Baader, Franz Xaver von
German philosopher, born at Munich, 1765; died 23 May, 1841.
Baal, Baalim
A word which belongs to the oldest stock of the Semite vocabulary and primarily means "lord", "owner".
Town in Syria; also called Heliopolis.
The word is derived from the Babylonian bab-ilu, meaning "gate of God".
Babenstuber, Ludwig
German philosopher and theologian; vice-chancellor of the University of Salzburg; born 1660 at Teining in Bavaria; died 5 April, 1726, at the Benedictine monastery of Ettal.
Babinet, Jacques
French physicist. (1794-1872)
Babylas, Saint
Bishop of Antioch, martyr in the Decian persecution, died in prison.
Babylon (Title)
The curial title of a Latin archbishopric, also of a Chaldean patriarchate, and of a Syrian archbishopric.
Includes geography, history, and biblical references.
This meeting was rather a witenagemot, or Parliament, than an ecclesiastical synod, presided over by Wihtred, King of Kent.
Bishop of Corinth.
Bachelot, Alexis John Augustine
Prefect Apostolic of the Sandwich Islands. (1796-1837)
An early fifth-century writer, known only through two treatises which warrant the conjecture that he was a monk, possibly an abbot, and a Spaniard.
Bachmann, Paul
Catholic theological controversialist, born at Chemnitz, Saxony, about 1466.
Backer, Augustin de
Bibliographer, born at Antwerp, Belgium, 18 July, 1809; died at Liège, 1 December, 1873.
Backx, Peter Hubert Evermode
Ordained priest 17 March, 1832, considered the second founder of the Norbertine Abbey of Tongerloo.
Bacon, David William
First Bishop of Portland, Maine. (1813-1874)
Bacon, John
An English Carmelite and theologian, born towards the end of the thirteenth century.
Bacon, Nathaniel
Better know under the assumed name of Southwell, a Jesuit priest and bibliographer, b. in the county of Norfolk, England, in 1598; d. at Rome, 2 Dec., 1676.
Baconian System of Philosophy, The
Essay takes a look at this system and its relation to theology and the beliefs of the Catholic church.
The Latin name Pax, or Civitas Pacensis, was given to this district because it was thought to be the Pax Julia or Pax Augusta of the Romans.
The Grand Duchy of Baden is situated in the southwestern part of the German Empire.
Badia, Tommaso
Cardinal, author, papal legate, born at Modena, 1483; died at Rome, 6 September, 1547.
Badin, Stephen Theodore
Pioneer missionary priest of Kentucky. (1768-1853)
Badius, Raphael
A Florentine Dominican of the seventeenth century.
Baegert, John Jacob
Missionary and ethnographer. (1717-1777)
Baert, François
Bollandist, born at Ypres, 25 August, 1651; died at Antwerp, 27 October, 1719.
Baeumer, Suitbert
Historian of the Breviary and one of the most scholarly patrologists of the nineteenth century.
Vicariate apostolic in German East Africa, separated by a pontifical Decree of 11 May, 1906, from the Vicariate Apostolic of Northern Zanzibar.
Founded on the Tigris by the second Abbaside Caliph Abou Giafar al Mansur (762 or 764) and named by him Medinet es-Selam, or City of Salvation.
A titular see of Lydia in Asia Minor.
Baglioni, Giovanni, Cavaliere
Known as the "Deaf Man of the Barozzo", a painter of distinction, b. in Rome, 1571; d. there 1644.
A diocese situated in the district of Viterbo, Italy, and immediately subject to the Holy See.
Bagot, Jean
Theologian, born at Rennes, in France, 9 July, 1591, died at Paris, 23 August, 1664.
Bagshaw, Christopher
Convert, priest, prisoner for the Faith, and a prominent figure in the controversies between Catholic priests and the reign of Elizabeth.
Bahama Islands, The
The most northerly group of the West Indies.
Bailey, Thomas
Controversialist, died c. 1657.
Baillargeon, Charles François
A French-Canadian bishop. (1798-1870)
Baillet, Adrien
French author. (1649-1706)
Bailloquet, Pierre
French missionary to Canadian Indians. (1612-1692)
Baily, Thomas
A Catholic clergyman, b. in Yorkshire, England; d. at Douai, France, 7 October, 1591.
Bainbridge, Christopher
Archbishop of York, and Cardinal. (1464-1514)
Baines, Peter Augustine
Titular Bishop of Siga. (1787-1843)
Baines, Ralph
Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, England, b. at Knowsthorp, Yorks, date of birth uncertain; d. 18 November, 1559.
Baini, Abbate Giuseppe
Composer, born in Rome, 21 October, 1775; died there 21 May, 1844.
Baithen of Iona, Saint
Irish monk, immediate successor of St. Columba as abbot of Iona. Baithen died sometime between 598 and 600.
Baius, Michel
Theologian and author of a system known as Baianism. (1513-1589)
Baker City, Diocese of
Comprises Wasco, Klamath, Lake, Sherman, Gilliam, Wheeler, Morrow, Grant, Union, Crook, Umatilla, Wallowa, Baker, Harney, and Malheur counties in the State of Oregon, U.S.A.
Baker, Charles
Real name David Henry Lewis. Biography of the convert to Catholicism, who was martyred in 1679.
Baker, David Augustine
Benedictine mystic and ascetic writer. (1575-1641)
Baker, Francis Asbury
American priest and convert. (1820-1865)
Bakócz, Thomas
Cardinal and statesman, b. about 1442, in the village of Erdoed, county Szatmar, Northeastern Hungary; d. 15 June, 1521.
The derivation of the name is uncertain. Dr. Neubauer would connect it with the god Ammo or Ammi, as though Balaam belonged to a people whose god or lord was Ammo or Ammi.
A titular see of Syria.
Balbina, Saint
There are at least two saints of this name venerated at Rome.
Balbinus, Boleslaus
A Jesuit historian of Bohemia. (1621-1688)
Balboa, Vasco Nuñez de
Explorer, discoverer of the Pacific Ocean from the west coast of Central America. (1475-1517)
Balbuena, Bernardo de
A Spanish poet, born in Val de Peñas, 1568; died in Porto Rico, 1627.
Balbus, Hieronymus
Humanist, poet, diplomatist, and Bishop of Gurk in Carinthia, b. about 1450 at Venice; d. there, probably 1535.
Baldachium of the Altar
A dome-like canopy in wood, stone, or metal, erected over the high altar of larger churches, generally supported on four columns, though sometimes suspended by chains from the roof.
Balde, Jacob
A German poet. (1604-1668)
Bishop of Dol, in France, chronicler, b. about 1050; d. 7 January, 1130.
Balderic (Baudry)
A monk of Liège, a writer and teacher of the twelfth century, b. date unknown, at Florennes in Belgium; d. about 1157.
Baldi, Bernardino
An Italian poet and savant, b. at Urbino, 5 June, 1553; d. at the same place, 10 October, 1617.
Baldovinetti, Alesso
A notable Florentine painter, b. in Florence, 14 October, 1427; d. there, 29 August, 1499.
Baldred, Saint
Two saints of this name have the same feast day. One was a Celt; the other, and Englishman.
Baldung, Hans
Known as Grien or Grun, from his fondness for brilliant green, both in his own costume and in his pictures, a vigorous and distinguished painter, engraver, and draughtsman on wood, b. at Gmund, Swabia, about 1476; d. at Strasburg, 1545.
Archbishop of Trier and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, born 1285; died 1354.
Baldwin of Canterbury
Thirty-ninth Archbishop, a native of Exeter, date of birth unknown; d. 19 Nov., 1190.
Baldwin, Francis
Jurist. (1520-1573)
Balearic Isles
A group in the western part of the Mediterranean belonging to Spain and consisting of four larger islands, Majorca, Minorca, Iviza, and Formentera, and eleven smaller islands of rocky formation.
Ball, Mother Frances Mary Teresa
Born in Dublin 9 January, 1794; died 19 May, 1861; foundress of the Irish Branch of the Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
One of the three suffragan dioceses of the ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, Australia.
Ballerini, Antonio
Jesuit theologian. (1805-1881)
Ballerini, Girolamo and Pietro
Celebrated theologians and canonists, the sons of a distinguished surgeon of Verona.
Balme, Henry
A Franciscan theologian, born at Genera, date uncertain; d. 23 February, 1439.
Balmes, Jaime Luciano
Philosopher and publicist, b. at Vich, Spain, 28 August, 1810; d. there, 9 July, 1848.
Balsam is an oily, resinous, and odorous substance, which flows spontaneously or by incision from certain plants, and which the Church mixes with olive oil for use as chrism.
Balsamon, Theodore
A canonist of the Greek Church, born in the second half of the twelfth century at Constantinople; died there, after 1195.
The Greek and Latin name for Belshazzar, which is the Hebrew equivalent for Bel­sarra­usur, i.e., "May Bel protect the king".
Baltimore, Archdiocese of
History includes colonial and American periods.
Baltimore, Plenary Councils of
Provides details of three councils held in 1852, 1866, and 1884.
Baltimore, Provincial Councils of
These councils have a unique importance for the Church in the United States, inasmuch as the earlier ones legislated for practically the whole territory of the Republic, and furnished moreover a norm for all the later provincial councils of the country.
Baltus, Jean François
Theologian, born at Metz, 8 June, 1667; died at Reims, 9 March, 1743.
Balue, Jean
A French cardinal, b. probably c. 1421, in Poitou; d. 5 October, 1491, at Ripatransone.
Baluze, Etienne
French scholar and historian. (1630-1718)
Includes history and statistics for the Archdiocese of Bamberg, in the kingdom of Bavaria.
The name of several men mentioned in the Bible.
Bancel, Louis
Born at Valence, 1628; died at Avignon, 1685.
Bandello, Matteo
Writer, born at Castelnuovo di Scrivia in Piedmont, Italy, in 1480; died Bishop of Agen, France, in 1565.
Banduri, Anselmo
Archaeologist and numismatologist. (1671-1743)
Diocese; anciently known as Bangor Vawr, situated in Carnarvonshire on the Menai Straits.
Bangor Abbey
The name of two famous monastic establishments in Ireland and England.
Bangor, Antiphonary of
The codex, found by Muratori in the Ambrosian Library at Milan.
Banim, John and Michael
Brothers and writers from Kilkenny, Ireland.
The Diocese of Banjaluka in Western Bosnia.
Bankruptcy, Civil Aspect of
Earlier English terms, bankruptship, bankrupture.
Bankruptcy, Moral Aspect of
Bankruptcy must be considered not only from the legal but also from the moral point of view; for sound morality prescribes that debts must be paid.
Banns of Marriage
In general the ecclesiastical announcement of the names of persons contemplating marriage.
Bapst, John
Jesuit missionary and educator. (1815-1887)
One of the Seven Sacraments of the Christian Church; frequently called the "first sacrament", the "door of the sacraments", and the "door of the Church".
Baptismal Font
A basin or vase, serving as a receptacle for baptismal water in which the candidate for baptism is immersed, or over which he is washed, in the ceremony of Christian initiation.
Baptismal Vows
The name popularly given to the renunciations required of an adult candidate for baptism just before the sacrament is conferred.
Baptista Mantuanus, Blessed
Carmelite, Renaissance poet, d. 1516.
Baptista Varani, Blessed
Poor Clare and ascetical writer. She died in 1527.
The separate building in which the Sacrament of Baptism was once solemnly administered, or that portion of the church-edifice later set apart for the same purpose.
I. Hermits of St. John the Baptist. II. Missionaries of St. John the Baptist. III. Sisterhood of St. John the Baptist.
A Protestant denomination which exists chiefly in English speaking countries and owes its name to its characteristic doctrine and practice regarding baptism.
Bar Hebræus
A Jacobite Syrian bishop, philosopher, poet, grammarian, physician, Biblical commentator, historian, and theologian. (1226-1286)
Bar-Kepha, Moses
Jacobite bishop and writer. (813-903)
The deliverer of the Israelites from the power of the Chanaanites under the judgeship of Debbora.
Baradæus, Jacob
A Syrian Monophysite bishop, born in Tella, towards the end of the fifth or the beginning of the sixth century, died in 578.
Baraga, Frederic
First Bishop of Marquette, Michigan, U.S.A. (1797-1868)
Barat, Nicolas
A French Orientalist, born at Bourges during the first quarter of the seventeenth century; died in 1706 at Paris.
Barba, Alvaro Alonzo
A secular priest and writer.
A titular see of Mesopotamia.
Barbara, Saint
Legendary virgin and martyr, first mentioned in the early seventh century. Alleged to have died in the third or fourth century, but date is uncertain and place of martyrdom varies.
Barbarigo, Giovanni Francesco
Italian Cardinal, nephew of Blessed Gregorio Barbarigo (1625-97), born in 1658 at Venice; died in 1730.
Suffragan diocese of the Spanish province of Huesca.
Barbelin, Felix-Joseph
Styled the "apostle of Philadelphia", b. at Luneville, Province of Alsace, France, 30 May, 1808; d. in Philadelphia, 8 June, 1869.
Barber Family, The
Daniel Barber, soldier of the Revolution, Episcopalian minister and convert. (1756-1834) Virgil Horace Barber, son of Daniel. (1782-1847)
Barbieri, Giovanni
A famous painter of religious subjects. (1591-1666)
Barbosa, Agostino
A noted canonist, b. at Guimaraens, Portugal, in 1589; consecrated in Rome, 22 March, 1649, Bishop of Ugento in Otranto, Italy, died seven months later.
Barbosa-Machado, Ignacio
A Portuguese historian, born at Lisbon in 1686; died in 1734.
Barbour, John
Scottish ecclesiastic and author of "The Bruce", a historical poem in the early Scottish or Northern English dialect, b. about 1320; d. 1395.
Barbus, Paulus
Italian philosopher and theologian, died at Cremona, 4 August, 1494.
A titular see of Cyrenaica in Northern Africa.
One of the suffragan dioceses of the Archdiocese of Tarragona.
Barcelona, University of
An outgrowth of the ecclesiastical schools founded in the eleventh century.
Barcena, Alonzo de
A Jesuit, native of Bacza in Andalusia, Spain. (1528-1598)
Barclay, John
Author of the political novel "Argenis" and other Latin works in prose and verse. (1582-1621)
Barclay, William
Scottish jurist, b. 1546; d. at Angers, France, 3 July, 1608.
Barco Centenera, Martin del
A secular priest, in 1572 accompanied as chaplain, the expedition of Juan Ortiz de Zárate to the Rio de La Plata.
Barcos, Martin de
French theologian of the Jansenist School. (1600-1678)
Bard, Henry
An English soldier and diplomat, b. 1604; d. 1660.
Bardesanes and Bardesanites
Syrian Gnostic or, more correctly, a Syrian poet, astrologist, and philosopher, d. 222, at Edessa.
An archdiocese situated in the province of the same name, in Apulia, Southern Italy.
False prophet mentioned in the New Testament.
Barlaam and Josaphat
Main characters of a seventh-century Christian legend. Barlaam, a hermit, converted the prince Josaphat to Christianity, despite the efforts of Josaphat's father Abenner to prevent such a thing. Although Barlaam and Josaphat are included in the Roman Martyrology and in the Greek calendar, the story is actually a Christianized version of a legend about Buddha.
Barletta, Gabriel
Sometimes called Barlete, De Barolo, or Barolus.
Barlings, Abbey of
Founded in 1154 in honour of Our Lady by Ralph de Haye who had given some lands to the Abbot of Newhouse.
Barlow, William Rudesind
Third son of Sir Alexander Barlow of Barlow Hall, date of birth uncertain; d. at Douai, 19 Sept., 1656.
Barnabas of Terni
Friar Minor and missionary, d. 1474 or 1477.
Barnabas, Saint
Originally Joseph, styled an Apostle in Holy Scripture, and, like St. Paul, ranked by the Church with the Twelve, though not one of them.
Barnabas, The Epistle of
Contains no clue to its author nor to those for whom it was intended.
The popular name of a religious order which is canonically known by the title, given to it by Pope Paul III in 1535, of Regular Clerics of St. Paul.
Baroccio, Federigo
Italian painter and engraver. (1528-1612)
Barocco Style
A debased application to architecture of Renaissance features.
Baron, Bonaventura
Irish Franciscan theologian, philosopher, and writer of Latin prose and verse. (1610-1696)
Baron, Vincent
Dominican theologian and preacher. (1604-1674)
Baronius, Venerable Cesare
Cardinal and ecclesiastical historian. (1538-1607)
Diocese in Venezuela, South America.
Barradas, Sebastião
A Portuguese exegete and preacher, born at Lisbon in 1543; died at Coimbra in 1615.
Barral, Louis-Mathias, Count de
Archbishop of Tours, France, born 26 April, 1746, at Grenoble; died 7 June, 1816, at Paris.
Barrande, Joachim
French palæontologist. (1799-1883)
Barrasa, Jacinto
Born at Lima, Peru, early in the seventeenth century; died there, 22 Nov., 1704.
Barre, Antoine-Lefebvre, Sieur de la
Tenth French Governor-General of Canada, b. at Paris in 1622; d. in 1690.
Barreira, Balthasar
A Portuguese Jesuit missionary, born at Lisbon, 1531; died 1612.
Barrientos, Lopez de
Spanish Dominican bishop, patriot, and diplomat. (1382-1469)
Barron, Edward
Irish missionary. (1801-1854)
Barros, João de
Historian, b. in Portugal, 1496; d. 20 October, 1570.
Barrow, John
Priest, descended from a family of stanch Catholic yeomen. (1735-1811)
Barrow, William, Venerable
An English Jesuit martyr, born in Lancashire, in 1609, died 30 June, 1679.
Barruel, Augustin
Controversialist and publicist, born at Villeneuve de Berg (Ardeche); 2 October, 1741; died at Paris, 5 October, 1820.
Barry, John
Second Bishop of Savannah. (1799-1859)
Barry, John
U.S. Navy Captain. (1745-1803)
Barry, Patrick
Horticulturist. (1816-1890)
Barry, Paul de
A member of the Society of Jesus, born at Leucate in 1587; died at Avignon, 28 July, 1661.
Barthel, Johann Caspar
A German canonist. (1697-1771)
Bartholi, Francesco della Rossa
Friar Minor and chronicler, died c. 1372.
Bartholomaeus Anglicus
Thirteenth-century Franciscan encyclopedist.
Also called Bartholomaeus Parvus (the Little), born at Bologna, year not known; died 15 August, 1333.
Bartholomew of Braga, Venerable
Born at Verdela, near Lisbon, May, 1514; died at Viana, 16 July, 1590.
Bartholomew of Braganca
Born about 1200; died 1 July, 1271.
Bartholomew of Brescia
Italian canonist, b. probably in the second half of the twelfth century at Brescia; d. 1258.
Bartholomew of Edessa
Syrian apologist and polemical writer.
Bartholomew of Lucca
Historian, b. about 1227 at Lucca; d. about 1327.
Bartholomew of Pisa
Friar Minor and chronicler.
Bartholomew of San Concordio
Canonist, and man of letters, b. at San Concordia, near Pisa about 1260; d. at Pisa, 11 June, 1347.
Bartholomew, Saint
Mentioned in the lists of apostles in the Synoptic Gospels and in Acts, thought to be identical with Nathaniel (mentioned only in the Gospel of John).
The name given to Armenian monks who sought refuge in Italy after the invasion of their country by the Sultan of Egypt in 1296.
Barthélemy, Jean-Jacques
French numismatologist and writer, b. at Cassis (Provence), 1716; d. in Paris, 1795.
Bartoli, Daniello
Historian and littérateur, born at Ferrara, 12 February, 1608; died in Rome, 12 January, 1685.
Bartolocci, Giulio
A Cistercian monk and learned Hebrew scholar, b. at Celleno in the old kingdom of Naples, 1 April, 1613; d. at Rome, 19 October, 1687.
Bartolommeo, Fra
Italian Dominican painter (1475-1517)
Bartolozzi, Francesco
An engraver, etcher, and painter, b. at Florence, 1727; d. at Lisbon, 1815.
Barton, Elizabeth
Born probably in 1506; executed at Tyburn, 20 April, 1534; called the "Nun of Kent".
The disciple of Jeremiah, and the traditional author of the deuto-canonical book, which bears his name.
Barzynski, Vincent
Polish-American priest (1838-1899)
A sculpture executed upon and attached to a flat surface.
Basil of Amasea
Bishop and Martyr.
Basil of Seleucia
Bishop and ecclesiastical writer, date of birth uncertain; d., probably, between 458 and 460.
Basil the Great, Saint
Biographical article on the Bishop of Caesarea, who is one of the Cappadocian Fathers, Doctor of the Church, and brother of St. Gregory of Nyssa.
Basil, Liturgy of Saint
Several Oriental liturgies, or at least several anaphoras, have been attributed to the great St. Basil, Bishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia from 370 to 379.
Basil, Rule of Saint
St. Basil drew up his Rule for the members of the monastery he founded about 356 on the banks of the Iris in Cappadocia.
Priests of the Community of St. Basil.
The term can indicate either the architectural style of a church, or its canonical status.
Martyrs bearing this name are mentioned in the old martyrologies on three different days, namely, on 10, 12, and 28 June.
The earliest of the Alexandrian Gnostics, a native of Alexandria and flourished under the Emperors Adrian and Antoninus Pius, about 120-140.
A titular see of Asia Minor.
Several saints of this name appear in martyrologies. Next to nothing is known about any of them except place of martyrdom, and sometimes the names of their spouses or companions in martyrdom.
Basins, Ecclesiastical Use of
Extensively used in the Jewish Ritual and were in early use in Christian churches for ablutions and to receive lamp-drippings.
Basle, Council of
Convoked by Pope Martin V in 1431, closed at Lausanne in 1449.
Composed of the two Dioceses of Basle and Lugano which are united only by having a bishop in common.
The birthplace of St. Gonsalo Garcia, the only Indian saint, who was a companion of St. Philip de las Casas, the first native of America to be canonized.
Bassett, Joshua
Convert and controversialist, Master of Sidney Sussex College, born about 1641, at Lynn Regis, where his father was a merchant; died in London, in 1720.
Bassi, Matthew of
Founder of the Capuchins. (1495-1552)
Bishop of Ephesus (444-448).
Bastiat, Claude-Frédéric
A French economist, b. at Mugron, a small city in the Department of Landes, 29 June, 1801; d. at Rome, 24 December, 1850.
Baston, Guillaume-André-Réné
A French theologian, b. at Rouen, 29 November, 1741; d. at Saint-Laurent, 26 September, 1825.
A mountainous district of South Africa, bounded on the north and west by the Orange River Colony, on the easy by Natal, and on the south by Cape Colony.
Vicariate Apostolic of Batavia.
Bath Abbey
The first religious house in Bath was a monastery of nuns founded by King Osric, A.D. 676.
Bath and Wells
Ancient diocese coextensive with the county of Somerset, England.
Bathe, William
Irishman, Jesuit, wrote educational books on music and language. He died in 1614.
Bathilde, Saint
A runaway slave who became the wife of King Clovis II. Upon widowhood, she founded monasteries and proved herself a capable regent. She died in 680.
Diocese situated in New South Wales, Australia, in the ecclesiastical Province of Sydney.
Battaglini, Marco
A historian of the councils, b. at Rimini, Italy, 25 March, 1645; d. at Cesena, 19 September, 1717.
Batteux, Charles
Abbé and writer on philosophy and aesthetics, b. near Vouziers, France, 6 May, 1713; d. at Paris, 14 July, 1780.
Battista, Giovanni Giuda Giona
Original name, Jehuda Jona Ben-Isaac.
Battle Abbey
Founded by William the Conqueror on the site of the Battle of Senlae or Hastings (1066).
Bauberger, Wilhelm
German physician, novelist, and poet, b. at Thannhausen in Swabian Bavaria, 3 March, 1809; d. at the same place, 8 February, 1883.
Baudeau, Nicolas
Regular Canon and economist, b. at Amboise, France, 25 April, 1730; d. in 1792.
Baudouin, Michel
Italian missionary born 1692. Entered the Society of Jesus in France at the age of twenty-one, arrived in Louisiana in 1728.
Baumgartner, Alexander
Swiss poet and writer. (1841-1910)
Baumgartner, Gallus Jacob
A Swiss statesman, b. 18 October, 1797, at Altstätten, Switzerland; d. 12 July, 1869, at St. Gallen.
Baunard, Louis
Educator, b. at Bellgarde (Loiret), France, in 1828.
Bauny, Etienne
Theologian, b. in 1564 at Mouzon, Ardennes, France; d. 3 December, 1649, at Saint Pol de Léon.
Bausset, Louis-François de
A French cardinal, writers, and statesman. (1748-1824)
Bautain, Louis-Eugène-Marie
Philosopher and theologian. (1796-1867)
Bautista, Fray Juan
Franciscan, who taught theology and metaphysics at the convent of St. Francis of Mexico.
Bavaria, The Kingdom of
Named after the German tribe called Boiarii.
Bawden, William
An English Jesuit, born at Cornwall, 1563; died at St.-Omer, 28 September, 1632.
Bayer, Adèle
Eldest daughter of Andrew Parmentier, b. in Belgium, 4 July, 1814, and d. in Brooklyn, New York, 22 January, 1892.
Bayeu y Subias, Francisco
Born at Saragossa, 9 March, 1734; died Madrid, 4 August, 1795, a distinguished religious and historical painter.
Coextensive with the Department of Calvados, is suffragan to the Archbishopric of Rouen.
Bayley, James Roosevelt
First Bishop of Newark, New Jersey, U.S.A.; eighth Archbishop of Baltimore, Maryland. (1814-1877)
Bayma, Joseph
Jesuit mathematician and scientist. (1816-1892)
Diocese comprising the Department of Basses-Pyrenees.
Baysio, Guido de
An Italian canonist, b. about the middle of the thirteenth century of a noble Ghibelline family; d. at Avignon, 10 August, 1313.
Bazin, John Stephen
Third Bishop of Vincennes (now the Diocese of Indianapolis). (1796-1848)
Bañez, Domingo
Detailed article on the Spanish Dominican theologian.
Beads, Use of, at Prayers
Essay on chaplets, rosaries, prayer ropes, prayer cords. Brief treatment of the use of beads in prayer by non-Christians.
Among the Jews, as among most Oriental peoples, the beard was especially cherished as a symbol of virility; to cut off another man's beard was an outrage.
Beardsley, Aubrey
Biography of the daring English illustrator.
Beatific Vision
The immediate knowledge of God which the angelic spirits and the souls of the just enjoy in Heaven.
Beatification and Canonization
According to some writers the origin in the Catholic Church is to be traced back to the ancient pagan apotheosis.
Beatitudes, Mount of
Name given to the place where the "Sermon on the Mount", was delivered.
Beatitudes, The Eight
The solemn blessings which mark the opening of the Sermon on the Mount.
Beaton, David
Cardinal, Archbishop of St. Andrews, b. 1494; d. 29 May, 1546.
Beaton, James
Scottish Archbishop. (1473-1539)
Beaton, James
Archbishop of Glasgow. (1517-1603)
Brief biographies of seven saints or beatae named Beatrix or Beatrice. One of them, Beatrix da Silva, has since been canonized.
Beaufort, Lady Margaret
Countess of Richmond and Derby, b. 1441; d. 1509, daughter and heiress of John Beaufort, first Duke of Somerset.
Beaulieu Abbey
A Cistercian house in Hampshire, one of the three monasteries founded by King John (c. 1204) and peopled by thirty monks from Cîteaux.
Beaune, Renaud de
A French Bishop, b. in 1527, at Tours; d. 1606 in Paris.
Beauregard, Jean-Nicolas
French pulpit orator. (1733-1794)
Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant
Soldier, b. near New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A., 28 May, 1818; d. there 20 February, 1893.
A suffragan diocese of the archiepiscopal See of Reims.
Beauvais, Gilles-François-de
Jesuit writer and preacher, born at Mans, France, 7 July, 1693; died probably at Paris about 1773.
Beauvais, Jean-Baptiste-Charles-Marie de
A French bishop, b. at Cherbourg, 17 October, 1731; d. at Paris, 4 April, 1790.
Bebian, Roch-Amboise-Auguste
Sent to France, committed to the care of his godfather, the Abbé Sicard, the well-known educator of the deaf and dumb.
Bec, Abbey of
The Benedictine Abbey of Bec, or Le Bec, in Normandy, was founded in the earlier part of the eleventh century by Herluin, a Norman knight who about 1031 left the court of Count Gilbert of Brionne to devote himself to a life of religion.
Becan, Martin
Controversialist, born at Hilvarenbeck, Brabant, Holland, 6 January, 1563; died at Vienna, 24 January, 1624.
Beccaria, Giovanni Battista
Physicist. (1716-1781)
Beccus, John
Patriarch of Constantinople in the second half of the thirteenth century, one of the few Greek ecclesiastics who were sincerely in favour of reunion with the Church of Rome.
Beckedorff, George Philipp Ludolf von
Studied theology at Jena, then medicine at Göttingen, obtained the degree of doctor in 1799.
Becker, Thomas Andrew
Sixth Bishop of Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A.
Beckx, Pierre-Jean
Twenty-second General of the Society of Jesus, born at Sichem, Belgium, 8 February, 1795; died at Rome, 4 March, 1887.
Becquerel, Antoine-César
French physicist, b. at Chatillon-sur-Loing (Loiret), 7 March, 1788; d. at Paris, 18 January, 1878.
Bedard, Pierre
French-Canadian lawyer and member of the Assembly of Lower Canada, b. at Charlesbourg near Quebec, 13 November, 1762; d. at Three Rivers, 26 April 1829.
The old English word bede (Anglo-Saxon bed) means a prayer, though the derivative form, gebed, was more common in this sense in Anglo-Saxon literature.
Bede, The Venerable
Benedictine monk, priest, historian, Doctor of the Church, d. 735.
Bedford, Gunning S.
Medical writer and teacher. (1806-1870)
Bedford, Henry
Writer and educator. (1816-1903)
Bedingfeld, Frances
Superioress of the English Institute of Mary. (1616-1704)
Bedingfeld, Henry, Sir
Knight; b. 1509; d. 1583.
Bedini, Cajetan
Italian Cardinal and diplomat. (1806-1864)
A London hospital originally intended for the poor suffering from any ailment and for such as might have no other lodging, hence its name, Bethlehem, in Hebrew, the "house of bread."
Beelen, Ian Theodor
Exegete and Orientalist. (1807-1884)
The Moabite divinity who ruled over Phogor.
Provides an Old and a New Testament definition.
Begnudelli-Basso, Francesco Antonio
A canonist who lived at the end of the seventeenth century.
Beguines & Beghards
As early as the commencement of the twelfth century there were women in the Netherlands who lived alone, and without taking vows devoted themselves to prayer and good works.
Behaim, Albert von
Known also as Albertus Bohemus.
Behaim, Martin
A German cartographer and navigator. (1459-1507)
In Phoenicia, a titular Latin see, and the residential see of several prelates of Oriental rites.
Diocese in Portugal, suffragan of Evora.
Belasyse, John
Born about 1614; died 1689, a loyal Catholic English nobleman, second son of Thomas first Lord Fauconberg. His mother was Barbara, daughter of Sir Henry Cholmondeley of Roxby, Yorkshire.
Belchiam, Venerable Thomas
A Franciscan martyr in the reign of Henry VIII, date of birth uncertain; d. 3 August 1537.
Belem do Pará, Archdiocese of
In South America, formerly (after 4 March, 1719) a suffragan diocese of Bahia (San Salvador), but raised to metropolitan rank 3 May, 1906.
The upper part of the tower or steeple of a church, for the reception of the bells; or a detached tower containing bells, as the campanile of the Italians.
Information on the history, education, and cemeteries of the country.
Belgrade and Smederevo
Titular (united) sees of Servia.
Belgrado, Giacopo
Italian Jesuit and natural philosopher. (1704-1789)
Found frequently as a personal name in the Vulgate and various English translations of the Bible, is commonly used as a synonym of Satan, or the personification of evil.
That state of the mind by which it assents to propositions, not by reason of their intrinsic evidence, but because of authority.
Belin, Albert (Jean)
French prelate and writer, b. in Besançon early in the seventeenth century; d. 29 April, 1677.
Bell, Arthur, Venerable
Friar Minor and English martyr. (1590-1643)
Bellamy, Jerome
A sympathizer with Mary Queen of Scots.
Bellarini, John
Barnabite theologian, b. at Castelnuovo, Italy, in 1552; d. at Milan, 27 August, 1630.
Bellasius, Edward
Serjeant-at-Law, b. 14 October, 1800; d. 24 January, 1873.
Bellecius, Aloysius
Jesuit ascetic author, born at Freiburg im Breisgau, 15 February, 1704; died at Augsburg, 27 April, 1757.
Bellenden, John
A Scotch poet, b. at Haddington or Berwick in the latter part of the fifteenth century; d. at Rome, c. 1587.
Diocese comprising part of southern Illinois.
Coextensive with the civil department of Ain and a suffragan of the Archbishopric of Besançon.
Bellings, Sir Richard
Irish historian, b. near Dublin early in the seventeenth century; d. in 1677.
Giacomo (Jacopo) Bellini, father of Gentile and Giovanni Bellini. Teacher of his sons who were the chief founders of the Venetian school of painting.
Belloy, Jean-Baptiste de
Cardinal-Archbishop of Paris. (1709-1808)
Article covers origin, benediction, uses, archaeology and inscriptions, and points of law.
Anciently called Bellunum, the metropolis of the province of that name in Venetia, Italy, is situated on a hill between the torrent of Ardo and the River Piave.
Belmont, François Vachon de
Fifth superior of the Sulpicians at Montreal, b. at Grenoble, France, 1645; d. 1732.
Belzoni, Giambattista
An Egyptian explorer, b. at Padua, Italy, in 1778. d. Gato, Africa, 3 Dec., 1823.
Bembo, Pietro
Italian scholar and Cardinal, b. of a noble family at Venice, 20 May, 1470; d. at Rome, 18 January, 1547.
Prefecture Apostolic in Africa.
Benard, Laurent
Chief founder of the Maurist Congregation of the Benedictine Order, b. at Nevers, 1573; d. at Paris, 1620.
Benavides, Fray Alonzo
Archbishop of Goa in the Portuguese Indies.
A titular see of Albania.
Benedict Biscop, Saint
Anglo-Saxon, monastic founder, d. 690.
Benedict I, Pope
A Roman and the son of Boniface, and was called Bonosus by the Greeks.
Benedict II, Pope Saint
A Roman, he was pope for a little less than eleven months, and died in 685. Account of his pontificate.
Benedict III, Pope
Date of birth unknown; d. 17 April, 858.
Benedict IV, Pope
A Roman and the son of Mammalus, became pope in the first half of 900.
Benedict IX, Pope
The nephew of his two immediate predecessors.
Benedict Joseph Labre, Saint
Frenchman, longed to be a monk but spent the last thirteen years of his life as a pilgrim. He died in 1783.
Benedict Levita
Benedict Levita (of Mainz), or Benedict the Deacon, is the name given to himself by the author of a forged collection of capitularies which appeared in the ninth century.
Benedict of Aniane, Saint
St. Benedict was a Goth, served in the Frankish court, then became a Benedictine monk. His monastery of Aniane was the model for monastic reform in France and the Empire. He died in 821.
Benedict of Nursia, Saint
Long article on the founder of Western monasticism, and on his Rule.
Benedict of Peterborough
Abbot and writer, place and date of birth unknown; d. 1193.
Benedict of San Philadelphio, Saint
Also known as Benedict the Moor. Born in Italy to Christian slaves from Ethiopia, St. Benedict joined an association of hermits, and when that was dissolved, became a Franciscan Recollect.
Benedict V, Pope
Date of birth unknown; died 4 July, 965.
Benedict VI, Pope
Benedict, Cardinal-Deacon of St. Theodore, a Roman and the son of Hildebrand, was elected as the successor of John XIII.
Benedict VII, Pope
Date of birth unknown; d. c. October, 983.
Benedict VIII, Pope
The first of the Tusculan popes. Date of birth unknown; d. 9 April, 1024.
Benedict X
The bearer of this name was an antipope in the days of Nicholas II, 1056-61.
Benedict XI, Pope Blessed
Elected unanimously, author of Scriptural commentaries, d. 1304.
Benedict XII, Pope
Third of the Avignon popes. (1334-1342)
Benedict XIII, Pope
Reigned 1724-1730.
Benedict XIV, Pope
Reigned 1740-58.
Benedict, Rule of Saint
Lengthy article on the text of the Rule and its composition, some analysis, and practical application.
Benedictbeurn, Abbey of
Tradition, as well as manuscripts dating as far back as the tenth century, ascribe its foundation in the year 740, to three brothers of noble birth, named Lanfrid, Wulfram, and Eliland, acting under the influence of St. Boniface, who was then preaching the Faith in Bavaria.
Benedicti, Jean
A Franciscan theologian of the sixteenth century belonging to the Observantine Province of Tours and Poitiers.
Benedictine Order
Comprises monks living under the Rule of St. Benedict, and commonly known as "black monks".
Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament
Description of the basics of this popular devotion. Benediction is unusual in that it is a devotional practice partly governed by liturgical law.
A book containing a collection of benedictions or blessings in use in the Church.
Benedictus Polonus
A medieval Friar Minor missionary and traveller. (c. 1245)
Benedictus, The (Canticle of Zachary)
One of the three great canticles in the opening chapters of this Gospel, the other two being the Magnificat and Nunc dimittis.
Popularly the term is often understood to denote either certain property destined for the support of ministers of religion, or a spiritual office or function, such as the care of souls.
Benefit of Clergy
The exemption from the jurisdiction of the secular courts, which in England, in the Middle Ages, was accorded to clergymen.
Benettis, Jeremiah
Friar Minor Capuchin and historical writer, d. in 1774.
Benevento, Archdiocese of
The principal city of the province of the same name in Campania.
Bengtsson, Jöns Oxenstjerna
Archbishop of Upsala, Sweden, b. 1417; d. in 1467.
Bengy, Anatole de
A martyr of the French Commune. (1824-1871)
Benignus of Dijon, Saint
Third-century martyr.
Benignus, Saint
Known as "Patrick's psalm-singer," Irish missionary, musician, bishop, legislator, d. 467.
Vicariate Apostolic on the coast of Benin.
The youngest son of Jacob born of Rachel.
Benkert, Franz Georg
German theologian and historical writer. (1790-1859)
Benno II
Bishop of Osnabrück.
Benoît, Michel
Born at Autun (or Dijon), France, 8 October, 1715; died at Peking, 23 October, 1774, a Jesuit scientist, for thirty years in the service of Kien Lung, Emperor of China.
Article on Jeremy Bentham, English jurist and reformer. Features biographical information and a short bibliography.
Bentivoglio, Family of
Originally from the castle of that name in the neighbourhood of Bologna, Italy. They claimed descent from Enzio (c. 1224-72), King of Sardinia, a natural son of Frederick II.
Bentley, John Francis
English architect. (1839-1902)
Bentney, William
An English Jesuit priest born in Cheshire, 1609; died 30 October, 1692.
Benziger, Joseph Charles
Founder of the Catholic publishing house that bears his name. (1762-1841)
Benzoni, Girolamo
Writer, born at Milan about 1519.
Berach, Saint
A disciple of St. Kevin. Abbot of Cluain Coirpthe, now called Kilbarry or Termonbarry in the saint's honor. St. Berach died in 595.
Berard of Carbio, Saint
Franciscan martyr, d. 1220.
Berardi, Carbo Sebastiano
Canonist. (1719-1768)
Berault-Bercastel, Antoine Henri de
A writer of church history, b. 22 November, 1720, at Briey, Lorraine; d. about 1794 at Noyon, France.
Bercharius, Saint
Abbot of Hautvillers, founder, stabbed to death by one of his monks in 696.
Bercheure, Pierre
French Benedictine. (1290-1362)
Berchtold, Blessed
Abbot of the Benedictine Monastery of Engelberg in Switzerland, died 1197.
Berengarius of Tours
Born at Tours about 999; died on the island of St. Cosme, near that city, in 1088.
Berenger, Pierre
A French writer who flourished about the middle of the twelfth century.
A titular see of Egypt which was situated at the end of Major Syrtis where Bengazi stands today.
The city, called by the ancients Bergonum, is capital of the province of that name in Lombardy.
Bergen, Ancient See of
The diocese included the Provinces of Nordre and Sondre Bergenhus, and the district of Sondmor in the Province of Romsdal.
Bergier, Nicolas-Sylvestre
French theologian. (1715-1790)
Berington, Charles
Titular Bishop of Hiero-Caesarea, b. at Stock, Essex, England, 1748; d. 8 June, 1798.
Berington, Joseph
Catholic writer. (1743-1827)
Berisford, Humphrey
Confessor c. 1588.
A titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus, in Asia Minor.
Beristain y Martin de Souza, José Mariano
Mexican bibliographer, b. in Puebla, Mexico, 22 May, 1756; d. at Mexico, 23 March, 1817.
Berlage, Anton
Dogmatic theologian. (1805-1881)
Berland, Pierre
Archbishop of Bordeaux. (1375-1457)
Berlanga, Fray Tomás de
Bishop of Panama, b. at Berlanga in Spain, date uncertain; d. there 8 August, 1551.
Capital of the German Empire and of the Kingdom of Prussia.
Berlioz, Hector
French composer. (1803-1869)
Bernal, Agostino
Spanish theologian. (1587-1642)
Bernard Guidonis
Bishop and Inquisitor. (1261-1331)
Bernard of Besse
Friar Minor and chronicler, a native of Aquitaine, date of birth uncertain.
Bernard of Bologna
Friar Minor Capuchin and Scotist theologian, born at Bologna, 17 December, 1701; died 19 February, 1768.
Bernard of Botone
Generally called Parmensis from his birthplace, Parma in Italy, a noted canonist of the thirteenth century.
Bernard of Clairvaux, Saint
Article on the life and works of this twelfth-century Cistercian and Doctor of the Church.
Bernard of Cluny
A Benedictine monk of the first half of the twelfth century, poet, satirist, and hymn-writer, author of "On the Contempt of the World".
Bernard of Compostella
A canonist of the early thirteenth century.
Bernard of Luxemburg
Dominican theologian, controversialist, and Inquisitor. (d. 1535)
Bernard of Menthon, Saint
Archdeacon of Aosta, preacher, founder of two hospices for travelers in dangerous Alpine passes (now named the Great St. Bernard and Little St. Bernard, after him), d. 1008.
Bernard of Pavia
Canonist and bishop. (d. 1213)
Bernard Tolomeo, Saint
Italian hermit, monastic founder, d. 1348.
Bernard, Alexis-Xyste
Bishop of St. Hyacinth.
Bernard, Claude
French physiologist. (1813-1878)
Bernard, Claude
French ecclesiastic. (1588-1641)
Bernard, Saint
Soldier, monk, abbot, Archbishop of Vienne, d. 842.
Bernardine of Feltre, Blessed
Italian Franciscan missionary, died 1494. Of little note as an author. Best remembered for his monti di pietà, a type of charitable lender similar to pawnbrokers.
Bernardine of Fossa, Blessed
Italian Franciscan, missionary, historian, biographer, d. 1503.
Bernardine of Siena, Saint
Biography of the Franciscan missionary, reformer, popular preacher, peacemaker, called "the Apostle of Italy," who died in 1380.
Bernardines, The
Title of certain sisters of the order of Cîteaux who at the end of the sixteenth and in the seventeenth century, made energetic efforts to restore the primitive observance of their rule.
Article provides religious and historic information.
Berni, Francesco
An Italian comic poet, b. at Lamporecchio (Florence) 1497 or 1498; d. at Florence, 26 May, 1535.
Bernier, Etienne-Alexandre
French Bishop. (1762-1806)
Bernini, Domenico
Son of Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini.
Bernini, Giovanni Lorenzo
Italian architect and sculptor. (1598-1680)
Bernini, Giuseppe Maria
A Capuchin missionary and Orientalist, b. near Carignan in Piedmont; d. in Hindustan in 1753.
Bernis, François-Joachim-Pierre de
A French cardinal and statesman, b. 1715 at Saint-Marcel-d'Ardèche; d. at Rome, 1794.
Apostle of the Obotrites, in the latter half of the twelfth century.
Berno (Abbot of Reichenau)
Famous as orator, poet, philosopher, and musician, born (date unknown) at Prum near Trier; d. 7 June, 1048.
Bernold of Constance
Historian and theologian, b. in Swabia about 1054; d. at Schaffhausen, 16 September, 1100.
Bernward, Saint
Bishop of Hildesheim, d. 1022.
A titular see of Macedonia, at the foot of Mount Bermios.
The name of a native historian of Babylonia and a priest of the great god Bel (Bel-Marduk).
A city in Chanaan, one of the confederation of cities under the headship of Gabaon.
Berrettini, Pietro
Italian painter, architect, and writer, b. at Cortona, in Tuscany, 1 November, 1596; d. at Rome, 16 May, 1669.
Berruguete, Alonso
For his mastery of the arts of painting, sculpture, and architecture, sometimes called the Spanish Michelangelo, b. at Paredes de Nava, in Castile, about 1480; d. at Toledo, 1561.
Berruyer, Isaac-Joseph
Entered the Society of Jesus in 1697. Wrote "A History of the People of God," published in three parts.
Berryer, Pierre-Antoine
French advocate, orator, and statesman. (1790-1868)
A town on the southern extremity of Palestine.
Brief biographies of five holy women of this name: two saints; two beatae; and one Bertha who is commonly called a saint but there is no evidence of a cultus surrounding her.
Berthier, Guillaume-François
A Jesuit professor and writer, born at Issoudun, 1704; died at Bourges, 1782.
Bishop, Apostle of the Livonians, killed 24 July, 1198, in a crusade against the pagan Livonians who threatened destruction to all Christians that lived in their territory.
Berthold of Chiemsee
German bishop and theological writer. (1465-1543)
Berthold of Henneberg
Archbishop and Elector of Mainz, b. 1441; d. 21 December, 1504.
Berthold of Ratisbon
Franciscan of the monastery of that city and the most powerful preacher of repentance in the thirteenth century, b. about 1210; d. at Ratisbon, 14 December, 1272.
Berthold of Reichenau
Benedictine monk and chronicler of the Abbey of Reichenau on the Lake of Constance; d. probably in 1088.
Berti, Giovanni Lorenzo
Italian theologian, b. 28 May, 1696, at Sarravezza, Tuscany; d. 26 March, 1766, at Pisa.
Bertin, Saint
Monk living under the Rule of St. Columban, missionary to the Morini, monastic founder, abbot of St. Omer, d. about 709.
Anciently called Forum Truentinorum, and, at the time of the Gothic war, Petra Honorii, whence the present name, is a small city in Romagna, province of Forli, Italy.
Bertonio, Ludovico
Italian missionary. (1552-1625)
Bertrand, Pierre
Article covers a French Cardinal, theologian, and canonist, b. 1280 at Annonay in Vivarais, and a French cardinal, nephew of the foregoing, whose name he adopted, b. in 1279, at Colombier in Vivarais.
Bertulf, Saint
Converted to Christianity from paganism, entered the monastery of Luxeuil under the Rule of St. Columban, became abbot of Bobbio, was staunchly anti-Arian, d. 639 or 640.
Berulle, Pierre de
Cardinal, and founder of the French congregation of the Oratory. (1575-1629)
Bervanger, Martin de
A French priest, founder of charitable institutions. (1795-1865)
Besange, Jerome Lamy, O.S.B
Born at Linz, 1726; died 1781.
Archdiocese coextensive with the departments of Doubs, Haute-Saône, and the district of Belfort.
Beschefer, Theodore
Jesuit missionary in Canada. (1630-1711)
Beschi, Costanzo Giuseppe
Though primarily a missionary, better know as one of the classical writers of Tamil literature. (1680-1746)
Describes two people known by this name.
Besoigne, Jérôme
A Jansenist writer, b. at Paris, 1686; d. 1763.
Besoldus, Christopher
A German jurist and publicist. (1577-1638)
Bessarion, Johannes
Article on this 15th-century Byzantine scholar, by U. Benigni.
Bessel, Johann Franz
Benedictine, abbot, and historian. (1672-1749)
Beste, Henry Digby
Miscellaneous author. (1768-1836)
Medieval books on animals, in which the real or fabulous characteristics of actually existent or imaginary animals (such as the griffin, dragon, siren, unicorn, etc.) were figuratively treated as religious symbols of Christ, the devil, the virtues and vices.
Betanzos, Fray Domingo
A Dominican missionary, d. at Valladolid, Sept., 1549.
Betanzos, Fray Pedro de
A Franciscan missionary, b. at Betanzos in Galicia; d. at Chomez, Nicaragua, 1570.
Betanzos, Juan de
Composed the first catechism known in the Quichua language.
A village of Palestine.
Bethany Beyond the Jordan
In the text of St. John's Gospel, i, 28, the author locates the event of Our Lord's baptism by St. John the Baptist at Bethany across the Jordan and there is herein a celebrated variant.
A city of the Amorrhites in the valley-plain east of the Jordan.
Name of two cities in Palestine.
An ancient Cansanitish town.
Birthplace of Jesus.
Titular see of Palestine.
An architectural term used in the Ethiopic Church for the oven or bakehouse for baking the Korban or Eucharistic bread.
Military and hospitaller orders.
Details the city, pool, and titular see of this name.
A city within Issachar, but assigned to Manasses, later Scythopolis, now the village Beisan.
The city whose deliverance by Judith, when besieged by Holofernes, forms the subject of the Book of Judith.
In the Catholic Church, a deliberate and free, mutual, true promise, externally expressed, of future marriage between determinate and fit persons.
Prefecture Apostolic in northern India.
Defined as the backing of an affirmation or forecast by offering to forfeit, in case of an adverse issue, a sum of money or article of value to one who, by accepting, maintains the opposite and backs his opinion by a corresponding stipulation.
Beugnot, Auguste-Arthur, Count
French historian and statesman. (1797-1865)
Beuno, Saint
Welsh, said to have been educated at Bangor and, after ordination, to have become a missionary. Abbot of Clynnog, and uncle of St. Winifred. Died perhaps in 660.
Beverley Minster
A collegiate church at Beverley, capital of the East Riding of Yorkshire, served by a chapter of secular canons until the Reformation.
Beyerlinck, Lawrence
Belgian theologian and ecclesiastical writer. (1578-1627)
Bianchi, Giovanni Antonio
Friar Minor and theologian. (1686-1768)
Bianchini, Francesco
A student of the natural sciences, and historian. (1662-1729)
Bianchini, Giuseppe
Italian Oratorian, Biblical, historical, and liturgical scholar. (1704-1764)
Bianconi, Charles
Merchant and philanthropist. (1785-1875)
Biard, Pierre
Jesuit missionary, born at Grenoble, France, 1576; died at Avignon, 17 November, 1622.
Bernardo Dovizi, an Italian Cardinal and comedy-writer, known best by the name of the town Bibbiena, where he was born 4 Aug., 1470; d. at Rome, 9 Nov., 1520.
Bibiana, Saint
Female Roman martyr, d. 483 at the latest. Also called Vibiana.
Bible Societies
Established for the purpose of publishing and propagating the Bible in all parts of the world.
Bible, The
A collection of writings recognized as inspired.
Bibles, Picture
In the Middle Ages the Church made use of pictures as a means of instruction, to supplement the knowledge acquired by reading or oral teaching.
Biblia Pauperum
A collection of pictures representing scenes from Jesus' life with the corresponding prophetic types.
Biblical Antiquities
Details domestic, political, and sacred antiquities.
Biblical Commission, The
A committee of cardinals at Rome who, with the assistance of consultors, have to secure the observance of the prescriptions contained in the Encyclical "Providentissimus Deus" for the proper interpretation and defence of Sacred Scripture.
Bickell, Gustav
Orientalist. (1838-1906)
Bicknor, Alexander
Archbishop of Dublin, date of birth unknown; d. 1349.
Bidermann, James
Poet and theologian. (1578-1639)
Biel, Gabriel
Lengthy article on the last of the Scholastics. Biel, the first professor of theology at Tübingen, was a nominalist. He died in 1495.
The city of Biella, the see of the diocese of that name, is an important industrial centre (anciently called Bugelia) of Piedmont, Italy, in the province of Novara.
Bielski, Marcin
Polish chronicler. (1495-1575)
Bienville, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de
French Governor of Louisiana and founder of New Orleans. (1680-1767)
Bigamy (in Canon Law)
Canonically viewed, bigamy denotes (a) the condition of a man married to two real or interpretative wives in succession, and as a consequence (b) his unfitness to receive, or exercise after reception, tonsure, minor and sacred orders.
Bigamy (in Civil Law)
In civil jurisprudence, and especially in criminal law, is a "formal entering into of a marriage while a former one remains un-dissolved".
Bigne, Marguerin de la
French theologian and patrologist, b. about 1546 at Bernières-le-Patry, Normandy; d. about 1595.
Billick, Eberhard
German theologian, opponent of the Reformation, born 1499 or 1500 at Cologne; died there 12 January, 1557.
Billy, Jacques de
French patristic scholar, theologian, jurist, linguist, and a Benedictine abbot. (1535-1581)
Latin bis, twice, and locatio, place.
The offering up of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass twice on the same day by the same celebrant.
Biner, Joseph
Canonist, historian, and theologian. (1697-1766)
Binet, Etienne
Jesuit author, born at Dijon, France, 1569; died at Paris, 1639.
Binet, Jacques-Philippe-Marie
French mathematician and astronomer. (1786-1856)
Binius, Severin
Historian and critic. (1573-1641)
Binterim, Anton Joseph
A theologian of repute and for fifty years parish priest of Bilk. (1779-1855)
Biogenesis and Abiogenesis
According to their Greek derivation these two terms refer to the origin of life.
The science on life and living organisms.
Biondo, Flavio
Italian archæologist and historian. (1388-1463)
Biot, Jean-Baptiste
Physicist and mathematician. (1774-1862)
Birds (in Symbolism)
The dove, eagle, pelican, phoenix, and peacock are included.
A square cap with three ridges or peaks on its upper surface, worn by clerics of all grades from cardinals downwards.
Birinus (Berin), Saint
Confessor, first Bishop of Dorchester, Apostle of Wessex, d. 650.
Birkowski, Fabian
Polish preacher, b. at Lemberg, 1566; d. at Cracow, 1636.
One of the thirteen dioceses erected by the Apostolic Letter of Pius IX, 27 September, 1850, which restored a hierarchy to the Catholic church in England.
Birnbaum, Heinrich
Carthusian monk, b. in 1403; d. 19 February, 1473.
Birth, The Defect of
Illegitimacy, a canonical impediment to ordination.
A titular see of Osrhaene.
Bisarchio, Diocese of
Situated in Sardinia, in the province of Sassari, district of Nuoro, and suffragan to the Archdiocese of Sassari.
The title of an ecclesiastical dignitary who possesses the fullness of the priesthood to rule a diocese as its chief pastor, in due submission to the primacy of the pope.
Bishop, William
The first superior in England in episcopal orders since the old hierarchy died out in the reign of Elizabeth, born c. 1553 at Brailes in Warwickshire, where his family continued to reside until recent times; d. 16 April, 1624.
Bismarck, Diocese of
In North Dakota, this diocese was erected on 31 December, 1909, and is suffragan to the Archdiocese of St. Paul, Minnesota.
A tomb large enough to contain two bodies.
Black Fast, The
This form of fasting, the most rigorous in the history of church legislation, was marked by austerity regarding the quantity and quality of food permitted on fasting days as well as the time wherein such food might be legitimately taken.
Blackburne, Robert
An English Catholic who suffered imprisonment in the closing years of the seventeenth, and during the earlier half of the eighteenth, centuries; died in 1748.
Blackfoot Indians
An important tribe of the Northern Plains, constituting the westernmost extension of the great Algonquian stock.
Blackwood, Adam
Author, b. at Dunfermline, Scotland, 1539; d. 1613.
Blaise, Saint
Bishop of Sebaste, martyr, d. about 316.
Blanc, Anthony
Fifth Bishop, and first Archbishop, of New Orleans, La., U.S.A. (1792-1860)
Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste
French Jesuit and educator. (1731-1797)
Blanchet, Augustin Magloire
Brother of François Norbert Blanchet, first Bishop of Walla Walla-Nesqually, State of Washington, U.S.A. (1797-1887)
Blanchet, Franç Norbert
Missionary and first Archbishop of Oregon City, U.S.A. (1795-1883)
Blandina, Saint
Virgin and martyr, d. at Lyons in 177.
Blane, Saint
Nephew of St. Cathan. Blane studied in Ireland under SS. Comgall and Kenneth, became a monk, went to Scotland, became a bishop of the Picts, died 590.
Signifies etymologically gross irreverence towards any person or thing worthy of exalted esteem.
Blastares, Matthew
A monk of the Order of St. Basil, living in the fourteenth century, who applied himself to the study of theology and canon law.
Blathmac, Saint
Irish monk, martyred at Iona in about 835. In Latinized form, he is sometimes called Florentius. His life was written in Latin hexameter by Strabo.
Blemmida, Nicephorus
A learned monk and writer of the Green Church, b. about 1198, at Constantinople; d. 1272.
Details of four people with this name.
Blessed Sacrament, Sisters of the
Founded in 1889 by Katharine Drexel.
Blessed, The
Beatification is a permission for public worship restricted to certain places and to certain acts.
Aspects discussed are, I. Antiquity; II. Minister; III. Objects; IV. Efficacy; and V. Rite employed in administering.
Blessing, Apostolic
The popes very often delegated to others the power to give this blessing in answer to petitions from princes, at the close of missions, and on such occasions.
Coextensive with the civil department of Loir-et-Cher and a suffragan of Paris.
Blomevenna, Peter
Carthusian, b. at Leyden, in Holland in 1466; d. 30 September, 1536.
Blood Indians
A group of North American aborigines forming part of the Blackfeet Tribe, which, with the Apapahoes and Cheyennes, constitute the Western division of the Algonquin family.
Blosius, François-Louis
A Benedictine abbot and spiritual writer, born at Donstienne, near Liège, Flanders, 1506; died at Liessies, 1566.
Blyssen, Heinrich
Principal work, "De uno geminoque sacrae eucharistiae synaxeos salubriter percipiendae ritu ac usu" was published (Ingolstadt, 1585) when he was provincial of Austria.
Blyth, Francis
English Carmelite, reviser of the Douay Bible, born c. 1705; d. in London, 11 December 1772.
Bobadilla, Nicolaus
The last survivor of the seven first companions of Ignatius of Loyola. (1511-1590)
Bobbio, Abbey and Diocese of
Suffragan to the Archiepiscopal See of Genoa.
Italian painter, b. at Cremona, 1460, and d. probably in 1525 rather than in 1518, the date usually given.
Boccaccio, Giovanni
Biography and overview of the author's major works.
Bocking, Edward
English Benedictine, b. of East Anglian parentage, end of fifteenth century; d. 20 April, 1534.
Bodin, Jean
Article by Georges Goyau. Notes the philosopher's relation to the political and religious order of his time.
A titular see of Albania.
Boece, Hector
Chronicler and one of the founders of the University of Aberdeen, b. at Dundee c. 1465; d. 1536.
Boecken, Placidus
A German Benedictine, canonist, and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Salzburg. (1690-1752)
Boerglum, Ancient See of
In Denmark, included the ancient districts of Vendsyssel and Thy.
Boeri, Petrus
A french benedictine canonist and bishop, b. during the first quarter of the fourteenth century at Laredorte.
Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus
Article with a focus on Boethius as a theologian.
Capital of the republic of Colombia.
Crown province of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which until 1526 was an independent kingdom.
Bohemian Brethren
"Bohemian Brethren" and "Moravian Brethren" are the current popular designation of the Unitas Fratrum founded in Bohemia in 1457, renewed by Count Zinzendorf in 1722.
Bohemians of the United States
Religious dissensions at the beginning of the seventeenth century induced many to leave their native country and cross the ocean.
Diocese in the province of Benevento, Italy, suffragan to the Archbishopric of Benevento.
Boiardo, Matteo Maria
An Italian poet, b. about 1434, at, or near, Scandiano (Reggio-Emilia); d. at Reggio, 20 December, 1494.
Boileau-Despréaux, Nicholas
French poet. (1636-1711)
Diocese lies within the Dutch province of Brabant, and is suffragan to Utrecht.
Diocese created by Leo XIII, 25 August, 1893.
Boisgelin, Jean de Dieu-Raymond de Cucé de
French prelate and cardinal. (1732-1804)
Boisil, Saint
Abbot of Melrose, renowned for prophetic gifts, taught St. Cuthbert. St. Boisil died in 664.
Bokenham, Osbern
English Augustinian friar and poet, b. 1393, d. probably in 1447.
Bolanden, Conrad von
A German novelist, son of a rich merchant, b. 9 August, 1828, at Niedergeilbach, a village of the Palatinate.
Bolgeni, Giovanni Vincenzo
Theologian and controversialist. (1733-1811)
Includes history, geography, education, church, and government information.
Bollandists, The
An association of ecclesiastical scholars engaged in editing the Acta Sanctorum.
Bollig, Johann
Orientalist, born near Düren in Rhenish Prusia 23 August, 1821; died at Rome in 1895.
The principal city in the province of the same name, Italy.
Bologna, Giovanni da
Flemish Renaissance sculptor, b. at Douai, in Flanders, about 1524; d. at Florence in 1608.
Bologna, University of
A tradition of the thirteenth century attributed the foundation of this university to Theodosius II (433); but this legend is now generally rejected.
Bolsec, Jérôme-Hermès
A theologian and physician, b. probably at Paris, date unknown; d. at Lyons c. 1584.
Bolton, Edmund
Historian, antiquary, and poet, born c. 1575; died c. 1633.
Bolzano, Bernhard
Austrian mathematician and philosopher, b. at Prague, 5 October, 1781; d. 18 December, 1848.
The Archdiocese of Bombay comprises the Island of Bombay with several outlying churches in the neighbouring Island of Salsette.
Bommel, Cornelius Richard Anton van
Bishop of Liège, born at Leyden, in Holland on 5 April, 1790; died 7 April 1852.
Bon Secours, Institutes of
Congregations of nursing sisters whose object is to take care of both rich and poor patients in their own homes.
Bona Mors Confraternity, The
Founded 1648, in the Church of the Gesu, by Father Vincent Carrafa, seventh General of the Society of Jesus, and approved by the Sovereign Pontiffs Innocent X and Alexander VII.
Bona, Giovanni
Cardinal and author. (1609-1674)
Bonagratia of Bergamo
Friar Minor, theologian, and canonist, date of birth unknown; d. at Munich, 1343.
Bonal, François de
Bishop of Clermont, b. 1734 at the castle of Bonal, near Agen; d. at Munich, 1800.
Bonal, Raymond
French theologian and founder of the Congregation of the Priests of St. Mary.
Bonald, Louis-Gabriel-Ambroise, Vicompte de
French statesman, writer, and philosopher. (1754-1840)
Bonald, Louis-Jacques-Maurice de
Cardinal, b. at Millau, in Rouergue, 30 October, 1787, d. at Lyons, 25 Feb., 1870.
Bonaparte, Charles-Lucien-Jules-Laurent
Prince of Canino and Musignano, and ornithologist. (1803-1857)
Bonaventure, Saint
Biobibliographical essay on the Franciscan theologian and Doctor of the Church, d. 1274.
Boncompagni, Balthasar
Italian mathematician. (1821-1894)
Bonet, Juan Pablo
Spanish priest and one of the first to give attention to the education of the deaf and dumb, b. towards the end of the sixteenth century.
Bonet, Nicholas
Friar Minor, theologian, and missionary, date of birth uncertain; d. 1360.
Bonfrère, Jacques
Biblical scholar, born at Dinant, Belgium, 12 April, 1573; died at Tournai, 9 May, 1642.
Boni Homines
This name was popularly given to at least three religious orders in the Church.
Boniface Association
The object of the association is to maintain what the Catholic church possesses in those regions where Catholics are few in number, to found and support missions and schools, and to erect churches, parish-houses, and schools for Catholics in the Protestant parts of Germany.
Boniface I, Pope Saint
Consecrated the same day as the antipope Eulalius. Both were ordered to leave Rome. Eulalius took over St. John Lateran on Holy Saturday, after which the emperor refused to consider his claim. Boniface died in 422.
Boniface II, Pope
Elected 17 September, 530; died October, 532.
Boniface III, Pope
Roman elected to succeed Sabinian after an interregnum of nearly a year; he was consecrated 19 February, 607; d. 12 November of the same year.
Boniface IV, Pope Saint
Transformed the Pantheon into a Christian church, died in 615.
Boniface IX, Pope
Elected at Rome, 2 November, 1389, as successor of the Roman Pope, Urban VI; d. there, 1 October, 1404.
Boniface of Savoy
Forty-sixth Archbishop of Canterbury and son of Thomas, Count of Savoy, date of birth uncertain; d. in Savoy, 14 July, 1270.
Boniface V, Pope
A Neapolitan who succeeded Deusdedit after a vacancy of more than a year; consecrated 23 December, 619.
Boniface VI, Pope
A Roman, elected in 896 by the Roman faction in a popular tumult, to succeed Formosus.
Boniface VII, Antipope
Roman and son of Ferrucius; was intruded into the Chair of St. Peter in 974; reinstalled 984; died July, 985.
Boniface VIII, Pope
Born at Anagni about 1235; died at Rome, 11 October, 1303.
Boniface, Saint
Born Winfrid, a native of England, Benedictine monk, the Apostle of Germany, martyred in 755.
Bonizo of Sutri
Bishop of Sutri in Central Italy, in the eleventh century.
Bonn, University of
An academy founded at Bonn in 1777 by Max Friedrich, Prince-Archbishop of Cologne.
Bonne-Espérance, The Abbey of
Situated near Binche, province of Hainault, Diocese of Tournai, Belgium.
Bonnechose, Henri-Marie-Gaston Boisnormand de
Cardinal and senator, b. at Paris, 1800; d. 1883.
Bonner, Edmund
Bishop of London, b. about 1500; d. 1569.
Bonnetty, Augustin
French writer, b. at Entrevaux 9 May, 1798, d. at Paris, 26 March, 1879.
Bishop of Sardica, a heretic in the latter part of the fourth century.
Bonvicino, Alessandro
Italian painter of the sixteenth century, born at Brescia about 1498; died at the same place, 1555.
Book of Common Prayer
Includes history and contents.
Book of Martyrs, Foxe's
Protestant martyrology, from Wyclif to Cranmer, illustrated with woodcuts. The author was a controversialist sympathetic to John Knox.
Archdiocese; comprises the entire department of the Gironde and was established conformably to the Concordat of 1802.
Bordeaux, University of
Founded during the English domination, under King Henry VI, in 1441.
Bordone, Cavaliere Paris
Painter of the Venetian school. (1500-1570)
Borgess, Caspar Henry
Third Bishop of Detroit, Michigan. (1824-1890)
Borgia, Stefano
Italian cardinal, theologian, antiquarian, and historian. (1731-1804)
Borgo San-Donnino
Diocese in the province of Parma, Italy.
Borgo San-Sepolcro
Diocese situated in the province of Arezzo, Tuscany, Italy.
Borgognone, Ambrogio
Italian painter and architect, b. Milan, c. 1455, d. at Milan, 1523.
Includes history of Dutch and British rule.
Borras, Francisco Nicolás
Spanish painter, born at Cocentaina, 1530; died at Gandia, 1610.
Borromeo, Andrea
An Italian missionary, born on the first half of the seventeenth century, at or near Milan; died in 1683.
Borromeo, Federico
Cardinal and Archbishop of Milan, cousin and successor of St. Charles Borromeo. (1564-1631)
Borromeo, Society of Saint Charles
A German Catholic association for the encouragement and diffusion of edifying, instructive, and entertaining literature.
Borromini, Francesco
Architect and sculptor; born 25 September, 1599, at Bissone; died by his own hand 1 August, 1667, at Rome.
Borrus, Christopher
Missionary, mathematician, and astronomer. (1583-1632)
Boré, Eugène
French Orientalist. (1809-1878)
Bosa, Diocese of
In the province of Cagliari.
Bosch, Peter van der
Bollandist, born at Brussels, 19 October, 1686; died 14 November, 1736.
Boscovich, Ruggiero Giuseppe
Detailed article by Adolf Muller on the Jesuit mathematician and philosopher.
Bosio, Antonio
Known as "The Columbus of the Catacombs", b. in the island of Malta about the year 1576; d. 1629.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Together, form the north-western corner of the Balkan Peninsula.
First Bishop of Merseburg, in the present Prussian Province of Saxony, and Apostle of the Wends, d. November, 970.
Boso (Breakspear)
Third English Cardinal, date of birth uncertain, d. at Rome, about 1181.
Bossu, Jacques le
French theologian and Doctor of the Sorbonne, born at Paris 1546; died at Rome 1626.
Bossuet, Jacques-Bénigne
French bishop and orator. (1627-1704)
Archdiocese; comprises Essex, Middlesex, Suffolk, Norfolk, and Plymouth counties in the State of Massachusetts, U.S.A.
Titular see of Syria.
A titular see situated in Phoenicia.
Botticelli, Sandro
Florentine painter. (1447-1510)
Botulph, Saint
Or Botolph. Founder and abbot of Icanhoe, d. about 680.
Boturini Benaducci, Lorenzo
Native of Milan who went to Mexico in 1736 by permission of the Spanish government and remained there eight years, familiarizing himself with the Nahuatl or Mexican language.
Boucher, Pierre
Born at Lagny, a village near Mortagne in the Perche, France, 1622, died at Boucherville, 1717.
Bougaud, Louis-Victor-Emile
Bishop of Laval in France. (1823-1888)
Bougeant, Guillaume-Hyacinthe
French Jesuit. (1690-1743)
Bouhours, Dominique
French Jesuit author. (1632-1702)
Bouillart, Jacques
Benedictine monk of the Congregation of St. Maur. (1669-1726)
Bouillon, Cardinal de
French prelate and diplomat. (1643-1715)
Bouix, Marie Dominique
French canonists. (1808-1870)
Boulainvilliers, Henri, Count of
One of the first French historians to write the history of the institutions or fundamental laws of the nation. (1658-1722)
Boulanger, André de
French monk and preacher, b. at Paris in 1578; d. 27 September, 1657.
Boulay, César-Egasse du
French historian, b. in the beginning of the seventeenth century at Saint-Ellier; d. 16 October, 1678.
Boulogne, Etienne-Antoine
French bishop, b. at Avignon, 26 December 1747; d. at Troyes, 13 March, 1825.
Bouquet, Martin
Benedictine of the Congregation of St.-Maur. (1685-1754)
Bouquillon, Thomas
Belgian theologian and professor of moral theology in the Catholic University of America. (1840-1902)
Bourassé, Jean-Jacques
Archæologist and historian. (1813-1872)
Bourchier, Thomas
Cardinal, born 1406; died 1486.
Bourdaloue, Louis
French Jesuit preacher. (1632-1704)
Bourdeilles, Hélie de
Archbishop of Tours and Cardinal, b., probably, towards 1323; d. 5 July, 1484.
Bourdon, Jean
First engineer-in-chief and land-surveyor in the colony of New France, and the first attorney-general of the Conseil Superieur. (1612-1668)
Bourgade, François
French missionary and philosopher. (1806-1866)
Coextensive with the departments of Cher and Indre.
Bourget, Ignace
First Bishop of Montreal and titular Archbishop of Martianopolis. (1799-1885)
Bourgoing, François
Third Superior general of the Congregation of the Oratory in France and one of the en early companions of Cardinal de BÈrulle, the founder of the French Oratorians. (1585-1662)
Bourke, Ulick Joseph
Irish scholar and writer. (1829-1887)
Bourne, Gilbert
Last Catholic Bishop of Bath and Wells, England, son of Philip Bourne of Worcestershire, date of birth unknown; d. 10 Sept., 1569.
Bouvens, Charles de
French pulpit orator, b. at Bourg in 1750; d. in 1830.
Bouvet, Joachim
Jesuit missionary. (d. 1732)
Bouvier, Jean-Baptiste
Bishop of Le Mans, theologian. (1783-1854)
Situated in the civil province of Reggio,in Calabria, Italy, suffragan to the Archdiocese of Reggio.
Diocese in the province of Foggia, Italy, suffragan to the Archdiocese of Benevento.
Bowyer, Sir George
Baronet, English writer on jurisprudence, as well as a prominent defender of the Holy See and of Catholic interests in general. (1811-1883)
The custom of electing a boy-bishop on the feast of St. Nicholas dates from very early times, and was in vogue in most Catholic countries, but chiefly in England.
Boyce, John
Novelist, lecturer, and priest, well known under the assumed name of "Paul Peppergrass". (1810-1864)
Practice named after Captain Boycott, against whom this form of ostracism had great effect.
Boyle Abbey
Irish Cistercian house.
Bracken, Thomas
Poet, journalist, politician. (1843-1898)
Bracton, Henry de
English juridical writer, born probably in King John's reign and died about four years before the close of that of Henry III.
Bradley, Denis Mary
First Bishop of Manchester, New Hampshire, U.S.A. (1846-1903)
Bradshaigh, Edward
An English Carmelite friar known in religion as Elias à Jesu; b. in Lancashire, England, early in the seventeenth century; d. at Benfold, 25 September, 1652.
Bradshaw, Henry
English Benedictine and poet, b. in the City of Chester, England, date unknown; d. 1513.
Brady, William Maziere
Ecclesiastical writer, b. in Dublin, 8 January, 1825; d. in Rome, 19 March, 1894.
Braga, Archdiocese of
Situated between the rivers Este and Cavado, in the province of Minho, in the Kingdom of Portugal.
Braga, Councils of
Offers details of several councils held here.
Bragança-Miranda, Diocese of
Situated in the northeastern part of the Kingdom of Portugal, in the civil province of Tras-os-Montes.
Religion and social system which grew out of the polytheistic nature-worship of the ancient Aryan conquerors of northern India.
Braille, Louis
French educator and inventorof the system of writing in raised or relief points for the blind. (1809-1852)
Bralion, Nicolas de
French Oratorian and ecclesiastical writer, born at Chars-en-Vexin, France, c. 1600; died at Paris, 11 May 1672.
Bramante, Donato
Italian architect and painter, b. about 1444 at Monte Asdrualdo; d. in Rome, 11 March, 1514.
An ancient and illustrious Neapolitan family, from which the "Brancas" of France were descended.
Brancati di Lauria, Francesco Lorenzo
Cardinal, Minor conventual, and theologian. (1612-1693)
Brancati, Francesco
Jesuit missionary to China. (1607-1671)
Branch Sunday
One of the medieval English names for Palm Sunday.
Formerly an electoral principality, and a diocese in the heart of the present Kingdom of Prussia.
Branly, Edouard
Nineteenth century French physicist.
Brant, Sebastian
Short biography of the German humanist and poet.
Brantôme, Seigneur de Bourdeille, Pierre de
French writer of memoirs, b. in 1539, or a little later; d. 15 July, 1614.
Brasses, Memorial
Earliest existing dated examples are of the thirteenth century.
Brasseur de Bourbourg, Charles Etienne, Abbé
Born at Bourbourg, France, 1814; died at Nice in January, 1874.
Brassicanus, Johann Alexander
German humanist, born probably at Cannstatt, 1500; died at Vienna, 25 November, 1539.
Brassicanus, Johann Ludwig
Younger brother of Johann Alexander, went to Vienna with his brother in 1524 and likewise won distinction both as a philologist and jurist.
Braulio, Saint
Bishop of Saragossa, hagiographer, friend of St. Isidore of Seville. St. Braulio died in about 651.
Braun, Placidus
Bavarian historian. (1756-1829)
A duchy situated in the mountainous central part of Northern Germany, comprising the region of the Harz mountains.
Bravo, Francisco
As far as known, author of the first book on medicine printed in America.
Information includes history, religion, climate, education, and economy.
Bread, Liturgical Use of
In the Christian liturgy bread is used principally as one of the elements of the Eucharistic sacrifice.
Breast, Striking of the
A liturgical act prescribed in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass.
Diocese situated in the Dutch province of Brabant and suffragan of Utrecht.
Brehon Laws, The
Term for Irish native law, as administered in Ireland down to almost the middle of the seventeenth century.
Formerly the seat of an archdiocese situated in the north-western part of the present German Empire.
Brenach, Saint
Fifth-century Irish missionary to Wales and a contemporary of St. Patrick.
Brenan, Michael John
Irish Church historian. (1780-1847)
Brendan, Saint
Article on St. Brendan of Ardfert and Clonfert, also known as Brendan the Voyager. Monastic founder, d. 577. About half of the article is devoted to St. Brendan's famous voyage.
Brentano, Klemens Maria
German poet. (1778-1842)
The Diocese takes its name from the principal city in the province of the same name in Lombardy, between the Mella and the Naviglio.
Prince-Bishopric seated at Breslau, on the River Oder in the Prussian Province of Silesia.
Bressani, Francesco Giuseppe
Italian missionary to the Indians. (1612-1672)
Brethren of the Lord, The
A group of persons closely connected with the Saviour appears repeatedly in the New Testament under the designation "his brethren" or "the brethren of the Lord".
Breton, Raymond
French missionary among the Caribbean Indians. (1609-1679)
Evolution of the book, or set of books, containing the texts and rubrics of the canonical hours.
Breviary, Aberdeen
Described as the Sarum Office in a Scottish form.
Breviary, Reform of the Roman
Article on the 1911-1913 revamping of the breviary so as to allow recitation of all of the Psalter each week. Feasts were also ranked according to liturgical importance, and some offices were no longer obligatory or were even suppressed.
Brewer, Heinrich
German historian, born at Puffendorf in Germany, 6 September, 1640; died at the same place about 1713.
Briand, Joseph Olivier
Seventh Bishop of Quebec, b. in 1715 at Plérin, Brittany; d. 25 June, 1794.
The payment or the promise of money or other lucrative consideration to induce another, while under the obligation of acting without any view to private emolument, to act as the briber shall prescribe.
Bridaine, Jacques
Preacher, b. at Chusclan, France, 21 March, 1701; d. at Roquemaure, 22 December, 1767.
Bridge-Building Brotherhood, The
During the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, various religious associations were founded for the purpose of building bridges.
Bridget of Sweden, Saint
Biography of the mother of 8, widow, visionary, founder of the Brigittines.
Bridgett, Thomas Edward
Priest and author. (1829-1899)
Bridgewater Treatises
These publications derive their origin and their title from the Rev. Francis Henry Egerton, eighth and last Earl of Bridgewater.
Bridgewater, John
Known also as Aquapontanus, historian of the Catholic confessors under Queen Elizabeth, born in Yorkshire about 1532; died probably at Trier, about 1596.
Briefs and Bulls
A bulla was originally a circular plate or boss of metal, so called from its resemblance in form to a bubble floating upon water.
Brieuc, Saint
Celtic monk and priest, companion of St. Iltud. Brieuc died in about 502.
Brigid of Ireland, Saint
Biography. Monastic founder, abbess of a double monastery, friend of St. Patrick. St. Brigid died in 525.
Brigidines, Institute of the
Established by Most Rev. Dr. Delaney, Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin, at Tullow, Co. Carlow, Ireland, in 1807.
Founded in 1346 by St. Brigit, or Bridget, of Sweden at Vadstena in the Diocese of Linköping.
Brignon, John
Member of the Society of Jesus. Born at St. Malo in 1629; died at Paris, 12 June, 1712.
Bril, Paulus
Flemish painter and engraver, born at Antwerp, 1556; died in Rome, 7 October, 1626.
Brillmacher, Peter Michael
Born at Cologne in 1542, died at Mainz, 25 August, 1595.
Brindholm, Ven. Edmund
Martyr and parish priest of Our Lady's Church at Calais, accused of being concerned in a plot to betray Calais to the French.
Called by the Romans Brundusium or Brundisium, by the Greeks Brentesion, a city of in the province of Lecce, in Apulia, on a rocky peninsula which extends into the Adriatic.
Brinkley, Stephen
Confessor of the Faith, imprisoned and tortured as manager of a secret press for the publication of devotional and controversial works in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.
Brisacier, Jacques-Charles de
Orator and ecclesiastical writer, b. at Bourges in 1641, d. at Paris, 23 March, 1736.
Brisacier, Jean de
Controversialist, b. at Blois, France, 9 June, 1592; entered the Society of Jesus in 1619, d. at Blois, 10 September, 1668.
Provides history and religious statistics.
Brischar, Johann Nepomucene
Church historian, born at Horb in Würtemberg in 1819, studied theology at the University of Tubingen, was appointed parish priest of Buhl near Rottenburg in 1853, where he died in 1897.
Bristol, Ancient Diocese of
This English diocese, which takes its very origin from measures directed against the Church, has a very brief Catholic history, for it only had one bishop acknowledged by the Holy See.
Bristow, Richard
Born at Worcester, 1538, died at Harrow-on the-Hill, 1581.
British Columbia
The westernmost province of the Dominion of Canada.
Britius, Francis
An orientalist, and a monk of Rennes in Brittany; date of birth and death unknown.
Brittain, Thomas Lewis
Born near Chester, England, 1744; died at Hartpury Court, 1827.
Includes history and statistics.
Includes three people with this name.
Brogan, Saint
Article discusses several saints of this name.
Broglie, Auguste-Théodore-Paul de
Abbé, professor of apologetics at the Institut Catholique at Paris, and writer on apologetic subjects. (1834-1895)
Broglie, Jacques-Victor-Albert, Duc de
French statesman and historian. (1821-1901)
Broglie, Maurice-Jean de
Born in Paris, 5 September, 1766; d. there, 20 June, 1821.
Brogny, Jean-Allarmet de
French Cardinal. (1342-1426)
Bromyard, John
Theologian, d. about 1390.
Brondel, John Baptist
First Bishop of Helena, Montana, U.S.A. (1842-1903)
Brookby, Anthony
Friar Minor and English martyr, died 19 July 1537.
Brookes, James
Last Catholic Bishop of Gloucester, England. (1512-1560)
Comprises the counties of Kings, Queens, Nassau, and Suffolk, or all of Long Island, in the State of New York, U.S.A.
Brosse, Jean-Baptiste de la
A Jesuit missionary, born 1724 at Magnac, Angoumois, France; died 1782.
Brothers Hospitallers of St. John of God
The founder of this religious institution, was born 8 March, 1495, at Montemor Novo, in Portugal.
Broughton, Richard
Catholic priest and antiquary, claiming descent from the Broughtons of Lancashire.
Brouwer, Christoph
Historian. (1559-1617)
Brown, William
A naval officer of the Republic of Argentina. (1777-1857)
Browne, Charles Farrar
Humorist, b. at Waterford, Oxford County, Maine, U.S.A., 26 April, 1834; d. in Southampton, England, 6 March, 1867.
Brownson, Orestes Augustus
Philosopher, essayist, reviewer, b. at Stockbridge, Vermont, U.S.A., 16 September, 1803; d. at Detroit, Michigan, 17 April, 1876.
Brownson, Sarah
Writer, daughter of Orestes A. Brownson, b. at Chelsea, Massachusetts, 7 June, 1839; married William J. Tenney, 26 November, 1873; died at Elizabeth, 30 October, 1876.
Vicariate Apostolic, erected 1874.