Society Religion and Spirituality Christianity Denominations Catholicism Reference Catholic Encyclopedia I
Suffragan of Bogotá, in the Republic of Colombia, South America.
Irishman, contemporary of St. Patrick, and was a missionary in County Wexford before Patrick set foot in Ireland. Uncle of St. Abban.
Diocese in Southern Ecuador, suffragan of Quito, created by Pius IX.
Elected Bishop of Edessa in 439 as successor of Rabbulas, one of the most ardent supporters of St. Cyril; d. 457.
Iberville, Pierre Le Moyne, Sieur d'
Founder of the colony of Louisiana, b. at Villemarie, Montreal, 16 July, 1661; d. at Havana, 9 July, 1706.
A titular see in the Province of Helenopont, suffragan of Amasia.
The island called Iceland, is considered, because of its population and history as forming a part of Europe, is situated in the North Atlantic Ocean.
A titular see of Lycaonia.
The name of the heresy that in the eighth and ninth centuries disturbed the peace of the Eastern Church, caused the last of the many breaches with Rome that prepared the way for the schism of Photius, and was echoed on a smaller scale in the Frankish kingdom in the West.
The science of the description, history, and interpretation of the traditional representations of God, the saints and other sacred subjects in art.
A great screen or partition running from side to side of the apse or across the entire end of the church, which divides the sanctuary from the body of the church, and is built of solid materials such as stone, metal, or wood, and which reaches often (as in Russia) to the very ceiling of the church, thus completely shutting off the altar and the sanctuary from the worshipper.
Probably from an Arapahoe Indian word, "Gem of the Mountains", the name first suggested for the territory of Colorado.
The word was originally Greek, but passed without change into Latin. It seems first to have meant form, shape, or appearance, whence, by an easy transition, it acquired the connotation of nature, or kind.
The characteristic of those who regard the ideas of truth and right, goodness and beauty, as standards and directive forces.
The nom de plume of an ancient, learned, and pious writer whose identity remained unknown for some centuries.
Etymologically denotes divine worship given to an image, but its signification has been extended to all divine worship given to anyone or anything but the true God.
The country inhabited by the descendants of Edom.
Iglesias de la Casa, José
A Spanish of the coterie gathered about Meléndez, Valdés, born at Salamanca, 31 October, 1748; died 1791.
Iglesias, Diocese of
A suffragan of Cagliari in Sardinia.
Ignacio de Azevedo, Blessed
Portuguese Jesuit, missionary to Brazil, martyred with thirty-nine companions by Huguenot pirates near the island of Palma in 1570.
Ignatius Loyola, Saint
Biography of the Spanish founder of the Jesuits, who died in 1556.
Ignatius of Antioch, Saint
Biography of the bishop and writer. Ignatius was martyred at Rome sometime between 98 and 117.
Ignatius of Constantinople, Saint
Tells the story of this son of Emperor Michael I, forced into monastic life by a rival. Patriarch of Constantinople, deposed on a wicked pretext. Ignatius died in 877.
Lack of knowledge about a thing in a being capable of knowing.
A monogram of the name of Jesus Christ.
Archbishop of Toledo, d. 667.
As generally defined, and as understood in this article, illegitimacy denotes the condition of children born out of wedlock.
One of the United States of America, bounded on the north by Wisconsin, on the west by the Mississippi, which separates it from Iowa and Missouri, on the south by the confluent waters of the Mississippi and the Ohio, which separate it from Kentucky, on the east by Indiana and Lake Michigan.
An important confederacy of Algonquian tribes formerly occupying the greater part of the present state of Illinois, together with the adjacent portions of Wisconsin, Iowa, and Missouri.
Also known as Iltutus. Late fifth- to early sixth-century Welsh saint. Biographical article.
Secret society founded in 1776.
False Spanish mystics.
A district of the Balkan Peninsula, which has varied in extent at different periods.
Images, Veneration of
It is an uncompromising attitude in the late Jewish history, together with the apparently obvious meaning of the First Commandment, that are responsible for the common idea that Jews had no images.
The faculty of representing to oneself sensible objects independently of an actual impression of those objects on our senses.
Imbonati, Carlo Giuseppe
Cistercian of the Reform of St. Bernard, orientalist, biographer, theologian; born at Milan; flourished in the latter half of the seventeenth century.
Imhof, Maximus von
German physicist, born 26 July, 1758, at Rissbach, in Bavaria; died 11 April, 1817 at Munich.
Imitation of Christ
A work of spiritual devotion, also sometimes called the "Following of Christ". Its purpose is to instruct the soul in Christian perfection with Christ as the Divine Model.
In the Constitution Ineffabilis Deus of 8 December, 1854, Pius IX pronounced and defined that the Blessed Virgin Mary "in the first instance of her conception, by a singular privilege and grace granted by God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the human race, was preserved exempt from all stain of original sin."
Immaculate Conception, Congregation of the
Article covers several groups of this name.
Latin, in manere, to remain in. The quality of any action which begins and ends within the agent.
By immortality is ordinarily understood the doctrine that the human soul will survive death, continuing in the possession of an endless conscious existence.
An exemption from a legal obligation (munus), imposed on a person or his property by law, custom, or the order of a superior.
Diocese; suffragan of Bologna.
Imola, Innocenzo di Pietro Francucci da
Italian painter; b. at Imola, c. 1494; d. at Bologna, c. 1550.
An heretical doctrine according to which Christ is in the Eucharist through His human body substantially united with the substances of bread and wine, and thus is really present as God, made bread.
Canon law uses the word impediment in its restricted and technical sense, only in reference to marriage, while impediments to Holy orders are spoken of as irregularities.
Imposition of Hands
A symbolical ceremony by which one intends to communicate to another some favour, quality or excellence (principally of a spiritual kind), or to depute another to some office.
That there would be hypocrites who would take advantage of a profession of piety to mask their own evil designs had been clearly foretold by Christ in the Gospels.
The reproaches which in the liturgy of the Office of Good Friday the Saviour is made to utter against the Jews, who, in requital for all the Divine favours and particularly for the delivery from the bondage of Egypt and safe conduct into the Promised Land, inflicted on Him the ignominies of the Passion and a cruel death.
In Coena Domini
A papal Bull, so called from the feast on which it was annually published in Rome, viz, the feast of the Lord's Supper, or Maundy Thursday.
A phrase used in canon law to designate a certain manner of collating an ecclesiastical benefice.
In Partibus Infidelium
A term meaning "in the lands of the unbelievers," words added to the name of the see conferred on non-residential or titular Latin bishops.
An Italian translation of the Latin in pectore, "in the breast", i.e. in the secret of the heart.
Incardination and Excardination
In the ecclesiastical sense the words are used to denote that a given person is freed from the jurisdiction of one bishop and is transferred to that of another.
Incarnate Word and Blessed Sacrament, Order of the
Founded in the early part of the seventeenth century by Jeanne Chezard de Matel.
Incarnate Word, Sisters of Charity of the
This congregation, with simple vows, was founded by Rt. Rev. C.M. Dubuis, Bishop of Galveston.
The Incarnation is the mystery and the dogma of the Word made Flesh.
An aromatic substance which is obtained from certain resinous trees and largely employed for purposes of religious worship.
Sexual intercourse between those who are related by blood or marriage.
Novelist, dramatist, and actress; b. at Staningfield, near Bury St. Edmunds, 15 Oct., 1753; d. at Kensington, London, 1 Aug., 1821.
Incorporation of Church Property, Civil
Christianity at its very beginning, found the concept of the corporation well developed under Roman law and widely and variously organized in Roman society. It was a concept that the early Christians soon adapted to their organization and, as a means of protection in the periods of persecution.
Index of Prohibited Books
The exact list or catalogue of books, the reading of which was once forbidden to Catholics by the highest ecclesiastical authority.
The peninsula is separated on the north from Tibet and Central Asia by the Himalaya, Hindu Kush, and Karakoram mountains, and some lower ranges divide it from Afghanistan and Baluchistan.
Indian Missions, Bureau of Catholic
An institution originated (1874) by J. Roosevelt Barley, Archbishop of Baltimore, for the protection and promotion of Catholic Indian mission interests in the United States of America.
One of the United States of America, the nineteenth in point of admission.
Diocese; suffragan of Cincinnati, established as the Diocese of Vincennes in 1834, but by brief dated 28 March, and promulgated 30 April, 1898, the pope changed the see to Indianapolis.
History, customs, and language are covered here.
Indies, Patriarchate of the East
In consequence of an agreement between the Holy See and the Portuguese Government in 1886.
The term given, in general, to all those theories, which, for one reason or another, deny that it is the duty of man to worship God by believing and practicing the one true religion.
An individual being is defined by St. Thomas as "quod est in se indivisum, ab aliis vero divisum" (a being undivided in itself but separated from other beings).
The tendency to magnify individual liberty, as against external authority, and individual activity, as against associated activity.
The most easterly of the three great peninsulas of Southern Asia, is bounded on the north by the mountains of Assam, the Plateau of Yun-nan, and the mountains of Kwang-si; on the east by the province of Kwang-si (Canton), the Gulf of Tong-king, and the Sea of China; on the south by the Sea of China, the Gulf of Siam and the Strait of Malacca; on the west by the Gulf of Martaban and the Bay of Bengal.
Induction is the conscious mental process by which we pass from the perception of particular phenomena (things and events) to the knowledge of general truths.
A remission of the temporal punishment due to sin, the guilt of which has been forgiven.
Those which the Roman pontiff, the successor of the Prince of the Apostles, attaches to the crosses, crucifixes, chaplets, rosaries, images, and medals which he blesses, either with his own hand or by those to whom he has delegated this faculty.
General faculties granted by the Holy See to bishops and others, of doing something not permitted by the common law.
King of the West Saxons, d. 728. Also known as Ina or Ini.
In general, exemption or immunity from liability to error or failure; in particular in theological usage, the supernatural prerogative by which the Church of Christ is, by a special Divine assistance, preserved from liability to error in her definitive dogmatic teaching regarding matters of faith and morals.
Loss of a good name.
Child-murder; the killing of an infant before or after birth.
Lawyer and antipapal chronicler. (1435-1500)
As in ecclesiastical language those who by baptism have received faith in Jesus Christ and have pledged Him their fidelity and called the faithful, so the name infidel is given to those who have not been baptized.
The infinite, as the word indicates, is that which has no end, no limit, no boundary, and therefore cannot be measured by a finite standard, however often applied; it is that which cannot be attained by successive addition, not exhausted by successive subtraction of finite quantities.
The name given to a party of Dutch Calvinists in the seventeenth century, who sought to mitigate the rigour of Calvin's doctrine concerning absolute predestination.
Investigator of the physiology of plants, physicist, and physician. (1730-1799)
Italian astronomer, b. at Volterra, Tuscany, 16 April, 1779; d. at Florence, 15 August, 1851.
Ingolstadt, University of
Founded by Louis the Rich, Duke of Bavaria.
Ingres, Jean-Auguste Dominique
A French painter, b. at Montauban, 29 August, 1780; d. at Paris, 14 January, 1867.
Abbot of Croyland, Lincolnshire; d. there 17 December 1109.
Ingworth, Richard of
A Franciscan preacher who flourished about 1225.
The violation of another's strict right against his reasonable will, and the value of the word right is determined to be the moral power of having or doing or exacting something in support or furtherance of one's own advantage.
Innocent I, Pope Saint
Unanimously chosen to succeed Anastasius. Essay on his writings and some of the more notable events of his pontificate. Innocent died in 417.
Innocent II, Pope
Innocent III, Pope
Innocent IV, Pope
Innocent IX, Pope
Innocent V, Pope Blessed
French Dominican, known as "most famous doctor," d. 1276.
Innocent VI, Pope
Innocent VII, Pope
Innocent VIII, Pope
Innocent X, Pope
Innocent XI, Pope Blessed
Lengthy biography of this pope known for his piety and unselfish devotion to duty.
Innocent XII, Pope
Innocent XIII, Pope
Opened at Innsbruck in 1562 by Blessed Peter Canisius, at the request and on the foundation of the Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria.
By this term is usually meant a special ecclesiastical institutional for combating or suppressing heresy.
Either extra-judicial or judicial: the former might be likened to a coroner's inquest in civil law; while the latter is similar to an investigation by the grand jury.
Insane, Asylums and Care for the
The Church, from the earliest times, arranged for the care of the insane.
The dividing line between sanity and insanity, like the line that distinguishes a man of average height from a tall man, can be described only in terms of a moral estimate.
Inscriptions, Early Christian
Divided into three main classes: sepulchral inscriptions, epigraphic records, and inscriptions concerning private life.
Inspiration of the Bible
Covered in four sections, I. Belief in Inspired books; II. Nature of Inspiration; III. Extent of Inspiration; IV. Protestant Views on the Inspiration of the Bible.
This word, strictly speaking, applies to the solemn induction of a canon into the stall or seat which he is to occupy in the choir of a cathedral or collegiate church.
The term usually includes the idea of a purposive adaptation of an action or series of actions in an organized being, not governed by consciousness of the end to be attained.
Institute of Mary
The official title of the second congregation founded by Mary Ward.
Institute of Mission Helpers of the Sacred Heart
There are houses of the institute in New York, Trenton, Porto Rico, and Baltimore.
Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Irish
Founded by Frances Mary Teresa Ball, under the direction and episcopal jurisdiction of the Most Rev. D. Murray, Archbishop of Dublin.
Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools
A society of male religious approved by the Church, but not taking Holy orders, and having for its object the personal sanctification of its members and the Christian education of youth, especially of the children of artisans and the poor.
Institutes, Roman Historical
Collegiate bodies established at Rome by ecclesiastical or civil authority for the purpose of historical research, notably in the Vatican archives.
In its strictest sense the word denotes the collation of an ecclesiastical benefice by a legitimate authority, on the presentation of a candidate by a third person.
The faculty of thought.
Intendencia Oriental y Llanos de San Martín
Vicariate Apostolic in the province of Saint Martin, Colombia, South America, created 24 March, 1908, and entrusted to the Society of Mary.
An act of the will by which that faculty efficaciously desires to reach an end by employing the means.
To go or come between two parties, to plead before one of them on behalf of the other.
The right to intercede for criminals, which was granted by the secular power to the bishops of the Early Church.
Originally in Roman law, an interlocutory edict of the praetor, especially in matter affecting the right of possession; it still preserves this meaning in both Roman and canon law.
Interest (in Economics)
A value exacted or promised over and above the restitution of a borrowed capital.
Interest (in Psychology)
Defined as a kind of consciousness accompanying and stimulating attention, a feeling pleasant or painful directing attention, the pleasurable or painful aspect of a process of attention, and as identical with attention itself.
Temporary settlements in matters of religion, entered into by Emperor Charles V (1519-56) with the Protestants.
The name given in the Roman Curia to a diplomatic agent who, though not belonging to the five highest classes of the papal diplomatic service (legatus a latere, nuncio with full powers of a legatus a latere, legate, nuncio of the first class, and nuncio of the second class), is, nevertheless, chief of a legation (chef de mission).
Designates the part of Scriptural science which is concerned with topics preliminary to the detailed study and correct exposition of Holy Writ, and also, it is given to a work in which these various topics are actually treated.
The Introit (Introitus) of the Mass is the fragment of a psalm with its antiphon sung while the celebrant and ministers enter the church and approach the altar.
The act by which unlawful possession of an ecclesiastical benefice is taken.
A psychological and philosophical term which designates the process of immediate apprehension or perception of an actual fact, being, or relation between two terms and its results.
Inventory of Church Property
An inventory is to be made at the beginning of a given administration; when the period of management has expired, the out-going official must produce all the things which appear in this inventory or were added later, excepting those which have been consumed or rendered useless.
The act by which a suzerain granted a fief to his vassal, and the ceremonies which accompanied that grant.
Investitures, Conflict of
The terminus technicus for the great struggle between the popes and the German kings Henry IV and Henry V, during the period 1075-1122.
The invitation addressed to the faithful to come and take part in the Divine Office.
Iona, School of
Thorough history of the ancient monastery.
A group of seven islands and a number of islets scattered over the Ionian Sea to the west of Greece.
Ionian School of Philosophy
Includes the earliest Greek philosophers, who lived at Miletus, an Ionian colony in Asia Minor, during the sixth century B.C., and a group of philosophers who lived about one hundred years later and modified the doctrines of their predecessors in several respects.
A titular see in the province of Paphlagonia, suffragan of Gangres.
One of the North Central States of the American Union, and is about midway between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans.
Bishop of Grosswardein (Nagy-Várad), b. at Ipoly-Keszi, 20 Oct., 1823; d. at Grosswardein, 2 December 1886.
Ippolito Galantini, Blessed
Founder of the Christian Congregation of Florence, d. 1619.
A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris, suffragan of Synnada.
Article on the bishop of Lyons, Father of the Church, d. late second or early third century.
Catherine FitzGibbon, born in London, England, 12 May, 1823; died in New York, 14 August, 1896.
A titular see of Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia.
Iriarte, Ignacio de
Painter, b. at Azcoitia, Guipuzcoa, in 1620; d. at Seville, 1685.
Irish College, in Rome
Towards the close of the sixteenth century, Gregory XIII had sanctioned the foundation of an Irish college in Rome, and had assigned a large sum of money as the nucleus of an endowment.
Irish Colleges, on the Continent
The religious persecution under Elizabeth and James I lead to the suppression of the monastic schools in Ireland in which the clergy for the most part received their education. It became necessary, therefore, to seek education abroad, and many colleges for the training of the secular clergy were founded on the Continent, at Rome, in Spain and Portugal, in Belgium, and in France.
Irish Confessors and Martyrs
The period covered by this article embraces that between the years 1540 and (approximately) 1713.
It is uncertain at what period and in what manner the Irish discovered the use of letters. It may have been through direct commerce with Gaul, but it is more probable, as McNeill has shown in his study of Irish oghams, that it was from the Romanized Britons that they first learned the art of writing.
Irish, The, (in countries other than Ireland)
Includes the United States, Australia, Canada, Great Britain, South Africa, and South America.
An Italian jurist and founder of the School of Glossators, b. at Bologna about 1050; d. there about 1130.
A noted confederacy of five, and afterwards six, cognate tribes of Iroquoian stock, and closely cognate languages, formerly occupying central New York, and claiming right of conquest over nearly all the tribes from Hudson Bay to Tennessee River, and westward to Lake Michigan and Illinois River.
A canonical impediment directly impeding the reception of tonsure and Holy orders or preventing the exercise of orders already received.
A quality of certain ecclesiastical offices and dignities. It implies that the incumbent's appointment is, under certain conditions, a perpetual one, or for the term of his natural life.
A religious sect called after Edward Irving (1792-1834), a deposed Presbyterian minister.
The son of Abraham and Sara.
Isaac Jogues, Saint
French Jesuit missionary to Canada, martyred in 1646.
Isaac of Armenia
Catholicos or Patriarch of Armenia (338-439).
Isaac of Nineveh
A Nestorian bishop of that city in the latter half of the seventh century, being consecrated by the Nestorian Patriarch George (660-80).
Isaac of Seleucia
Patriarch of the Persian Church, d. 410.
Isabel of France, Saint
Daughter of Blanche of Castille and sister of St. Louis IX. Founded a convent of Poor Clares. Died 1270.
Queen of Castile. (1451-1504)
Essay on the Biblical prophet and the book which bears his name.
Titular see in the Province of Lycaonia, suffragan of Iconium.
Diocese, suffragan to Naples.
Isernia and Venafro
Diocese in the province of Campobasso in Molise (Southern Italy).
Isidore of Pelusium, Saint
Born at Alexandria, became a monk, opposed Nestorianism and Eutychianism, d. no later than 449-450.
Isidore of Seville, Saint
Biographical entry for this bishop, who died in 636.
Isidore of Thessalonica
Cardinal and sometime Metropolitan of Kiev or Moscow, b. at Thessalonica (Saloniki) towards the end of the fourteenth century; d. at Rome, 27 April, 1463.
Isidore the Labourer, Saint
Spanish day laborer, married to St. María de la Cabeza. He died in 1130.
A titular see in the province of Pamphylia Secunda; it was a suffragan of Perge.
Isla, José Francisco de
Spanish preacher and satirist, b. at Villavidantes (Kingdom of Leon), 24 March, 1703; d. at Bologna, 2 November, 1782.
An Arabic word which, since Mohammed's time, has acquired a religious and technical significance denoting the religion of Mohammed and of the Koran, just as Christianity denotes that of Jesus and of the Gospels, or Judaism that of Moses, the Prophets, and of the Old Testament.
The name of two pueblos of the ancient Tigua tribe, of remote Shoshoncan stock.
An Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Islip, near Oxford; d. at Mayfield, Sussex, 26 April, 1366.
Son of Abraham and Hagar.
A Catholic Armenian Latin see.
The word designates the descendants of the Patriarch Jacob, or Israel.
Ninth son of Jacob, and name of the tribe descended from him.
Titular see of Cilicia Prima.
The "Brigid of Munster," d. 570.
The modern language of Italy is naturally derived from Latin, a continuation and development of the Latin actually spoken among the inhabitants of the peninsula after the downfall of the Roman Empire.
Italians in the United States
Information on distribution, statistics, and religion.
The name applied to the Greeks in Italy who observe the Byzantine Rite.
In ancient times Italy had several other names: it was called Saturnia, in honour of Saturn; Enotria, wine-producing land; Ausonia, land of the Ausonians; Hesperia, land to the west (of Greece); Tyrrhenia, etc. The name Italy, which seems to have been taken from vitulus, to signify a land abounding in cattle, was applied at first to a very limited territory.
Ite Missa Est
This is the versicle chanted in the Roman Rite by the deacon at the end of Mass, after the Post-Communions.
Under this term are comprised two kinds of works: travellers' relations describing the places and countries visited by them, together with such incidents of the voyage as are worth noting; and compilations intended to furnish information for the guidance of travellers, i.e. works which we now distinguish as books of travel and guide-books.
A form of prayer used by monks and clerics before setting out on a journey, and for that reason usually printed at the end of the Breviary, where it can be conveniently found when required.
Historical painter; born at Königswinter, at the foot of the Drachenfels, in 1813; died at Düsseldorf, 1879.
Ives, Levi Silliman
Born at Meriden, Connecticut, U.S.A., 16 September, 1797; d. at New York, 13 October, 1867. He was one of the most distinguished converts to the Church made in the United States through the influence of the Tractarian Movement of 1848-49.
Or St. Yves. Patron saint of lawyers, d. 1303.
Ivo of Chartres, Saint
Essay on the life and writings of this bishop, who died in 1116.
The tusks of the elephant, hippopotamus, walrus, and other animals: a tough and elastic substance, of a creamy white, taking a high and lasting polish, largely employed in the arts since pre-historic times, and used extensively in making or adorning ecclesiastical objects by the primitive and medieval Christians.
Ivrea, Diocese of
Suffragan of Turin, Northern Italy.
Ixtlilxochitl, Fernando de Alba
Mexican historian. (1568-1648)
Last update:January 2, 2007 at 16:42:39 UTC