583.
John Boste, Saint
Or John Boast. Priest, martyred at Durham in 1594. One of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.
John Britton, Blessed
Also called John Bretton. Short biography of the layman and martyr.
John Buckley, Saint
Alias John Jones. Welsh Franciscan priest, martyred at Tyburn in 1598.
John Cantius, Saint
Polish priest, professor of Sacred Scripture, d. 1473.
John Capistran, Saint
Lawyer, governor, ambassador, became a Franciscan priest and a renowned preacher, died in 1456.
John Chrysostom, Saint
Long biographical article on this bishop and Doctor of the Church.
John Climacus, Saint
Sometimes called Scholasticus or the Sinaita. Article on the sixth-century Syrian abbot of Mt. Sinai. He is called "Climacus" because he wrote the spiritual classic "The Ladder of Divine Ascent," "Klimax" being the Greek for "ladder."
John Colombini, Blessed
Sienese husband and father whose life was transformed by reading the life of St. Mary of Egypt. Founder of the Jesuati. He died in 1367.
John Cornelius and Companions, Blessed
Cornelius, born of Irish parents in Cornwall, studied for the priesthood at Reims. For 10 years he worked as a missionary in England till he was martyred in 1594 for being a Catholic priest, and three companions were also martyred for aiding him.
John Damascene, Saint
Lengthy biographical article on the last of the Greek Fathers.
John de Britto, Saint
Portuguese Jesuit missionary to India, martyr, d. 1693.
John Duckett, Blessed
Biographical sketch of the English priest and martyr.
John Duns Scotus, Blessed
Called "Doctor Subtilis," Franciscan, philosopher, d. 1308.
John Felton, Blessed
Arrested, imprisoned, and tortured for having attached a copy of the papal bull excommunicating the queen to the Bishop of London's door. He died a martyr in 1570.
John Finch, Blessed
A layman, raised Protestant. As a young man he converted to Catholicism, married, served as a catechist, and made his home a center of missionary activity. Captured, he was tortured and imprisoned for three years before being martyred in 1584.
John Finglow, Blessed
Yorkshire priest, martyred in 1586.
John Fisher, Saint
Cardinal, Bishop of Rochester, martyr, d. 1535.
John Forest, Blessed
English Franciscan, served as confessor to Queen Catherine, was burned at the stake at Smithfield in 1538.
John Francis Regis, Saint
Jesuit priest and missionary, d. 1640.
John Hambley, Blessed
More than once this priest offered to conform to the state-mandated religion, but at last he died a martyr.
John Houghton, Saint
Biography of the Carthusian martyr, who died in 1535, and details on some of his companions in martyrdom.
John I, Pope Saint
A Tuscan, was warmly received in Constantinople, but upon his return to Rome, was imprisoned by King Theodoric. Pope John died in prison in 526.
John II, Pope
A Roman and the son of Projectus; if not born in the second region (Coelimontium) he had at least been a priest of St. Clement's Basilica.
John III, Pope
A Roman surnamed Catelinus, d. 13 July, 574.
John Ingram, Blessed
English priest, tortured and twice imprisoned, martyred in 1594.
John IV, Pope
A native of Dalmatia, and the son of the scholasticus (advocate) Venantius.
John IX, Pope
John Joseph of the Cross, Saint
Italian Franciscan priest, had the gift of miracles, d. 1739.
John Kemble, Saint
Biography of the priest and martyr, who died in 1679.
John Larke, Blessed
Parish priest and friend of St. Thomas More. Martyred at Tyburn in 1543/4, along with another priest (Bl. John Ireland) and the layman Bl. German Gardiner.
John Lloyd, Saint
Welsh priest and martyr, executed at Cardiff in 1679. Article also has information on his fellow martyr the Jesuit Philip Evans.
John Lockwood, Blessed
Short biographical article on the English priest and martyr.
A Monophysite Byzantine chronicler of the sixth century.
John Martin Moye, Blessed
Biography of the founder of the Sisters of Divine Providence, and missionary to China. He died in 1793.
John Nelson, Blessed
Jesuit priest, martyred at Tyburn in 1577/8.
John Nepomucene, Saint
Biography of the vicar general of the Archdiocese of Prague, who was tortured and then thrown into the Moldau and drowned, by order of King Wenceslaus IV, in 1393.
John of Antioch
There are four persons commonly known by this name.
John of Avila, Saint
Priest, preacher, author, d. 1569.
John of Beverley, Saint
Benedictine bishop of Hexham and later of York, monastic founder, d. 721.
John of Biclaro
Chronicler, born in Portugal, probably about the middle of the sixth century; died after 621.
John of Cornwall
Lived about 1176. Author of a treatise written against the doctrine of Abelard.
John of Ephesus
Syriac historian, born at Amida (Diarbekir, on the upper Tigris), about 505; d. about 585.
John of Falkenberg
Author, b. at Falkenberg, Pomerania, Prussia, date unknown; d. about 1418 in Italy.
John of Fermo, Blessed
Also known as John of La Verna. Franciscan, a friend of Jacopone of Todi. John died in 1322.
John of Fécamp
Ascetic writer, b. near Ravenna about the beginning of the eleventh century; d. at Fécamp, Normandy, 22 February, 1079.
John of Genoa
Grammarian; born at Genoa, date unknown; died there about 1298.
John of God, Saint
Portuguese shepherd, soldier, bookseller, finally found his niche caring for the health of the poor in Granada, became de facto founder of a religious order, d. 1550.
John of Hauteville
Moralist and satirical poet of the twelfth century (flourished about 1184).
John of Janduno
An Averroistic philosopher, theologian, and political writer of the fourteenth century.
John of Montecorvino
A Franciscan and founder of the Catholic mission in China, b. at Montecorvino in Southern Italy, in 1246; d. at Peking, in 1328.
John of Montesono
Theologian and controversialist, born at Monzón, Spain; dates of birth and death unknown.
John of Nikiû
An Egyptian chronicler who flourished in the latter part of the seventh century.
John of Paris
Theologian and controversialist; born at Paris, date unknown; died at Bordeaux, 22 September, 1306.
John of Parma, Blessed
Franciscan, professor of theology, Minister General, peacemaker, d. 1289.
John of Ragusa
Dominican theologian. (1380-1443)
John of Roquetaillade (de Rupescissa)
Franciscan alchemist, date of birth unknown; d. probably at Avignon, 1362.
John of Rupella
Franciscan theologian, b. at La Rochelle (Rupella), towards the end of the twelfth century.
John of Sahagun, Saint
Spanish canon, became an Augustinian hermit, d. 1479.
John of Saint Thomas
Theologian, born at Lisbon, 9 June, 1589; died at Fraga, Spain, 17 June, 1644.
John of Salisbury
Article on the life and thought of this medieval philosopher, by P. Coffey.
John of Segovia
A Spanish theologian, b. at Segovia towards the end of the fourteenth century; d. probably in 1458.
John of the Cross, Saint
Article on the life and teaching of this Discalced Carmelite associated with St. Teresa of Avila. Mystic, Doctor of the Church, d. 1591.
John of Victring
Chronicler, b. probably between 1270 and 1280; d. at Victring, Austria, 12 November, 1347.
John of Winterthur
Historian, born about 1300 atWinterthur (Switzerland); died subsequently to 1348, probably at Zurich.
John Ogilvie, Saint
Scotsman, raised Calvinist, converted to Catholicism, became a Jesuit priest and missionary to his native land, was tortured and martyred in 1615.
A French theologian and professor in the University of Paris; b. most likely at Brachy, Caux, in Normandy, and certainly in the Diocese of Rouen, about 1360; d. 15 July, 1411.
John Payne, Saint
English priest, tortured and martyred on completely fabricated charges of conspiracy to murder the queen. Executed in 1582.
John Pibush, Blessed
English priest and missionary to his native land, imprisoned for more than six years, on trial twice for the crime of being a priest, martyred at Waterings in 1600/1.
John Rigby, Saint
Rigby, an unmarried layman, appeared in court on behalf of his employer's daughter and admitted that he was himself a Catholic. He was martyred in 1600.
John Roberts, Saint
A Welsh Benedictine, the first prior of Downside, was arrested six times, exiled four times, and finally martyred at Tyburn in 1610.
John Rochester, Blessed
Brief biography of this English Carthusian priest and martyr, d. 1537.
John Ruysbroeck, Blessed
Article on the Admirable Doctor, "undoubtedly the foremost of the Flemish mystics," author, who died in 1381.
John Sandys, Blessed
Brief account of the martyrdom of the English priest, which took place in 1586.
John Sarkander, Saint
This priest was tortured for refusing to break the seal of confession, and died in prison in 1620.
Patriarch of Constantinople, the author of an important collection of ecclesiastical laws; b. at Sirimis near Antioch; d. 577.
John Shert, Blessed
Very brief biographical profile of the English priest, martyred in 1581.
John Southworth, Saint
English priest, missionary to his native land, imprisoned several times, once deported, finally martyred for the crime of being a priest. He was executed at Tyburn, 28 June, 1654.
John Speed, Blessed
Alias John Spence. Englishman, martyred for aiding St. John Boste. Bl. John was executed at Durham in 1593/4.
John Stone, Saint
English Augustinian friar, martyred probably in 1539.
John Story, Blessed
Or Storey. Member of Parliament, was arrested but escaped and became a Spanish subject. Kidnapped in Flanders, he was carried to the Tower, where he was tortured repeatedly. Died a martyr in 1571.
John Sugar, Blessed
Also called John Suker. English priest, was martyred on the same day as a layman, the Bl. Robert Grissold, in 1604 after spending a year in prison.
Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria (481-482) at the time of the Monophysite troubles.
John the Almsgiver, Saint
Also called John Eleemosynarius. Patriarch of Alexandria, d. 616.
John the Baptist, Saint
Lengthy article on the Precursor.
John the Deacon
Article about four historians of the Middle Ages who bear this name.
John the Evangelist, Saint
Brother of James and son of Zebedee.
John the Faster
Patriarch of Constantinople (John IV, 582-595), famous chiefly through his assumption of the title "ecumenical patriarch"; d. 2 September, 595.
John the Silent, Saint
Or John Hesychastes. Monk, runaway bishop of Colonia, hermit, d. 558.
John Thulis, Blessed
Lancashire priest and martyr, converted some of his fellow prisoners. Was executed together with Roger Wrenno in 1615 or 1616.
John Twenge, Saint
Canon regular, prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington. Miracle-worker, d. 1379.
John V, Pope
A Syrian whose father was one Cyriacus; when he was born is not known; d. 2 August, 686.
John VI, Pope
A Greek, the date of whose birth is unknown; d. 11 January, 705.
John VII, Pope
John VIII, Pope
John Wall, Saint
Biography of the English Franciscan priest and missionary, martyred in 1679.
John Woodcock, Blessed
Brief biography of the English Franciscan martyr, who died in 1646.
John X, Pope
Born at Tossignano, Romagna; enthroned, 914; died at Rome, 928.
John XI, Pope
John XII, Pope
Date of birth unknown; reigned 955-64.
John XIII, Pope
Date of birth unknown; enthroned on 1 Oct., 965; d. 6 Sept., 972.
John XIV, Pope
After the death of Benedict VII, Bishop Peter Campanora of Pavia, earlier imperial chancellor of Italy, was elected pope with the consent of Emperor Otto II, and took the name of John.
John XIX (XX), Pope
Enthroned in 1024; d. 1032.
John XV (XVI), Pope
Enthroned 985; d. April, 996.
John XVI (XVII)
Antipope 997-998; d. probably in 1013.
John XVII (XVIII), Pope
Date of birth unknown; d. 6 Nov., 1003.
John XVIII (XIX), Pope
Successor of John XVII, consecrated Christmas, 1003; d. June, 1009.
John XXI (XX), Pope
Born at Lisbon between 1210 and 1220; enthroned, 1276; died at Viterbo, 20 May, 1277.
John XXII, Pope
Born at Cahors in 1249; enthroned, 5 September, 1316; died at Avignon, 4 December, 1334.
John, Epistles of
Three canonical books of the New Testament written by the Apostle St. John.
John, Gospel of
According to the traditional order, the Gospel of St. John occupies the last place among the four canonical Gospels.
Johnson, Lionel Pigot
Born at Broadstairs on the Kentish coast, 15 Mar., 1867; died 4 Oct., 1902.
Johnston, Richard Malcolm
Educator, author, b. 8 March, 1822, at Powellton, Georgia, U.S.A.; d. at Baltimore, Maryland, 23 September, 1898.
Joinville, Jean, Sire de
Seneschal of Champagne, historian, b in 1225; d. at Joinville, 1317.
A discoverer and the son of a wagon-maker, was born at Quebec, Canada, on 21 September 1645; d. in Canada, May 1700.
Diocese created by Pius X, 27 January, 1904 by division of the Archdiocese of Montreal; comprises three counties, Joliette, Berthier, and Montcalm, with four parishes of L'Assomption County.
Jolly, Philipp Johann Gustav von
German physicist, born at Mannheim, 26 September, 1809; died at Munich, 24 December, 1884.
The fifth of the Minor Prophets. Article takes a look at the Book of Jonah.
Jonas of Bobbio
Monk and hagiographer, b. about the close of the sixth century at Sigusia (Susa) in Piedmont; d. after 659.
Jonas of Orléans
Bishop and ecclesiastical writer, born in Aquitaine; died in 843 or 844.
Name of several persons mentioned in the Old Testament.
A biography with references of the London-born architect who drew his inspiration from the Classical forms of Italy.
Formed at a point about five and a half miles below Banias, by the junction of three streams, the Jordan enters Lake Hûleh about nine and a third miles lower down.
Historian, lived about the middle of the sixth century in the Eastern Roman Empire.
Jordanus of Giano
Italian Minorite, b. at Giano in the Valley of Spoleto, c. 1195; d. after 1262.
Jorg, Joseph Edmund
Historian and politician, b. 23 Dec., 1819 at Immenstadt (Ahgau); d. at Landshut, 18 Nov., 1901.
Josaphat Kuncevyc, Saint
Lithuanian-born Basilian monk and Ruthenian Rite archbishop of Polotsk, writer. He loved to make profound bows while reciting the Jesus Prayer. Martyred in 1623.
The eleventh son of Jacob, the firstborn of Rachel, and the immediate ancestor of the tribes of Manasses and Ephraim.
Joseph Anchieta, Blessed
Short biography of this famous Jesuit missionary to Brazil.
Joseph Calasanctius of the Mother of God, Pious Workers of Saint
Founded at Vienna, 24 November, 1889, by Father Anton Maria Schwartz for all works of charity, but especially the apostolate among workingmen.
Joseph Calasanctius, Saint
Priest, founder of the Piarists, d. 1648.
German Emperor (reigned 1765-90), of the House of Hapsburg-Lorraine, son and successor of Maria Theresa and Francis I.
Joseph Lambton, Blessed
Yorkshire man, a priest, martyred at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1592.
Joseph of Arimathea, Saint
All that is known for certain concerning him is derived from the canonical Gospels.
Joseph of Cupertino, Saint
Mystic from a very young age, priest, d. 1663. Biographical article.
Joseph of Exeter
A twelfth-century Lain poet; b. at Exeter, England.
Joseph of Issachar
A man of the tribe of Issachar, and the father of Igal who was one of the spies sent by Moses to traverse Chanaan and report on the country (Numbers 13:8).
Joseph of Leonessa, Saint
Capuchin missionary, confessor, d. 1612.
Joseph Oriol, Saint
Earned a doctorate in theology, served as a parish priest, renowned for gifts of prophecy and miracles. St. Joseph died in 1702.
Joseph Vaz, Blessed
Biographical article on this 17th-century priest from Goa who was a missionary to Sri Lanka.
Joseph's Society for Colored Missions, Saint
This organization began its labours in 1871, when four young priests from Mill Hill were put in charge of St. Francis Xavier's church, with a large congregation of black Catholics, in Baltimore. Other black missions were soon begun at Louisville, Charleston, Washington, Richmond, Norfolk, and other places in the South.
Joseph's Society for Foreign Missions, Saint
A society of priests and laymen whose object is to labour for the conversion of heathens in foreign countries.
Information on the entire life of St. Joseph.
Joseph, Sisters of Saint
Founded at Le Puy, in Velay, France, by the Rev. Jean-Paul Médaille of the Society of Jesus.
A congregation devoted to the Christian education of youth, founded in the Diocese of Ghent (Belgium) by Canon van Crombrugghe, in 1817.
Jewish historian, born A.D. 37, at Jerusalem; died about 101.
A pious King of Juda (639-608 B.C.), who ascended the throne when he was only eight years of age. He was the son of Amon and the grandson of Manasses.
The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books.
French philosopher; b. at Martignac (Dordogne), 7 May, 1754, d. at Villeneuve-le-Roi (Yonne), 4 May 1824.
Jouffroy, Claude-François-Dorothée de
Mechanician, b. at Abbans, near Besançon, 30 Sept., 1751; d. at Paris, 18 July, 1832.
Jouffroy, Jean de
French prelate and statesman; b. at Luxeuil (Franche-Comté) about 1412; d. at the priory of Rulli, in the Diocese of Bourges, 24 November, 1473.
Linguist, philosopher, author, b. at Berlin, 14 June, 1818, d. at New York, 10 June, 1899.
Jouvancy, Joseph de
Poet, pedagogue, philologist, and historian, b. at Paris, 14 September, 1643; d. at Rome, 29 May, 1719.
French painter, b. at Rouen in 1644, d. at Paris, 5 April, 1717.
Jovellanos, Gaspar Melchor de
Spanish statesman and man of letters, at Gijon, Asturias, 5 Jan., 1744, d. at Puerto de Vega on the borders of Asturias, 27 Nov., 1811.
Jovianus, Flavius Claudius
Roman Emperor, 363-4.
An opponent of Christian asceticism in the fourth century, condemned as a heretic (390).
Historian, b. at Como, Italy, 9 April, 1483, d. at Florence, 11 Dec., 1552.
Joyeuse, Henri, Duc de
Born in 1563 and not, as is mistakenly stated in the "Biographic Michaud", in 1567; died at Rivoli, 28 Sept., 1608. He was the third son of Maréchal Guillaume de Joyeuse, and was a brother of the Admiral Anne de Joyeuse and of the prelate François de Joyeuse.
Juan Bautista de Toledo
An eminent Spanish sculptor and architect; b. at Madrid (date not known); d. there 19 May, 1567.
The third Sunday after Easter.
Jubilee, Holy Year of
Background information relating to the Jubilee.
Jubilee, Year of (Hebrew)
According to the Pentateuchal legislation contained in Leviticus, a Jubilee year is the year that follows immediately seven successive Sabbatic years (the Sabbatic year being the seventh year of a seven-year cycle).
Jubilees, Book of
An apocryphal writing, so called from the fact that the narratives and stories contained in it are arranged throughout in a fanciful chronological system of jubilee-periods of forty-nine years each; each event is recorded as having taken place in such a week of such a month of such a Jubilee year.
The name of one of the Patriarchs, the name of the tribe reputed to be descended from him, the name of the territory occupied by the same, and also the name of several persons mentioned in the Old Testament.
A party of Jewish Christians in the Early Church, who either held that circumcision and the observance of the Mosaic Law were necessary for salvation and in consequence wished to impose them on the Gentile converts, or who at least considered them as still obligatory on the Jewish Christians.
The Apostle who betrayed Jesus.
Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the patriotic and religious revolt of the Jews against the King of Syria (I Mach., ii, 4).
French preacher and spiritual father; born at Rouen, about 20 December, 1661; died at Paris, 11 March, 1735.
Jude, Epistle of Saint
One of the so-called antilegomena; but, although its canonicity has been questioned in several Churches, its genuineness has never been denied.
It designates the part of Palestine adjacent to Jerusalem and inhabited by the Jewish community after their return from captivity.
An ecclesiastical person who possesses ecclesiastical jurisdiction either in general or in the strict sense.
Judges, The Book of
The seventh book of the Old Testament, second of the Early Prophets of the Hebrew canon.
Divine judgment (judicium divinum), as an immanent act of God, denotes the action of God's retributive justice by which the destiny of rational creatures is decided according to their merits and demerits.
To it the prophets of the Old Testament refer when they speak of the "Day of the Lord" (Joel 2:31; Ezekiel 13:5; Isaiah 2:12), in which the nations will be summoned to judgment. In the New Testament the second Parusia, or coming of Christ as Judge of the world, is an oft-repeated doctrine.
The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that immediately after death the eternal destiny of each separated soul is decided by the just judgment of God.
Name given to the fifth Sunday of Lent, and derived from the first words of the Introit of that day.
Judith, Book of
The book exists in distinct Greek and Latin versions, of which the former contains at least eighty-four verses more than the later.
Julia Billiart, Saint
Biographical article on the founder of the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur. She died in 1816.
Julian and Basilissa, Saints
Husband and wife, of whom little is known except that he was martyred in the Diocletian persecution. According to later legend, Basilissa was the founder of a monastery.
Julian of Eclanum
Born about 386; died in Sicily, 454; the most learned among the leaders of the Pelagian movement and Bishop of Eclanum near Beneventum.
Julian of Speyer
A famous composer, poet, and historian of the thirteenth century, b. at Speyer, d. at Paris about 1250.
Julian the Apostate
Roman emperor 361-63, b. at Constantinople in 331, d. 26 June, 363, son of Julius Constantius, the half-brother of Constantine the Great.
Juliana Falconieri, Saint
Niece of St. Alexis Falconieri. She founded the Servite Third Order, and died in 1341.
Juliana of Liège, Saint
Devoted to the Blessed Sacrament, lobbied for the institution of the feast of Corpus Christi, d. 1258.
Juliana of Norwich, Blessed
Biographical article on this fourteenth-century English anchoress, mystic, author. By Edmund Gardner.
Martyred in the Diocletian persecution. The oldest notice says that she died near Naples; the notion that she lived in Nicomedia is strictly legendary.
Titular see in the province of Bithynia Secunda, suffragan of Nicaea.
The father of Christian chronography.
Julius I, Pope Saint
A Roman, anti-Arian, supporter of St. Athanasius. Julius died in 352.
Julius II, Pope
Born on 5 December, 1443, at Albissola near Savona; crowned on 28 November, 1503; died at Rome, in the night of 20-21 February, 1513.
Julius III, Pope
Born at Rome, 10 September, 1487; died there, 23 March, 1555.
Jumièges, Abbey of
Founded in 634 by St. Philibert, who had been the companion of Sts. Ouen and Wandrille at the Merovingian court.
A dogmatic theologian and ecclesiastical historian, born at Münster in Westphalia, 1 March, 1833; died at Louvain, 12 Jan., 1895.
In 1850 he entered the German College at Rome, and was ordained priest in 1855. He afterwards joined the Society of Jesus.
Junípero Serra, Blessed
Biography of the famed Franciscan priest, missionary to Mexico and California, who died in 1784.
The right to guide and rule the Church of God.
A claim, exercised in the Middle Ages, of succession to the property of deceased clerics, at least such as they had derived from their ecclesiastical benefices.
Name of five French botanists.
The name conventionally applied to a family of Italian sculptors, whose real name was Betti, originally from San Martino a Mensola, near Florence.
In its ordinary and proper sense, signifiies the most important of the cardinal virtues.
A biblio-ecclesiastical term; which denotes the transforming of the sinner from the state of unrighteousness to the state of holiness and sonship of God.
Justin de Jacobis, Saint
Italian, a Lazarist priest, titular bishop of Nilopolis, d. 1860.
Justin Martyr, Saint
Lengthy article on the life and teachings of the apologist.
Roman Emperor (527-65).
Theological and Biblical writer. (1550-1622)
A titular see of Armenia Prima, suffragan of Sebaste.
The first bishop of Rochester, and later the fourth archbishop of Canterbury, died possibly in 627.
Juvencus, C. Vettius Aquilinus
Fourth-century Christian Latin poet.
Tribunals for the trial of children charged with crimes or offences.
An important tribal group of Ecuador, comprising a great number of small subtribes speaking a common language with dialectic variants, and together constituting a distinct linguistic stock.
Last update:January 2, 2007 at 16:42:39 UTC