Precentor of Canterbury and historian.
Eanbald I
The first Archbishop of York by that name.
Eanbald II
Date of birth unknown; died 810 or 812.
Includes information on the feast and customs.
Easter Controversy
The dispute regarding the proper time of observing Easter.
Eastern Churches
Eastern Churches depended originally on the Eastern Empire at Constantinople.
Abbot of Wearmouth, nephew of St. Benedict Biscop; born 650, died 7 March, 686.
Easton, Adam
Cardinal, born at Easton in Norfolk; died at Rome, 15 September (according to others, 20 October), 1397.
Eata, Saint
Second bishop of Hexham, d. 686.
Archbishop of Reims, b. towards the end of the eighth century; d. 20 March, 851.
Ebendorfer, Thomas
German chronicler, professor, and statesman, b. 12 August, 1385, at Haselbach, in Upper Austria; d. at Vienna, 8 Jan., 1464.
Eberhard of Ratisbon
A German chronicler about the beginning of the fourteenth century.
Eberhard, Matthias
Bishop of Trier, b. 15 Nov., 1815, at Trier (Germany), d. there 30 May, 1876.
Ebermann, Veit
Theologian and controversialist, born 25 May, 1597, at Rendweisdorff, in Bavaria; died 8 April, 1675.
Two varieties: the earlier group called Ebionites denied the divinity of Christ; the later Ebionites were a Gnostic sect who believed that matter was eternal and was God's body.
The name of two German mystics.
The name given to the book of Holy Scripture which usually follows the Proverbs; the Hebrew Qoheleth probably has the same meaning.
Ecclesiastical Architecture
All ecclesiastical architecture may be said to have been evolved from two distinct germ-cells, the oblong and the circular chamber.
Ecclesiastical Art
Article explores the origin, history, and types.
The longest of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible, and the last of the Sapiential writings in the Vulgate of the Old Testament.
Eccleston, Samuel
Fifth Archbishop of Baltimore, U.S.A. (1801-1851)
Eccleston, Thomas of
Thirteenth-century Friar Minor and chronicler.
Echard, Jacques
Historian of the Dominicans, born at Rouen, France, 22 September, 1644; died at Paris, 15 March, 1724.
Echave, Baltasar de
Painter, born at Zumaya, Guipuzcoa, Spain, in the latter part of the sixteenth century; died in Mexico about the middle of the seventeenth.
A titular see of Thessaly, Greece.
Echter von Mespelbrunn, Julius
Prince-Bishop of Würzburg, b. 18 March, 1545, in the Castle of Mespelbrunn, Spessart (Bavaria); d. 13 Sept., 1617, at Würzburg.
Echternach, Abbey of
A Benedictine monastery in the town of that name, in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Diocese of Trier.
Eck, Johann
Theologian and principal adversary of Luther. Detailed profile by J.P. Kirsch.
Eckart, Anselm
Missionary, born at Bingen, Germany, 4 August, 1721; died at the College of Polstok, Polish Russia, 29 June, 1809.
Abbot of Schönau, born in the early part of the twelfth century.
Eckhart, Johann Georg von
German historian, b. at Duingen in the principality of Kalenberg, 7 Sept., 1664; d. at Würzburg, 9 Feb., 1730.
Eckhart, Meister
Biographical article on the Dominican theologian and mystic. Includes bibliography.
Eckhel, Joseph Hilarius
German numismatist. (1737-1798)
A philosophical term meaning either a tendency of mind in a thinker to conciliate the different views or positions taken in regard to problems, or a system in philosophy which seeks the solution of its fundamental problems by selecting and uniting what it regards as true in the various philosophical schools.
Offers details of false views.
An independent state of South America, bounded on the north by Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the south by Peru, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.
A title applied to two different collections of old Norse literature, the poetical or "Elder Edda" and the prose or "Younger Edda".
The family name of four engravers.
Edesius and Frumentius
Tyrian Greeks of the fourth century, probably brothers, who introduced Christianity into Abyssinia; the latter a saint and first Bishop of Axum, styled the Apostle of Abyssinia, d. about 383.
A titular archiepiscopal see in that part of Mesopotamia formerly known as Osrhoene.
Edgeworth, Henry Essex
Confessor of Louis XVI, and vicar-general of the Diocese of Paris at the height of the French Revolution. (1745-1807)
Derives its name from the time (about A.D. 620) when the fortress of Edwin's burgh was raised on a lofty spur of the Pentland Hills, overlooking the Firth of Forth, and established the Anglian dominion in the northern part of the Northumbrian Kingdom.
Editions of the Bible
Includes Hebrew and Greek editions.
Edmund Arrowsmith, Saint
English Jesuit and martyr, d. 1628. Short biography.
Edmund Campion, Saint
English Jesuit, martyr, d. 1581. Biographical article.
Edmund Ignatius Rice, Blessed
Biographical article on the founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools (better known as the Irish Christian Brothers).
Edmund Rich, Saint
This Archbishop of Canterbury died in 1240, and was canonized within six years. Biography.
Edmund the Martyr, Saint
Short biography of the King of East Anglia, who died in 870.
Edmund, Congregation of Saint
Founded in 1843, by Jean-Baptiste Muard, at Pontigny, France, for the work of popular missions.
In the broadest sense, education includes all those experiences by which intelligence is developed, knowledge acquired, and character formed. In a narrower sense, it is the work done by certain agencies and institutions, the home and the school, for the express purpose of training immature minds.
Education of the Blind
Includes statistics and history.
Education of the Deaf
History, aids, and alphabets are discussed.
Educational Association, The Catholic
A voluntary organization composed of Catholic educators and other persons who have an interest in the welfare of Catholic education in the United States.
Edward Ambrose Barlow, Saint
Short biography of the Benedictine priest, martyred at Lancaster in 1641.
Edward Bamber, Blessed
Lancashire priest martyred in 1646.
Edward III
Detailed biographical article on the King of England.
Edward Jones, Blessed
Welsh convert to Catholicism. Became a priest. He was martyred in 1590. Article also has some information on his fellow martyr Anthony Middleton.
Edward Oldcorne, Blessed
Englishman, Jesuit priest, martyred in 1606. Biography.
Edward Osbaldeston, Blessed
Profile of the English priest and martyr, who was executed at York in 1594.
Edward Powell, Blessed
Biography of the Welsh priest, Bl. Thomas Abel's companion in martyrdom, d. 1506.
Edward Stransham, Blessed
English priest and martyr, d. 1586. Biography.
Edward the Confessor, Saint
Short biography of the King of England, who died in 1066.
Edward the Martyr, Saint
King of England, assassinated at the age of 16 or 17 at the behest of his stepmother. St. Edward was murdered in 979.
Edward Waterson, Blessed
English priest, missionary, and martyr. Executed in 1594 (1593 old style). Biographical entry.
Edwin, Saint
Biography of the first Christian King of Northumbria, who died in 633. Also known, in Latinized form, as Aeduini.
King of the English, eldest son of Edmund and St. Aelfgifu, born about 940; died 959.
Egan, Boetius
Archbishop of Tuam, born near Tuam, Ireland, 1734; died near Tuam, 1798.
Egan, Michael
First bishop of Philadelphia, U.S.A., b. in Ireland, most probably in Galway, in 1761; d. at Philadelphia, 22 July, 1814.
Frequently though incorrectly called "First King of England", died A.D. 839.
Egbert, Archbishop of Trier
Belonged to the family of the Counts of Holland. Died 8 or 9 December, 993.
Egbert, Archbishop of York
Son of Eata, brother of the Northumbrian King Eadbert and cousin of King Ceolwulf, to whom the Venerable Bede dedicated his history; date of birth unknown; d. 19 November, 766.
Egbert, Saint
A Northumbrian by birth, became a monk in Ireland, died in 729 at the age of 90.
King of Northumbria, b. 650; d. 685.
Historian, born c. 770 in the district watered by the River Main in the eastern part of the Frankish Empire; d. 14 March, 840, at Seligenstadt.
Egloffstein, Frederick W. von
Born at Aldorf, near Nuremberg, Bavaria, 18 May, 1824; died in New York, 1885.
Egmont, Lamoral, Count of
Born at the Château de La Hamaide, in Hainault, 18 Nov., 1522; beheaded at Brussels, 5 June, 1568.
Synopsis of this ethical system, and short refutation.
Eguiara y Eguren, Juan José
Mexican scholar. (d. 1763)
Egwin, Saint
Third bishop of Worcester, founded the Benedictine monastery of Evesham, d. 717 or 720.
Provides information on history, religion, and literature.
Egyptian Church Ordinance
An early Christian collection of thirty-one canons regulating ordinations, the liturgy, and other main features of church life.
Diocese in Bavaria, north of the Danube, and suffragan to Bamberg.
Eimhin, Saint
Abbot and Bishop of Ros-mic-Truin, d. first half of the sixth century. Some believe that Eimhin is the author of the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick.
Einsiedeln, Abbey of
A Benedictine monastery in the Canton of Schwyz, Switzerland, dedicated to Our Lady of the Hermits.
Eisengrein, Martin
Catholic theologian and polemical writer, born of Protestant parents at Stuttgart, 28 December, 1535; died at Ingolstadt, 4 May, 1578.
Eithene, Saint
Sixth-century Irish woman, visionary.
Eithne, Saint
Irish princess, converted to Christianity by St. Patrick, died immediately after receiving her First Communion (433).
Name of five monks of the (Swiss) Abbey of St. Gall from the tenth to the thirteenth century.
Ekkehard of Aura
Benedictine monk and chronicler, b. about 1050; d. after 1125.
A titular see of Asia Minor.
The largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago.
Elbel, Benjamin
Bavarian moral theologian. (1690-1756)
A sect of Gnostic Ebionites.
Elder, George
Educator, b. 11 August, 1793, in Kentucky, U.S.A.; d. 28 Sept., 1838, at Bardstown.
Elder, William Henry
Third Bishop of Natchez, Mississippi, U.S.A., and second Archbishop of Cincinnati, b. in Baltimore, Maryland, 22 March, 1819; d. in Cincinnati, 31 Oct., 1904.
Includes information on three uses of this name.
Denotes in general one chosen or taken by preference from among two or more; as a theological term it is equivalent to "chosen as the object of mercy or Divine favour, as set apart for eternal life".
In its broadest sense election means a choice among many persons, things, or sides to be taken. In the stricter juridical sense it means the choice of one person among many for a definite charge or function.
Eleutherius (Eleutheros), Pope Saint
Native of Nicopolis, served as deacon in the Roman Church, d. about 189.
Eleutherius, Saint
First Bishop of Tournai, early sixth century.
A titular see in Palaestina Prima.
Elevation, The
The Elevation of the Mass is a rite of comparatively recent introduction.
Elhuyar y de Suvisa, Fausto de
Mineralogist and chemist. (1755-1833)
Old Testament prophet.
Elias of Cortona
Minister General of the Friars Minor, b., it is said, at Bevilia near Assisi, c. 1180; d. at Cortona, 22 April, 1253.
Elias of Jerusalem
Died 518; one of the two Catholic bishops (with Flavian of Antioch) who resisted the attempt of the Emperor Anastasius I (491-518) to abolish the Council of Chalcedon (451).
Elie de Beaumont, Jean-Baptiste-Armand-Louis-Léonce
Geologist, b. at Canon (Dép. Calvados), near Caen, France, 25 Sept., 1798; d. at Canon, 21 Sept., 1874.
Eligius, Saint
Or Eloi. Bishop of Noyon-Tournai, founded several monasteries, d. 660.
Elined, Saint
British princess, virgin, and martyr, fl. c. 490. Venerated especially in Wales.
A Prophet of Israel.
Armenian historian of the fifth century, place and date of birth unknown, d. 480.
Elizabeth Ann Seton, Saint
Biography of the founder of the Sisters of Charity in the United States.
Elizabeth Associations
Charitable associations of women in Germany which aim for the love of Christ to minister to the bodily and spiritual sufferings of the sick poor and of neglected children.
Elizabeth of Hungary, Saint
Also called St. Elizabeth of Thuringia. Biographical article on the princess, widow, Third Order Franciscan, who died in 1231.
Elizabeth of Portugal, Saint
Queen, also known as St. Isabel, d. 1336.
Elizabeth of Reute, Blessed
Even in her childhood was called "the good Betha." Third Order Franciscan, d. 1420.
Elizabeth of Schönau, Saint
Benedictine visionary, friend of Hildegarde of Bingen. Elizabeth died in 1165.
Elizabeth, Saint
The wife of Zachary, mother of St. John the Baptist, and relative of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Some believe that it was Elizabeth who proclaimed the Magnificat.
Elizabeth, Sisters of Saint
From an association established by Dorothea Klara Wolff, in connection with the sisters, Mathilde and Maria Merkert, and Franziska Werner, 1842, in Nelsse (Prussia), to tend in their own homes, without compensation, helpless sick persons who could not or would not be received into the hospitals.
Ellis, Philip Michael
First Vicar Apostolic of the Western District, England, subsequently Bishop of Segni, Italy, b. in 1652; d. 16 Nov., 1726.
Ellwangen Abbey
The earliest Benedictine monastery established in the Duchy of Wurtemberg, situated in the Diocese of Augsburg about thirty miles north-east of the town of Stuttgart.
The common name for God.
Elphege, Saint
Also called Alphege or Godwine. Hermit, abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury, martyred in 1012. Biographical article.
Suffragan of Tuam, Ireland, a see founded by St. Patrick.
A titular see of Palaestina Tertia, suffragan of Petra.
Elvira, Council of
Held early in the fourth century at Elliberis, or Illiberis, in Spain, a city now in ruins not far from Granada.
Ancient diocese in England.
Elzéar of Sabran, Saint
Married, Third Order Franciscan, d. 1323.
The doctrine that emanation (Lat. emanare, "to flow from") is the mode by which all things are derived from the First Reality, or Principle.
Emancipation, Ecclesiastical
In ancient Rome emancipation was a process of law by which a slave released from the control of his master, or a son liberated from the authority of his father (patria potestas), was declared legally independent. The earliest ecclesiastical employment of this process was in the freeing of slaves.
Ember Days
The days at the beginning of the seasons ordered by the Church as days of fast and abstinence.
An insertion, addition, interpretation. The word has two specific uses in the language of the Church; in the prayer and in the calendar.
In Christian worship embroidery was used from early times to ornament vestments.
Emerentiana, Saint
Virgin and martyr, d. at Rome in the third century.
Emery, Jacques-André
Superior of the Society of St-Sulpice during the French Revolution, b. 26 Aug., 1732, at Gex; d. at Paris, 28 April, 1811.
A titular see of Phœnicia Secunda, suffragan of Damascus, and the seat of two Uniat archdioceses, Greek Melchite and Syrian.
Emigrant Aid Societies
Details of several organizations, the earliest being the Charitable Irish Society of Boston, Massachusetts, founded 17 March, 1737.
Signifies "God with us" (Matthew 1:23), and is the name of the child predicted in Isaias 7:14: "Behold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and his name shall be called Emmanuel".
A titular see in Pa1æstina Prima, suffragan of Cæsarea.
Emmeram, Saint
Late seventh-century missionary to Bavaria, where he was martyred.
Emmeram, Saint, Abbey of
A Benedictine monastery at Ratisbon (Regensburg), named after its traditional founder, the patron saint of the city.
Emmerich, Anne Catherine
An Augustinian nun, stigmatic, and ecstatic, born 8 September, 1774, at Flamsche, near Coesfeld, in the Diocese of Munster, Westphalia, Germany; died at Dulmen, 9 February, 1824.
Primarily, and in its psychological application, the term signifies the theory that the phenomena of consciousness are simply the product of sensuous experience, i.e. of sensations variously associated and arranged.
Ems, Congress of
A meeting of the representatives of the German Archbishops Friedrich Karl von Erthal of Mainz, Maximilian Franz of Cologne, Clemens Wenceslaus of Trier, and Hieronymus von Colloredo of Salzburg, at the little town of Bad-Ems, near Coblenz, in August, 1786, for the purpose of protesting against papal interference in the exercise of episcopal powers and fixing the future relations between these archbishops and the Roman pontiff.
Emser, Hieronymus
The most ardent literary opponent of Luther, born of a prominent family at Ulm, 20 March, 1477; died 8 Nov., 1527 at Dresden.
Encina, Juan de la
Biographical article commenting on his musical and writing abilities and his priestly positions.
Enciso, Diego Ximenez de
Dramatic poet, b. in Andalusia, Spain, c. 1585; date of death unknown.
Enciso, Martín Fernández de
Navigator and geographer, b. at Seville, Spain, c. 1470; d. probably about 1528 at Seville.
The name given in early Christian times to a species of reliquary worn round the neck, in which were enclosed relics.
Literally, "abstainers" or "persons who practised continency", because they refrained from the use of wine, animal food, and marriage.
According to its etymology, an encyclical is nothing more than a circular letter. In modern times, usage has confined the term almost exclusively to certain papal documents which differ in their technical form from the ordinary style of either Bulls or Briefs, and which in their superscription are explicitly addressed to the patriarchs, primates, archbishops, and bishops of the Universal Church in communion with the Apostolic See.
An abridgment of human knowledge in general or a considerable department thereof, treated from a uniform point of view or in a systematized summary.
Article by C.A. Dubray siscusses the group of philosophers who contributed to the Encyclopédie.
Endlicher, Stephan Ladislaus
Austrian botanist, linguist, and historian, b. at Pressburg, Hungary, 24 June, 1804; d. at Vienna, 28 March, 1849.
A property, fund, or revenue permanently appropriated for the support of any person, institution, or object, as a student, professorship, school, hospital.
Energy, The Law of Conservation of
Includes the history and philosophy.
The name of a warm spring near the center of the west shore of the Dead Sea, and also of a town situated in the same place.
Engel, Ludwig
Canonist, b. at Castle Wagrein, Austria; d. at Grillenberg, 22 April 1694.
Engelberg, Abbey of
A Benedictine monastery in Switzerland, formerly in the Diocese of Constance.
Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Admont in Styria, b. of noble parents at Volkersdorf in Styria, c. 1250; d. 12 May, 1331.
Engelbert of Cologne, Saint
Went from excommunicated worldly soldier to martyred archbishop. He was killed by his cousin in 1225.
Engelbrechtsen, Cornelis
Dutch painter, b. at Leyden, 1468; d. there 1533; is believed to have been identical with a certain Cornelis de Hollandere who was a member of the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1492.
England (After 1558)
Article on the relation of the post-Reformation Catholic church to the English state.
England (Before the Reformation)
This term England is here restricted to one constituent, the largest and most populous, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
England, John
First Bishop of Charleston, S.C. (1786-1842)
Englefield, Sir Henry Charles, Bart.
Antiquary and scientist, b. 1752; d. 21 March, 1822.
English College, The, in Rome
Information on its foundation, scholastic status, and students.
English Confessors and Martyrs (1534-1729)
Since this article was published, some of the causes for canonization have been successful, and others have progressed from "venerable" to "blessed."
English Hierarchy, Reorganization of the
The restoration of the English hierarchy in 1850 was a milestone for English Catholics after the Penal Times.
English Literature
Latin, French, Italian, Greek, and Spanish literatures are a few of the influences.
Ennodius, Magnus Felix
Rhetorician and bishop, b. probably at Arles, in Southern Gaul, in 474; d. at Pavia, Italy, 17 July, 521.
Ensingen, Ulrich
Belonged to a family of architects who came from Einsingen near Ulm, Wurtemberg, and who shared as master-builders in the construction of the most important Gothic buildings of the fifteenth century in Southern Germany.
A superstructure which lies horizontally upon the columns in classic architecture.
From Greek 'enthronízein, to place on a throne.
Eoghan, Saints
Some details on five Irish saints of this name.
The surplus days of the solar over the lunar year; hence, more freely, the number of days in the age of the moon on 1 January of any given year. The whole system of epacts is based on the Metonic Lunar Cycle, and serves to indicate the days of the year on which the new moons occur.
Originally the name of one of the divisions of the Roman Empire.
Diocese of the Greek Ruthenian Rite, suffragan to Gran.
Ephesians, Epistle to the
The letter which, in the manuscripts containing the Epistles of St. Paul, bears the title "To the Ephesians" comprises two parts distinctly separated by a doxology (Eph., iii, 20 sq.).
A titular archiespiscopal see in Asia Minor, said to have been founded in the eleventh century B.C. by Androcles, son of the Athenian King Codrus, with the aid of Ionian colonists.
Ephesus, Council of
The third ecumenical council, held in 431.
Ephesus, Robber Council of
The Acts of the first session of this synod were read at the Council of Chalcedon, 451, and have thus been preserved. The remainder of the Acts are known only through a Syriac translation by a Monophysite monk, published from the British Museum MS. Addit. 14,530, written in the year 535.
Ephesus, Seven Sleepers of
One of the many examples of the legend about a man who falls asleep and years after wakes up to find the world changed.
a kind of garment, which differed according to its use by the high-priest, by other persons present at religious services, or as the object of idolatrous worship.
Ephraem, Saint
Long article on the life and works of the hermit, deacon, poet.
Ephraim of Antioch
One of the defenders of the Faith of Chalcedon (451) against the Monophysites, b. at Amida in Mesopotamia; d. in 545.
In its popular sense, the word stands for a refined and calculating selfishness, seeking not power or fame, but the pleasures of sense, particularly of the palate, and those in company rather than solitude.
The name of a prayer that occurs in all Eastern liturgies (and originally in Western liturgies also) after the words of Institution, in which the celebrant prays that God may send down His Holy Spirit to change this bread and wine into the Body and Blood of His Son.
A titular see in Cilicia Secunda, in Asia Minor, suffragan of Anazarbus.
A translator of various Greek works in the middle of the sixth century of the Christian Era.
Epiphanius of Constantinople
Succeeded John II (518-20) as Patriarch of Constantinople.
Epiphanius of Salamis, Saint
Biographical article on the fourth-century monk and bishop.
The feast was called among the Syrians denho (up-going), a name to be connected with the notion of rising light expressed in Luke. I, 78.
That branch of philosophy which is concerned with the value of human knowledge.
Epistle (in Scripture)
The Old Testament exhibits two periods in its idea of an epistle: first, it presents the epistle under the general concept of a book or a writing; secondly, it regards the epistle as a distinct literary form. The New Testament presents a very highly developed form of an epistle.
Epping, Joseph
German astronomer and Assyriologist, b. at Neuenkirchen near Rhine in Westphalia, 1 Dec., 1835; d. at Exaeten, Holland, 22 Aug., 1894.
Epée, Charles-Michel de l'
A philanthropic priest and inventor of the sign alphabet for the instruction of the deaf and dumb; was b. at Versailles, 25 November, 1712; d. at Paris, 23 December, 1789.
Erasmus, Desiderius
Article by Joseph Sauer. An extensive overview of the life, works and impact of this scholar.
Erastus and Erastianism
The name "Erastianism" is often used in a somewhat loose sense as denoting an undue subservience of the Church to the State.
Ercilla y Zúñiga, Alonso de
Spanish soldier and poet, born in Madrid, 7 August, 1533; died in the same city, 29 November, 1594.
Erconwald, Saint
Monk, Bishop of London, founded two monasteries, d. about 690. Biography.
Erdeswicke, Sampson
Antiquarian, date of birth unknown; died 1603.
Erdington Abbey
Situated in a suburb of Birmingham, Warwickshire, England, belongs to the Benedictine congregation of St. Martin of Beuron, Germany, and is dedicated to St. Thomas of Canterbury.
Erhard of Ratisbon, Saint
Seventh-century Irish-born missionary bishop.
Diocese established 1853.
Eriugena, John Scotus
Article by William Turner recounts this scholar's life and influence, and evaluates his teachings.
A district of East Prussia and an exempt bishopric. St. Adalbert of Prague (d. 997) and St. Bruno of Querfurt (d. 1009) converted the early inhabitants of this region, the heathen Prussians, to Christianity and two centuries later Teutonic Knights and members of the Cistercian Order introduced civilization also into the land.
Ernakulam, Vicariate Apostolic of
In May, 1887, the churches of Syrian Rite in Malabar were separated from those of the Latin Rite and formed into the Vicariates of Trichur and Kottayam under European prelates. In response, however, to the petitions of the Syrian Catholics desirous of obtaining bishops of their own race and rite, Leo XIII by his brief "Quae Rei Sacrae" (28 July, 1896) divided the territory anew into three vicariates: Trichur, Changanacherry, and Ernakulam.
Ernan, Saint
Some people count more than two dozen saints of this name. Article tries to distinguish four of them.
Ernst of Hesse-Rheinfels
The sixth son of Moritz, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, after whose resignation of the government in 1627 to his son Wilhelm V, Ernst and his brother Hermann respectively founded the collateral lines of Hesse-Rheinfels and Hesse-Rotenburg.
Architect, b. at Beauvais, France, in 1040; d. 1124.
Errington, William
Priest, founder of Sedgley Park School, b. 17 July, 1716; d. 28 September, 1768.
Reduplicatively regarded, is in one way or another the product of ignorance. But besides the lack of information which it implies, it adds the positive element of a mental judgment, by which something false is held to be true, or something true avouched to be false.
Erskine, Charles
Cardinal, b. at Rome, 13 Feb., 1739; d. at Paris, 20 March, 1811.
Erthal, Franz Ludwig von
Prince-Bishop of Würzburg and Bamberg, b. at Lohr on the Main, 16 September, 1730; d. at Würzburg, 16 February, 1795.
Erthal, Friedrich Karl Joseph, Freiherr von
Last Elector and Archbishop of Mainz, b. 3 Jan., 1719, at Mainz; d. 25 July, 1802, at Aschaffenburg.
Erwin of Steinbach
One of the architects of the Strasburg cathedral, date of birth unknown; d. at Strasburg, 17 January, 1318.
A titular see in Asia Minor. According to legend the city was founded by colonists from Crete.
Erzerum (Theodosiopolis)
The kings of Armenia established their summer residence here. Later Garin fell into the power of the Byzantines, who named it Theodosiopolis (415), under which title it is still a Latin titular see.
The eldest son of Isaac and Rebecca, the twin-brother of Jacob.
Esch, Nicolaus van
A famous mystical theologian, b. in Oisterwijk near Hertogenbosch (Boisle-Duc), Holland, in 1507; d. 19 July, 1578.
A survey of the subject in various pre-Christian religions and cultures, an examination of the development of eschatology in the Old Testament, brief overview of Christian teaching.
Escobar y Mendoza, Antonio
Preacher and writer, born at Valladolid in 1589; died there, 4 July, 1669.
Escobar, Marina de
Mystic and foundress of a modified branch of the Brigittine Order b. at Valladolid, Spain, 8 Feb., 1554; d. there 9 June, 1633.
Escorial, The
A building in Spain situated on the south-eastern slope of the Sierra Guadarrama about twenty-seven miles north-west of Madrid. Its proper title is El Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo del Escorial , Escorial being the name of a small town in the vicinity.
Or Ezra. Article on the man and the books which bear his name.
Esglis, Louis-Philippe Mariauchau d'
Eighth Bishop of Quebec, Canada; born Quebec, 24 April, 1710; died 7 June, 1788.
Archbishop of Lund, Skåne, Sweden; b. about 1100; d. at Clairvaux, 6 (7?) Sept., 1181.
A littoral race occupying the entire Arctic coast and outlying islands of America from below Cook Inlet in Alaska to the mouth of the St. Lawrence.
Esnambuc, Pierre Belain, Sieur d'
Captain in the French marine, b. 1565, at Allouville, near Yvetot (Seine-Inferieure); d. at St. Christopher in Dec., 1636.
Espejo, Antonio
A Spanish explorer, whose fame rests upon a notable expedition which he conducted into New Mexico and Arizona in 1582-3.
Espen, Zeger Bernhard van
Belgian canonist, born at Louvain, 9 July, 1646; died at Amersfoort, Netherlands, 2 Oct., 1728.
Espence, Claude D'
French theologian, born in 1511 at Châlons-sur-Marne; died 5 Oct., 1571, at Paris.
Espinel, Vincent
Poet and novelist; born at Ronda (Malaga), Spain, 1544; died at Madrid, 1634.
Espinosa, Alonso De
Spanish priest and historian of the sixteenth century.
A contract of future marriage between a man and a woman, who are thereby affianced.
Espousals of the Blessed Virgin Mary
A feast of the Latin Church.
Essence and Existence
Essence, described as that whereby a thing is what it is. Existence is that whereby the essence is an actuality in the line of being.
One of three leading Jewish sects mentioned by Josephus as flourishing in the second century B.C., the others being the Pharisees and the Sadducees.
Est, Willem Hessels van
Famous commentator on the Pauline Epistles. (1542-1613)
Establishment, The
The union of Church and State setting up a definite and distinctive relation between the two is frequently expressed in English by the use of the word "establishment".
Estaing, Comte d'
French admiral, b. at the chateau de Ravel (Auvergne), 28 November, 1729; d. at Paris, 28 April, 1794.
Queen of Persia and wife of Assuerus, who is identified with Xerxes (485-465 B.C.).
Estiennot de la Serre, Claude
Benedictine. (1639-1699)
Eternity is defined by Boetius (De Consol. Phil., V, vi) as "possession, without succession and perfect, of interminable life".
Archbishop of York.
Ethelbert, Saint
Biography of the King of the East Angles, who was murdered in 794.
Ethelbert, Saint
King of Kent, a worshipper of Odin well into his adulthood, converted to Christianity, d. 616. Biography.
Etheldreda, Saint
Queen of Northumbria, twice married for reasons of state, d. 679. Biography.
Ethelwold, Saint
Bishop of Winchester, called "father of monks," d. 984.
Etherianus, Hugh and Leo
Brothers, Tuscans by birth, employed at the court of Constantinople under the Emperor Manuel I (Comnenus, 1143-1180).
The fourteenth Archbishop of Canterbury, England, date of birth unknown; died 12 May, 805.
Many writers regard ethics as any scientific treatment of the moral order and divide it into theological, or Christian, ethics (moral theology) and philosophical ethics (moral philosophy).
Includes geography, history, and religion.
An Armenian monastery, since 1441 the ecclesiastical capital of the schismatic Armenians, and seat of their patriarch or catholicos, whom the greater part of the Non-Uniat Armenian Church acknowledge as their head.
A titular see of Phoenicia Secunda or Libanensis, in Palestine.
A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris in Asia Minor.
Eucharist, as a Sacrament
Since Christ is present under the appearances of bread and wine in a sacramental way, the Blessed Eucharist is unquestionably a sacrament of the Church.
Eucharist, Early Symbols of the
The earliest and always the favourite symbol of the Eucharist in the monuments was that inspired by the miracle of the multiplication of the loaves and fishes; the banquet of the seven Disciples appears only in one (second-century) catacomb scene; the miracle of Cana in two, one of which is of the early third, the other of the fourth, century.
Eucharist, Introduction to the
The name given to the Blessed Sacrament of the Altar its twofold aspect of sacrament and Sacrifice of Mass, and in which Jesus Christ is truly present under the bread and wine.
Eucharist, Real Presence of Christ in
Article considers: the fact of the Real Presence; the several allied dogmas grouped about it; and the speculations of reason, so far as speculative investigation regarding the august mystery under its various aspects is permissible, and so far as it is desirable to illumine it by the light of philosophy.
Eucharistic Congresses
Gatherings of ecclesiastics and laymen for the purpose of celebrating and glorifying the Holy Eucharist and of seeking the best means to spread its knowledge and love throughout the world.
Eucharius, Saint
First bishop of Trier (Treves). Second half of third century.
Eucherius, Saint
Bishop of Lyons, theologian, d. about 449.
The name of one of the chief Service books of the Byzantine Church. It corresponds more or less to the Missal and Ritual.
An ecclesiastical society instituted at Caen, France, 25 March, 1643, by Jean Eudes.
Ælia Eudocia, sometimes wrongly called Eudoxia, was the wife of Theodosius II; died c. 460. Her original name was Athenais, and she was the daughter of Leontius, one of the last pagans who taught rhetoric at Athens.
A titular see of Galatia Secunda in Asia Minor, suffragan of Pessinus.
Eugendus, Saint
Fourth abbot of Condat, d. 510. Also called St. Augendus, Oyand, or Oyan.
Eugene I, Pope Saint
Made bishop of Rome after Pope St. Martin I had been in exile for 14 months. Eugene died in 657.
Eugene II, Pope
Elected 6 June, 824; died 27 Aug., 827.
Eugene III, Pope Blessed
Cistercian monk and abbot chosen by unanimous vote of the College of Cardinals to succeed Lucius II. Blessed Eugene died in 1151.
Eugene IV, Pope
Gabriello Condulmaro, or Condulmerio, b. at Venice, 1388; elected 4 March, 1431; d. at Rome, 23 Feb., 1447.
Eugenics, The Church and
Eugenics literally means "good breeding". It is defined as the study of agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations either physically or mentally.
Eugenius I
Archbishop of Toledo, successor in 636 of Justus in that see; d. 647.
Eugenius II (the Younger)
Archbishop of Toledo from 647 to 13 Nov., 657, the date of his death.
Eugenius of Carthage, Saint
Unanimously elected bishop of Carthage, exiled for a time for speaking out against the Arians, died 505.
Eulalia of Barcelona, Saint
Martyred 12 February, 304, patron saint of sailors.
The term has been applied in ecclesiastical usage to the object blessed. It was occasionally used in early times to signify the Holy Eucharist, and in this sense is especially frequent in the writings of St. Cyril of Alexandria.
Eulogius of Alexandria, Saint
Patriarch of Alexandria. Argued against Novatians, and against Nestorius and Eutyches. Eulogius died in 607.
Eulogius of Cordova, Saint
Writer, martyr, elected Archbishop of Toledo shortly before he was beheaded (11 March, 859).
A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana in Asia Minor, and suffragan to Hierapolis.
A phase of extreme Arianism prevalent amongst a section of Eastern churchmen from about 350 until 381; as a sect it is not heard of after the middle of the fifth century.
Euphemius of Constantinople
Succeeded as patriarch Flavitas (or Fravitas, 489-490), who succeeded Acacius (471-489).
Euphrasia (Eupraxia), Saint
A desert mother, died after 410.
Euphrosyne, Saint
According to the Vitae Patrum, passed as a man and lived in a men's monastery for 38 years. She died in about 470.
A titular see of Epirus Vetus in Greece, suffragan of Nicopolis.
The conception of Europe as a distinct division of the earth, separate from Asia and Africa, had its origin in ancient times.
A titular see in Provincis Euphratensis, suffragan of Hierapolis.
Eusebius Bruno
Bishop of Angers, b. in the early part of the eleventh century; d. at Angers, 29 August, 1081.
Eusebius of Alexandria
Ecclesiastical writer and author of a number of homilies well known in the sixth and seventh centuries.
Eusebius of Cæsarea
Biographical article on the "Father of Church History."
Eusebius of Dorylæum
Bishop of Dorylæum in Asia Minor, was the prime mover on behalf of Catholic orthodoxy against the heresies of Nestorius and Eutyches.
Eusebius of Laodicea
An Alexandrian deacon who had some fame as a confessor and became bishop of Laodicea in Syria, date of birth uncertain: d. about 268.
Eusebius of Nicomedia
Bishop, place and date of birth unknown; d. 341. He was a pupil at Antioch of Lucian the Martyr, in whose famous school he learned his Arian doctrines.
Eusebius, Chronicle of
Consists of two parts: the first was probably called by Eusebius the "Chronograph" or "Chronographies"; the second he terms the "Canon", or "Canons", and also the "Chronological Canons".
Eusebius, Pope Saint
Reigned for only four months, in 309 or 310, was deported, died in exile, is counted as a martyr.
Eusebius, Saint
Bishop of Vercelli, exiled for defending St. Athanasius, anti-Arian, martyr, d. 371.
Eusebius, Saint
A Roman presbyter, confessor, d. possibly in 357.
Eusebius, Saint
Anti-Arian bishop of Samosata, martyr, d. 379 or 380.
Eustace White, Saint
English convert to Catholicism, priest, missionary to his native land, martyred in 1591. Short biography.
Eustace, John Chetwode
Antiquary, b. in Ireland, c. 1762; d. at Naples, Italy, 1 Aug., 1815.
Eustace, Maurice
His own father had him arrested for secretly taking Holy Orders, and Maurice's brother accused him of treason. Martyred at Dublin in 1581.
Eustace, Saint
Companion of St. Columbanus and second abbot of Luxeuil, d. 625.
Eustachius and Companions, Saints
Second-century Roman martyrs.
Eustachius, Bartolomeo
A distinguished anatomist of the Renaissance period.
Eustathius of Sebaste
Born about 300; died about 377. He was one of the chief founders of monasticism in Asia Minor, and for a long time was an intimate friend of St. Basil.
Eustathius, Saint
Anti-Arian bishop of Antioch, died in exile, probably in 360.
Eustochium Julia, Saint
Daughter of St. Paula. Monastic, spoke Latin and Greek, read Hebrew, the recipient of a famous letter from St. Jerome. She died in 419 or 420.
A deacon of Alexandria and later Bishop of Sulca.
From Greek eu, well, and thanatos, death, easy, painless death.
Euthymius, Saint
Called "the Great," abbot in Palestine, d. 473.
Eutropius of Valencia
Spanish bishop; d. about 610.
An heresiarch of the fifth century.
Eutychianism and Monophysitism are usually identified as a single heresy. But as some Monophysites condemned Eutyches, the name Eutychians is given by some writers only to those in Armenia.
Eutychianus, Pope Saint
The successor of Pope Felix I. Eutychianus died in 283.
Melchite Patriarch of Alexandria, author of a history of the world, b. 876, at Fustat (Cairo); d. 11 May, 940.
Eutychius I
Patriarch of Constantinople, b. about 512, in Phrygia; d. Easter Day, 5 April, 582.
Church historian. (536-594)
Evagrius Ponticus
Short article on this important fourth-century author of ascetical writings.
Liturgical books containing those portions of the Gospels which are read during Mass or in the public offices of the Church.
Evangelical Alliance, The
An association of Protestants belonging to various denominations founded in 1846.
Evangelical Church
Almost from the beginning the new Evangelical Church was split, first into two communions, the Lutheran and the Reformed, then into a multitude of sects.
In the New Testament this word, in its substantive form, occurs only three times: Acts, xxi, 8; Eph., iv, 11; II Tim., iv, 5. It seems to indicate not so much an order in the early ecclesiastical hierarchy as a function.
Evaristus, Pope Saint
Sometimes called Aristus. Martyr, died about 107.
First woman; wife of Adam.
Eve of a Feast
In the first ages, during the night before every feast, a vigil was kept. In the evening the faithful assembled in the place or church where the feast was to be celebrated and prepared themselves by prayers, readings from Holy Writ (now the Offices of Vespers and Matins), and sometimes also by hearing a sermon.
Everald Hanse, Blessed
Priest martyred at Tyburn in 1581.
Evesham Abbey
Founded by St. Egwin, third Bishop of Worcester, about 701, in Worcestershire, England, and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin.
In a large sense, described as the sum of the opposition, which experience shows to exist in the universe, to the desires and needs of individuals; whence arises, among humans beings at least, the sufferings in which life abounds.
The first Bishop of Antioch after St. Peter.
Evolution, Catholics and
Discussed under the headings: (1) Scientific Hypothesis vs. Philosophical Speculation; (2) Theistic vs. Atheistic Theories of Evolution; (3) The Theory of Evolution vs. Darwinism; and (4) Human Evolution vs. Plant and Animal Evolution.
Evolution, History and Scientific Foundation of
History, definition, and various arguments.
Located in Portugal, raised to archiepiscopal rank in 1544, at which time it was given as suffragans Leiria and Portalegre; in 1570 and later were added Sylves, Ceuta, Congo, Santo Thomé, Funchal, Cabo Verde, and Angra.
Diocese in the Department of Eure, France; suffragan of the Archbishopric of Rouen.
Ewald, Saints
Both saints named Ewald (or Hewald)--Ewald the Black and Ewald the Fair--were Northumbrian priests, martyred in Old Saxony about 695.
Ewing, Thomas
Jurist and statesman, b. in West Liberty, Virginia (now West Virginia), U.S.A., 28 December, 1789; d. at Lancaster, Ohio, 26 October, 1871.
Ex Cathedra
Literally "from the chair", a theological term which signifies authoritative teaching and is more particularly applied to the definitions given by the Roman pontiff.
A process prescribed or assigned for testing qualification; an investigation, inquiry.
Examination of Conscience
By this term is understood a review of one's past thoughts, words and actions for the purpose of ascertaining their conformity with, or difformity from, the moral law.
Examiners, Apostolic
So called because appointed by the Apostolic See for service in Rome. In 1570 Pius V instituted the Apostolic examiners to conduct examinations of candidates for orders and of confessors.
Examiners, Synodal
The chief purpose of synodal examiners is to conduct competitive examinations or concursus though they may be designated to hold of other examinations.
A title used in various senses both civilly and ecclesiastically.
Exclusion, Right of
The alleged competence of the more important Catholic countries, Austria, France, and Spain, to indicate to their respective cardinal protector, or cardinal procurator, those members of the Sacred College who were personæ minus gratæ, so that, if there was a possibility of one of these becoming pope, the authorized cardinal might, before the decisive ballot, give his veto, in the name of his government, against such election.
Exclusion from the communion, the principal and severest censure, is a medicinal, spiritual penalty that deprives the guilty Christian of all participation in the common blessings of ecclesiastical society.
Executor, Apostolic
A cleric who puts into execution a papal rescript, completing what is necessary in order that it be effective.
A semicircular stone or marble seat; a rectangular or semicircular recess; the portico of the Grecian palæstra, or gymnasium, in which disputations of the learned were held among the ancients; also, in private houses, the parastas, or vestibule, used for conversation.
Exegesis, Biblical
The branch of theology which investigates and expresses the true sense of Sacred Scripture.
The whole or partial release of an ecclesiastical person, corporation, or institution from the authority of the ecclesiastical superior next higher in rank, and the placing of the person or body thus released under the control of the authority next above the former superior, or under a still higher one, or under the highest authority of all, the pope.
A faculty which civil rulers impart to a Bull, papal Brief, or other ecclesiastical enactment in order to give it binding force in their respective territories.
Exeter, Ancient Diocese of
English see, chosen by Leofric, Bishop of Crediton, as his cathedral city in 1050.
Exorcism is (1) the act of driving out, or warding off, demons, or evil spirits, from persons, places, or things, which are believed to be possessed or infested by them, or are liable to become victims or instruments of their malice; (2) the means employed for this purpose, especially the solemn and authoritative adjuration of the demon, in the name of God, or any of the higher power in which he is subject.
(1) In general, any one who exorcises or professes to exorcise demons (cf. Acts 19:13); (2) in particular, one ordained by a bishop for this office, ordination to which is the second of the four minor orders of the Western Church.
Expectation of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Celebrated on 18 December by nearly the entire Latin Church. Owing to the ancient law of the Church prohibiting the celebration of feasts during Lent (a law still in vigour at Milan), the Spanish Church transferred the feast of the Annunciation from 25 March to the season of Advent, the Tenth Council of Toledo (656) assigning it definitely to 18 December.
An expectative, or an expectative grace, is the anticipatory grant of an ecclesiastical benefice, not vacant at the moment but which will become so, regularly, on the death of its present incumbent.
Expeditors, Apostolic
Officials who attend to the sending of Bulls, Briefs, and Rescripts, that emanate from the Apostolic Chancery, the Dataria, the Sacred Paenitentiaria, and the Secretariate of Briefs.
Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament
A manner of honouring the Holy Eucharist, by exposing it, with proper solemnity, to the view of the faithful in order that they may pay their devotions before it.
Philosophical term. From Lat. ex-tendere, to spread out.
This word is employed to designate some papal decretals not contained in certain canonical collections which possess a special authority, i.e. they are not found in the Decree of Gratian or the three official collections of the "Corpus Juris".
Extreme Unction
A sacrament to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect spiritual health, including, if need be, the remission of sins, and also, conditionally, to restore bodily health, to Christians who are seriously ill.
Exul Hibernicus
The name given to an Irish stranger on the Continent of Europe in the time of Charles the Great, who wrote poems in Latin, several of which are addressed to the emperor.
The hymn in praise of the paschal candle sung by the deacon, in the liturgy of Holy Saturday.
Exuperius, Saint
Or Exsuperius. Early fifth-century bishop of Toulouse.
Eyb, Albrecht von
One of the earliest German humanists, born in 1420 near Anabach in Franconia; died in 1475.
Eyck, Hubert and Jan van
Brothers, Flemish illuminators and painters, founders of the school of Bruges and consequently of all the schools of painting in the North of Europe.
Eycken, Jean Baptiste van
Painter, born at Brussels, Belgium, 16 September, 1809; died at Schaerbeek, 19 December, 1853.
Eymeric, Nicolas
Theologian and inquisitor, born at Gerona, in Catalonia, Spain, c. 1320; died there 4 January, 1399.
Eyre, Thomas
First president of Ushaw College; born at Glossop, Derbyshire; in 1748; died at Ushaw, 8 May, 1810.
Eyston, Charles
Antiquary, born 1667; died 5 November, 1721; he was a member of the ancient family of Eyston.
King of Juda, son and successor of Achaz.
Son of Buzi, and was one of the priests who, in the year 598 B.C., had been deported together with Joachim as prisoners from Jerusalem (IV Kings, xxiv, 12-16; cf. Ezek. xxxiii, 21, xl, 1).
A writer of the fifth century, born at Golp, in the province of Taikh, a tributary valley of the Chorokh, in Northern Armenia.
A priest of Bamberg in the eleventh century, author of a famous poem known as the "Song of the Miracles of Christ".
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