Society Religion and Spirituality Christianity Denominations Catholicism Reference Catholic Encyclopedia A
In French, Aix-la-Chapelle, the name by which the city is generally known; in Latin Aquae Grani, later Aquisgranum.
Aarhus, Ancient See of
Located in Denmark.
Brother of Moses, and High Priest of the Old Law.
A Hebrew word signifying: ruin, destruction (Job 31:12); place of destruction; the Abyss, realm of the dead (Job 26:6; Proverbs 15:11).
A term used by writers of ascetical and mystical books to signify the first stage of the union of the soul with God by conforming to His Will.
A mountain range across Jordan.
Aramaic word for father.
Abbadie, Antoine d'
Astronomer, geodetist, genographer, physician, numismatist, philologian. (1810-1897)
Abban of Magheranoidhe, Saint
Irish monastic founder, d. 620.
Abban of New Ross, Saint
Contemporary of St. Abban of Magheranoidhe, and often confused with St. Evin of Rosglass.
Abban the Hermit, Saint
An Irishman who lived at Abingdon, England, before St. Patrick's lifetime.
A French word meaning primarily and strictly an abbot or superior of a monastery of men.
Abbeloos, Jean Baptiste
The female superior in spirituals and temporals of a community of twelve or more nuns.
A monastery canonically erected and autonomous, with a community of not fewer than twelve religious; monks under the government of an abbot; nuns under that of an abbess.
French Benedictine monk of St-Germain-des-Prés in Paris, sometimes called Abbo Parisiensis.
Biographical article on this Benedictine monk, who died in 1004.
A title given to the superior of a community of twelve or more monks.
Abbreviation, Methods of
Discusses forms used to get the most use from scarce and costly materials.
Latin abbreviations commonly seen in documents of the Catholic Church, the full Latin words or phrases, and their English meaning.
Those who make an abridgment or abstract of a long writing or discourse.
A titular see in the province of Rhodope on the southern coast of Thrace, now called Bouloustra.
A minor prophet.
Abdias of Babylon
Ecclesiastically considered, is the resignation of a benefice or clerical dignity.
Abdon and Sennen, Saints
Persian martyrs in the Decian persecution. Died in about 250.
May be considered as a public crime and a matrimonial diriment impediment.
Complete or partial lists of letters of the alphabet, chiefly Greek and Latin, inscribed on ancient monuments, Pagan and Christian.
A sect of Anabaptists who disdained human knowledge, contending that God would enlighten His elect interiorly and give them knowledge of necessary truths by visions and ecstasies.
Commentary on the first murder victim.
Dialectician, philosopher, and theologian. (1079-1142)
Associate of St. Vincent de Paul. (1603-1691)
Spanish rabbi. (1092-1167)
A confederation of Algonquin tribes, comprising the Penobscots, Passamaquoddies, Norridgewocks, and others, formerly occupying what is now Maine, and southern New Brunswick.
Abercius, Inscription of
A Greek hagiographical text.
Named as having lost his life from Catholic clergy violence.
Jesuit missionary in Scotland. (1532-1613)
Aberdeen, The Diocese of
A see founded in 1063 at Mortlach by Bl. Beyn.
Aberdeen, The University of
Founder William Elphinstone, Bishop of Aberdeen from 1483 to 1514.
Aberle, Moritz von
Catholic theologian. (1819-1875)
Abgar, The Legend of
Concerns a correspondence that took place between God and the local potentate at Edessa.
Hebrew ebhyathar, Father of plenty, or, the great one is father.
A titular see of Phoenicia.
Abingdon, The Abbey of
Located in the County of Berkshire, England, founded A.D. 675.
English antiquarian. (1560-1647)
Indian tribe, linguistically of Guaycuru stock.
Nephew of King David.
A denial, disavowal, or renunciation under oath.
A son of Ner, a cousin of Saul, and commander-in-chief of Saul's army.
Abomination of Desolation, The
Spoken of in St. Matthew, xxiv, 15, and St. Mark, xiii, 14.
Briefly defined as "the loss of a fetal life."
Abortion, Physical Effects of
Covers definition, causes, and physical effects.
Abra de Raconis, Charles Francois d'
French bishop, born at the Château de Raconis in 1580 of a Calvinistic family; died 1646.
Abrabanel, Don Isaac
Jewish statesman, apologist and exegete. (1437-1508)
Outline of his life, with New and Old Testament views.
Abraham (in Liturgy)
Of all the names used, a special prominence accrues to those of Abel, Melchisedech, and Abraham.
Abraham a Sancta Clara
A Discalced Augustinian friar, preacher, and author of popular books of devotion. (1644-1709)
A learned Maronite, born in Hekel, or Ecchel (hence his surname), a village on Mount Lebanon, in 1600; died 1664 in Rome.
Abraham, The Bosom of
Found only in two verses of St. Luke's Gospel (xvi, 22, 23).
Syrian heretics of the ninth century.
Jesuit theologian. (1589-1655)
A class of ancient stone articles, of small dimensions, inscribed with outlandish figures and formulas.
Article covers Absalom, son of David; Absalom, father of Mathathias; and Absalom, father of Jonathan.
Absalon of Lund
A Danish prelate, also known as Axel. (1128-1201)
Wormwood, known for its repulsive bitterness.
Philosophical term referring to God.
The remission of sin, or of the punishment due to sin, granted by the Church.
One who cannot take wine without risk of vomiting.
Includes information about old and new testament fasting as well as church laws.
Abstinence, Physical Effects of
Article deals with effects due to partial or periodic abstinence, such as practiced by the Catholic Church.
A process (or a faculty) by which the mind selects for consideration some one of the attributes of a thing to the exclusion of the rest.
An English or Lowland Scotch form of the middle-Latin word abthania (Gaelic, abdhaine), meaning abbacy.
A bishop of Caria in Syria; d., probably, in 770.
An Italian bishop, b. at Thessalonica early in the fifth century; d. 469.
A titular see of Troas in Asia Minor, suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespontic province.
Primarily and classically an adjective, very deep.
Provides details on the geography, ethnology, political revolutions, as well as church information.
The Biblical Acacia belongs to the genus Mimosa.
Fourth-century Arian sect.
Bishop of Beroea. (322-432)
Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine, disciple and biographer of Eusebius, the historian, whose successor in the See of Caesarea he became in 340.
Patriarch of Constantinople. (d. 489)
Bishop of Melitene in the third century.
Historical and bibliographical notes concerning the more important of these associations of learned men.
Academy, The French
Founded by Cardinal de Richelieu in 1635.
Usually regarded as the small district on the south shore of the Bay of Fundy from Annapolis to the Basin of Minas.
A titular see of Macedonia, on the Strymonic Gulf, now known as Erisso.
An ornamental plant indigenous to middle Europe.
The title of a certain hymn or, an Office in the Greek Liturgy in honour of the Mother of God.
Bishop of Hexham, companion of St. Wilfrid. Acca died in about 742.
The most northern of the five principal Philistine cities.
Parts of the liturgy the priest, or the deacon, or subdeacon, or the acolyte sang alone.
In canon law, the act by which one receives a thing with approbation or satisfaction.
Those Jansenists who accepted the Bull Unigenitus, issued in 1713 against the Jansenist doctrines.
Method of acquiring ownership of a thing arising from the fact that it is in some way added to, or is the fruit of something already belonging to oneself.
A term applied to the voting in conclave for the election of a pope, by which a cardinal changes his vote and accedes to some other candidate.
Three cardinals belonging to an illustrious Florentine family, Angelo, Niccolo, and Filippo.
The obvious division of things into the stable and the unstable.
Used in the classical Latin of Republican Rome as a general term for any manifestation of popular feeling expressed by a shout.
Acclamation (in Papal Elections)
One of the forms of papal election. Consists of all the cardinals present unanimously proclaiming one of the candidates Supreme Pontiff, without the formality of casting votes.
Covers what is meant by biblical accommodation, its use in Sacred Scripture, and the rules which ought to regulate its use.
A term generally employed to designate a partner in some form of evildoing.
Covers an Italian jurisconsult of the Middle Ages, (1182-1260) and his son, also a lawyer, (1225-1293).
A term applied to the Eutychians who withdrew from Peter Mongus, the Monophysite Patriarch of Alexandria, in 482.
Son of Amri and King of Israel.
The name, before the Roman conquest in 146 B.C., of a strip of land between the gulf of Corinth and Elis and Arcadia, embracing twelve cities leagued together.
A Christian mentioned in St. Paul's epistles.
King of Judah.
Achery, Lucas d'
French Benedictine. (1609-1685)
Nephew of Tobias.
Son of Sadoc, the priest.
Four people with this name are detailed.
Counsellor of David, who joined the rebellion of Absalom.
Diocese in Ireland, suffragan to the Archdiocese of Tuam.
The scene of the death of the "troubler" Achan.
A titular see in Upper Albania.
Achterfeldt, Johann Heinrich
Achtermann, Theodore William
German sculptor. (1799-1889)
Aci-Reale, The Diocese of
Located in Sicily; includes fourteen communes in the civil province of Catania, immediately subject to Rome.
Philologist, Latin poet, and convert to the Catholic Church. (1567-1595)
Catholic professor of exegesis. (1771-1831)
A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, in Asia Minor, now known as Ahat-Keui.
Either, an appellation common to all Eastern ascetics known by the rigour of their vigils; or, a special order of Greek or Basilian monks devoting themselves to prayer and praise without intermission.
In ecclesiastical terminology signifies the order or arrangement of the divine office and also, in a wide sense, the office itself.
A cleric promoted to the fourth and highest minor order in the Latin Church, ranking next to a subdeacon.
Served in the Colombian army and in 1834 attempted a scientific survey of the country between Socorro and the Magdalena River.
Acosta, Jose de
Founded a number of colleges, among them those of Arequipa, Potose, Chuquisaca, Panama, and La Paz.
A diocese in Italy under the immediate jurisdiction of the Holy See, comprising seven towns of the Province of Rome.
Name of several Italian cardinals.
Fifth General of the Society of Jesus. (1543-1615)
A diocese suffragan of Turin, Italy.
Syrian seaport on the Mediterranean.
A poem the initial or final letters of whose verses form certain words or sentences.
Act of Settlement (Irish)
1662 act passed by the Irish Parliament to bring in Protestant settlers in Munster, Leinster, and Ulster.
The Gospel of Nicodemus.
Acta Sanctae Sedis
A publication containing the principal public documents issued by the Pope, directly or through the Roman Congregations.
Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae
Abbreviated title of a celebrated work on the Irish saints by the Franciscan, John Colgan.
Acta Triadis Thaumaturgae
The lives of St. Patrick, St. Brigid, and St. Columba; published at Louvain, in 1647, by John Colgan.
Acton, Charles Januarius
English cardinal. (1803-1847)
English canonist, born 1350.
Acton, John Emerich Edward Dalberg, Baron Acton
Biography of the historian best-known for his view of the corruption power causes.
Acton, John Francis Edward
Sixth Baronet of the name. (1736-1811)
Acts of Roman Congregations
A term used to designate the documents issued by the Roman Congregations.
Acts of the Apostles
The fifth book of the New Testament.
Derive their name from connection with ecclesiastical procedure.
St. Thomas and the scholastics in general regard only the free and deliberate acts of the will as human.
An act that is neither good nor bad.
Actus et Potentia
A technical expression in scholastic phraseology used to translate Aristotle's energeia or entelecheia, and dynamis.
A technical expression used in scholastic philosophy.
A term employed in scholastic philosophy to express the absolute perfection of God.
One of the first to spread Manicheism in the Christian Orient.
Ad Apostolicae Dignitatis Apicem
Apostolic letter issued against Emperor Frederick II by Pope Innocent IV.
Ad Limina Apostolorum
A pilgrimage to the sepulchres of St. Peter and St. Paul at Rome.
Ad Sanctam Beati Petri Sedem
Summarizes this intervention in the Jansenist controversy by Pope Alexander VII.
Ad Universalis Ecclesiae
A papal constitution dealing with admission to religious orders.
Grandson of Charles Martel. Adalard was abbot of Corbie, and Pepin's prime minister. He died in 827.
Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen; born about 1000; died 1072.
Archbishop of Mainz (Mayence) 1111 to 1137.
Apostle of Prussia. Bishop of Prague, forced to flee his see. Missionary to the Hungarians and Poles. He was murdered in 997.
Apostle of the Slavs. Monk, missionary to Russia, abbot, and bishop of Magdeburg, d. 981.
First man and father of the human race.
Adam in Early Christian Liturgy and Literature
Discusses his importance to the Fathers and to the authors of the many apocryphal writings of the first five centuries of the Christian Era.
Adam of Bremen
A German historian and geographer of the eleventh century.
Adam of Fulda
A monk of Franconia and one of the most learned musicians of his age.
Adam of Murimuth
An English chronicler of about the middle of the fourteenth century.
Adam of Perseigne
French Cistercian, Abbot of the monastery of Perseigne in the Diocese of Mans, born about the middle of the twelfth century.
Adam of St. Victor
A prolific writer of Latin Hymns, born in the latter part of the twelfth century.
Adam of Usk
An English priest, canonist, and chronicler.
A theologian and Church historian of the latter part of the twelfth century.
Preacher and opponent of Calvinists and Jansenists.
French linguist and writer. (1716-1792)
Adam, The Books of
A romance made up of Oriental fables.
Adami da Bolsena, Andrea
Italian musician. (1663-1742)
An obscure sect, dating perhaps from the second century, which professed to have regained Adam's primeval innocence.
Irish-born abbot of Iona, and St. Columba's biographer.
Jesuit professor of humanities. (1737-1802)
A diocese of Armenian rite in Asia Minor.
Four meanings detailed.
Adda, Ferdinando d'
Cardinal and Papal Legate. (1649-1719)
One of the three original disciples of Manes.
Addeus and Maris, Liturgy of
Oriental liturgy, sometimes assigned to the Syrian group; sometimes to the Persian group.
Rules as to what is fitting and customary in the matter of ecclesiastical correspondence.
Adelaide, Archdiocese of
Centered in Adelaide, capital of South Australia.
Or Adelheid. The widow of Otho, she died in 999.
Abbess, renowned for having the gift of miracles, d. 1015.
Adelard of Bath
Twelfth-century scholastic philosopher.
Adelham, John Placid
Convert from Protestantism. (d. 1681)
Eleventh-century Bishop of Brescia.
Fourth-century sect mentioned by the anonymous author known as Praedestinatus.
It comprises all Arabia, and is known as the Vicariate Apostolic of Arabia and Aden.
Son of St. Augustine. (372-388)
Adeodatus, Pope Saint
Brief article on this Roman monk, opponent of Monothelitism, d. 676. Called Adeodatus II to distinguish him from his predecessor St. Deusdedit, who is also called Adeodatus.
A hymn used at Benediction at Christmastide in France and England since the close of the eighteenth century.
An urgent demand made upon another to do something, or to desist from doing something, which is rendered more solemn by coupling with it the name of God.
Includes details on administrators of dioceses, parishes, and ecclesiastical institutions.
Administrator (of Ecclesiastical Property)
One charged with the care of church property.
A preliminary means used by the Church towards a suspected person, as a preventive of harm or a remedy of evil.
A Benedictine abbey in Styria, Austro-Hungary.
Ado of Vienne, Saint
Benedictine monk, pilgrim, scholar, pastor, Archbishop of Vienne, d. 875.
Hebrew meaning "lord, ruler", a name bestowed upon God in the Old Testament.
Fourth son of King David, and Adonias the Levite are discussed.
Adoption, as defined in canon law, is foreign to the Bible.
The Church made its own the Roman law of adoption, with its legal consequences.
The adoption of man by God in virtue of which we become His sons and heirs.
The theory that the man Jesus at some point in time became the Son of God only by adoption. Strictly speaking, refers to an eighth-century Spanish heresy, but the term is also used to cover similar beliefs.
In the strict sense, an act of religion offered to God in acknowledgment of His supreme perfection and dominion, and of the creature's dependence upon Him.
A term broadly used to designate the practically uninterrupted adoration of the Blessed Sacrament.
Italian preacher. (1531-1586)
Adoro Te Devote
A hymn sometimes styled Rhythmus, or Oratio, S. Thomæ (sc. Aquinatis) written c. 1260.
An Italian bishopric, suffragan to Venice.
Adrian Fortescue, Blessed
Knight of St. John, martyred in 1539.
Adrian I, Pope
Adrian II, Pope
Adrian III, Pope Saint
Short article on this pope, a Roman, who died in 885.
Adrian IV, Pope
Adrian of Canterbury, Saint
African-born Benedictine abbot, d. 710.
Adrian of Castello
Italian prelate distinguished as a statesman and reviver of learning; born about 1460, died about 1521.
Adrian V, Pope
A Genoese, and nephew of Innocent IV. He was elected at Viterbo 12 July 1276, but died 18 August.
Adrian VI, Pope
According to legend, Orestes, son of Agamemnon, built this city at the confluence of the Tonsus (Toundja) and the Ardiscus (Arda) with the Hebrus (Maritza).
Adrichem, Christian Kruik van
Catholic priest and theological writer. (1533-1585)
Abbot of the Cluniac monastery of Moutier-en-Der, d. 992, on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
Aduarte, Diego Francisco
Missionary and historian. (1566-1635)
Details on two places with this name.
Adulteration of Food
This act is defined as the addition of any non-condimental substance to a food.
The article considers adultery with reference only to morality.
According to 1907 usage, a period beginning with the Sunday nearest to the feast of St. Andrew the Apostle and embracing four Sundays.
A group of six American Protestant sects which hold in common a belief in the near return of Christ in person.
Advertisements, Book of
A series of enactments concerning ecclesiastical matters, drawn up by Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury (1559-75).
Advocates of Roman Congregations
Persons, ecclesiastical or lay, versed in canon and civil law, who plead causes before the ecclesiastical tribunals in Rome.
Advocates of St. Peter
A body of jurists constituting a society whose statutes were confirmed by a brief of Leo XIII, 5 July, 1878.
A title given to an officer of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, established in 1587, by Sixtus V, to deal juridically with processes of beatification and canonization.
A name applied, in the Middle Ages, to certain lay persons, generally of noble birth, whose duty it was, under given conditions, to represent a particular church or monastery, and to defend its rights against force.
In English law the right of patronage of a church or ecclesiastical benefice, a right exercised by nomination of a clergyman to such church or other benefice.
A secret chamber or place of retirement in the ancient temples, and esteemed the most sacred spot; the innermost sanctuary or shrine.
Aedan of Ferns, Saint
Bishop and patron of Ferns, Ireland. (550-632)
Aedh of Kildare
Sixth-century King of Leinster, Ireland.
Aegidius of Assisi, Blessed
Better known in English as Brother Giles. One of the first followers of St. Francis of Assisi, he died in 1262.
Aegidius of Viterbo
Cardinal, theologian, orator, humanist, and poet, born at Viterbo, Italy; died at Rome, 1532.
Aelfric, Abbot of Eynsham
The author of the homilies in Anglo-Saxon, a translator of Holy Scripture, and a writer upon many miscellaneous subjects.
Monk and biographer, of whom nothing is known except his Life of St. Canute the Martyr, written in 1109.
Cistercian abbot, homilist, spiritual writer, d. 1166 or 1167.
Aeneas of Gaza
A Neo-Platonic philosopher, a convert to Christianity, who flourished towards the end of the fifth century.
Aengus, Saint (the Culdee)
Irish hermit, hagiographer, poet, late eighth century.
Mentioned in John 3:23, as the locality where the forerunner of Christ baptized.
The term appropriated by Gnostic heresiarchs to designate the series of spiritual powers evolved by progressive emanation from the eternal Being.
The largest and outer-most covering of the chalice and paten in the Greek church, corresponding to the veil in the Latin rite.
Aerius of Pontus
A friend and fellow ascetic of Eustathius, who became Bishop of Sebaste (355), and who ordained Aërius and placed him over the hospital or asylum in that city.
May be defined as a systematic training to right thinking and right feeling in matters of art, and is made a part of philosophy by A.G. Baumgarten.
The Apostolic Letter of Pius IX, by which he summoned the Vatican Council. It is dated Rome, 29 June, 1868.
An encyclical letter of Pope Leo XIII (issued 4 August, 1879); not to be confused with the apostolic letter of the same name written by Pope Pius IX.
A Roman general, patrician, and consul, b. towards the end of the fourth century; d. 454.
Affinity (in Canon Law)
A relationship arising from the carnal intercourse of a man and a woman, sufficient for the generation of children, whereby the man becomes related to the woman's blood-relatives and the woman to the man's.
Affinity (in the Bible)
Scripture recognizes affinity as an impediment to wedlock.
A solemn declaration accepted in legal procedure in lieu of the requisite oath.
Benedictine abbey in Belgium.
Affre, Denis Auguste
Archbishop of Paris. (1793-1848)
Afonzo de Albuquerque
Second son of Gonzallo de Albuquerque, lord of Villaverde.
Martyred at Augsburg in the Diocletian persecution (c. 304) for refusing to participate in pagan rites.
This name, which is of Phoenician origin, was at first given by the Romans to the territory about the city of Carthage.
African Church, Early
The name given to the Christian communities inhabiting the region known politically as Roman Africa.
In use not only in the old Roman province of Africa of which Carthage was the capital, but also in Numidia and Mauretania.
Commonly called African or Carthaginian Synods.
Mentioned in Acts 11:28, and 21:10, as a prophet of the New Testament.
Under certain circumstances the agape and the Eucharist appear to form parts of a single liturgical function.
Virgins who consecrated themselves to God with a vow of chastity and associated with laymen.
Fifth-century deacon of the church of Sancta Sophia at Constantinople, reputed tutor of Justinian.
Agapetus I, Pope Saint
Anti-Arian, instrumental in deposing a Monophysite bishop who had moreover abandoned his see, d. 536.
Agapetus II, Pope
Agar, William Seth
English Canon. (1815-1872)
Virgin and martyr, died at Catania in Sicily, probably in the Decian persecution (250-253).
A supposed secretary of Tiridates II, King of Armenia, under whose name there has come down a life of the first apostle of Armenia, Gregory the Illuminator, who died about 332.
A Byzantine historian and man of letters, born at Myrina in Asia Minor about 536.
Agatho, Pope Saint
Short article on St. Agatho the Wonderworker, a Sicilian believed to have been over 100 years old at the time of his election. He died in 681.
In the diocese of Sion, Switzerland, owes its fame to an event related by St. Eucherius, Bishop of Lyons, the martyrdom of a Roman legion, known as the "Theban Legion", at the beginning of the fourth century.
A musical composer, born 2 December 1578, of a noble family of Sienna; died probably 10 April, 1640.
Agde, Council of
Held in 506 at Agatha or Agde in Languedoc, under the presidency of St. Caesarius of Arles.
Age of Reason
The name given to that period of human life at which persons are deemed to begin to be morally responsible.
Fixed by the canons, or law of the Church, at which her subjects become capable of incurring certain obligations, enjoying special privileges, embracing special states of life, holding office or dignity, or receiving the sacraments.
Agen, Diocese of
Comprises the Department of Lot and Garonne.
Agents of Roman Congregations
Persons whose business it is to look after the affairs of their patrons at the Roman Curia.
The tenth among the minor prophets of the Old Testament.
According to the accepted teaching of theologians, it is lawful, in the defense of life or limb, of property of some importance, and of chastity, to repel violence with violence, even to the extent of killing an unjust assailant.
Agiles, Raymond d'
A chronicler and canon of Puy-en-Velay, France, toward the close of the eleventh century.
Biography of the abbot of Stavelot, bishop of Cologne, martyred in 750.
Agios O Theos
The opening words in Greek of an invocation, or doxology, or hymn for it may properly receive any of these titles which in the Roman Liturgy is sung during the Improperia, or "Reproaches" at the ceremony of the Adoration of the Cross, on Good Friday.
Agnelli, Fra. Guglielmo
Sculptor and architect. (1238-1313)
Chiefly known for his catechetical and devotional works. (1621-1706)
Agnellus of Pisa, Blessed
Deacon, founder of the English Franciscan Province, d. 1236.
Agnellus, Andreas, of Ravenna
Historian of that church, b. 805; the date of his death is unknown, but was probably about 846.
Agnes of Assisi, Saint
Brief biography of the younger sister of St. Clare, and prioress of the Poor Clares at Monticelli.
Agnes of Bohemia, Saint
Also called Agnes of Prague. Poor Clare, prioress.
Agnes of Montepulciano, Saint
Entered the convent at the age of 9, commissioned by the pope to found a monastery at the age of 13 (and 2 years later she was made its superior), also founded a Dominican convent, d. 1317.
Agnes of Rome, Saint
Virgin, martyred at the age of 12 or 13, revered since at least the mid-fourth century.
Agnesi, Maria Gaetana
An Italian woman of remarkable intellectual gifts and attainments. Member of the Blue Nuns in Milan. (1718-1799)
The Slavonic word for the square portion of bread cut from the first loaf in the preparation for Mass according to the Greek rite.
The name given to those who denied the omniscience either of God or of Christ.
A philosophical theory of the limitations of knowledge, professing doubt of or disbelief in some or all of the powers of knowing possessed by the human mind.
The name given to certain discs of wax impressed with the figure of a lamb and blessed at stated seasons by the Pope.
Agnus Dei (in Liturgy)
A name given to the formula recited thrice by the priest at Mass in the Roman rite.
One of the names given by the Donatists to those of their followers who went through cities and villages to disseminate the doctrine of Donatus.
Agony of Christ
The word is used only once in Sacred Scripture (Luke, xxii, 43) to designate the anguish of Our Lord in the Garden of Gethsemani.
Italian composer. (1593-1629)
Agostino Novello, Blessed
Counselor to the King of Sicily, joined the Augustinians, renowned for his knowledge of civil and ecclesiastical law, served as the pope's confessor, was General of his Order.
Agoult, Charles Consstance César Joseph Matthieu d'
A French prelate, born at Grenoble, 1747; died at Paris, 1824.
Archdiocese situated in British India.
Archiepiscopal see of the ancient kingdom of Croatia, in Austria, founded towards the end of the eleventh century as a suffragan of Kalocsa in Hungary, and made an archdiocese in 1852.
Term for alleged sayings of Jesus, found in ancient Christian writings, not included in the canonical Gospels.
Theories and movements intended to benefit the poorer classes of society by dealing in some way with the ownership of land or the legal obligations of the cultivators.
Agreda, Maria de
Franciscan mystic. (1602-1665)
An archiepiscopal see of Hungary, founded in 1009, and made an archdiocese in 1304, by Pius VII.
Fourth-century bishop of Trier.
Biography of the composer, mentioning the possibility of unpublished manuscripts still in Spanish libraries.
Physician, mineralogist, historian, and controversialist. (1494-1555)
Humanist of the earlier period, and a promoter of the study of the classics in Germany, born in 1442, or 1443, at Bafflo, hear Groningen, Holland; died at Heidelberg, 28 October, 1485.
Agrippa of Nettesheim, Heinrich Cornelius
Described as a "knight, doctor, and by common reputation, a magician".
Bishop of Carthage at the close of the second and beginning of the third century.
A Mexican see dependent on Guadalaxara; erected by Leo XIII.
Aguirre, Joseph Saenz de
Cardinal, and learned Spanish Benedictine; born at Logro o, in Old Castile, 24 March, 1630; died 19 August, 1699.
A high court official under Josias and his two sons, who protected Jeremias from the fury of the populace.
Ahriman and Ormuzd
The modern Persian forms of Anro-Mainyus and Ahura Mazda, the Evil Spirit and the Good Spirit.
Aiblinger, Johann Caspar
Organist and composer of sacred music, born probably at Ratisbon in 1565; died at Augsburg, 21 January, 1628.
Aidan of Lindisfarne, Saint
Irish monk, first bishop of Lindisfarne, d. 651.
Aiguillon, Duchess of
Marie de Vignerot de Pontcourlay, Marquise of Combalet and Duchesse d'Aiguillon; niece of Cardinal Richelieu. Born 1604; died at Paris, 1675.
Foundress of the Irish Sisters of Charity. (1787-1858)
A disciple of St. Patrick and bishop of Emly, died in the first half of the sixth century.
Irishman, rector of the School of Clonard, distinguished scholar and author, d. 664.
Ailleboust, Family of d'
Details for three family members.
Ailly, Pierre d'
French theologian and philosopher, bishop and cardinal, born 1350 at Compiègne; died probably 1420 at Avignon.
Spanish Jesuit philologist. (1715-1799)
Diocese in France.
Airoli, Giacomo Maria
Jesuit Orientalist and Scriptural commentator. (1660-1721)
In architecture, one of the lateral or longitudinal divisions of a church, separated from the nave by rows of piers, pillars, or columns.
King of the Lombards. (d. 756)
Aix, Archdiocese of
Includes the districts of Aix and Arles (Department of the Bouches-du-Rhône).
Aix-en-Provence, Councils of
Councils were held at Aix in 1112, 1374, 1409, 1585, 1612, 1838, and 1850.
Ajaccio, Diocese of
Comprises the island of Corsica.
A city of Upper Egypt, situated on the banks of the Nile.
Akominatos, Michael & Nicetas
Two famous Greeks of the later Byzantine period.
The twenty-second state admitted into the union.
A titular see of Caria in Asia Minor, supposed to be the present Arab-Hissar.
The substance commonly known as alabaster is a fine-grained variety of gypsum. Oriental alabaster, the alabastrites of the classical writers, is a translucent marble obtained from stalagmitic deposits.
A South American diocese, in eastern Brazil, dependent on Bahia.
Alain de l'Isle
Monk, poet, preacher, theologian, and eclectic philosopher. (1128-1203)
Titular see of Phoenicia from 325 to 451.
Mexican statesman and historian. (1792-1853)
Roman antiquary. (1583-1626)
Alan of Tewkesbury
Benedictine abbot and writer. (d. 1202)
Alan of Walsingham
Architect. (d. 1364)
Alanus de Rupe, Blessed
Dominican promoter of the Rosary. (1428-1475)
Alarcón, Pedro Antonio de
Spanish novelist and poet. (1833-1891)
The first knowledge of Alaska was acquired in 1741 through the expedition under Vitus Bering, a Dane in the Russian service, who sailed from Okhoysk.
An Italian bishopric under the immediate jurisdiction of the Holy See, comprising seven towns in the Province of Rome.
A white linen vestment with close fitting sleeves, reaching nearly to the ground and secured round the waist by a girdle.
Alba Pompeia, Diocese of
Comprises eighty towns in the province of Cuneo and two in the province of Alexandria, in Italy.
First martyr of Britain, d. about 304. Biographical article.
Manichæan heretics who lived in Albania, probably about the eighth century.
Italian family said to be descended from Albanian refugees of the fifteenth century. Includes information on six family members.
The ancient Epirus and Illyria, is the most western land occupied by the Turks in Europe.
A suburban see, comprising seven towns in the Province of Rome.
Diocese comprising the entire counties of Albany, Columbia, Delaware, Fulton, Greene, Montgomery, Otsego, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Schenectady, Schoharie, Warren, Washington, and that part of Herkimer and Hamilton counties south of the northern line of the townships of Ohio and Russia, Benson and Hope, in the State of New York.
Diocese comprising seventy-nine towns in the province of Port Maurice and forth-five in the province of Genoa, suffragan to the Archdiocese of Genoa, Italy.
Cardinal and Bishop of Bologna. (1357-1443)
Alberic of Monte Cassino
Benedictine, died 1088.
Alberic of Ostia
Benedictine monk and Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia. (1080-1147)
Albero de Montreuil
Archbishop, of Trier born about 1080; died 1152.
Cardinal and statesman. (1664-1752)
Bishop of Riga, Apostle of Livonia, d. 17 January, 1229.
Albert Berdini of Sarteano, Blessed
Short biography of the Franciscan famed as a preacher.
Albert II, Archbishop of Magdeburg in Saxony
Eighteenth Archbishop of Magdeburg in Saxony, date of birth unknown; d. 1232.
Albert of Aachen
A chronicler of the First Crusade.
Albert of Brandenburg
Cardinal and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire. (1490-1545)
Albert of Castile
Historian, born about 1460; died 1522.
Albert of Stade
Canon regular, papal legate, and Patriarch of Jerusalem. He was assassinated in 1215.
Cardinal, bishop of Liège, martyred in 1192 or 1193.
Historian, born at Bologna in 1479; died same place, probably in 1552.
Alberti, Leone Battista
Florentine ecclesiastic and artist of the fifteenth century.
Medieval statesman, died 1321.
Albertrandi, John Baptist
A Polish Jesuit, of Italian extraction, born at Warsaw, 7 December, 1731; died August, 1808.
Albertus Magnus, Saint
Called "the Universal Doctor." Dominican scientist, philosopher, theologian, instructor of St. Thomas Aquinas.
Albi (Albia), Archdiocese of
Comprises the Department of the Tarn.
Albi, Council of
Held in 1254 by St. Louis on his return from a Crusade.
Albi, Juan de
A Spanish Carthusian of the Convent Val-Christ, near Segovia, date of birth uncertain; died 27 December, 1591.
Archbishop of Prague. (1347-1427)
A neo-Manichæan sect that flourished in southern France in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
A scholarly English monk, pupil of Archbishop Theodore, and of Abbot Adrian of St. Peter's, Canterbury, contemporary of Saint Bede (673-735).
Albrechtsberger, Johann G.
Master of musical theory, and teacher of Hummel and Beethoven. (1736-1809)
Albright Brethren, The
A body of American Christians chiefly of German descent, founded, in 1800, by the Rev. Jacob Albright, a native of Pennsylvania (1759-1808).
Alcalá, University of
Had its inception in the thirteenth century, when Sancho IV, conceived the idea of founding a Studium Generale in Alcalá de Henares.
Alcedo, Antonio de
Soldier, born at Quito, Ecuador, 1755.
The art of transmuting baser metals into gold and silver.
Italian jurist. (1492-1550)
High-priest, the leader of the hellenizing party in the time of Judas Machabeus.
Bishop of Hexham, died 781.
Bishop of Rochester, Worcester, and Ely. (1430-1500)
The term is understood to include all the changes that may occur in the human organism after the ingestion of any form of alcohol.
Lengthy article on the educator, scholar, theologian, liturgist, who died in 804.
Alcántara, Military Order of
First committed to the care of the Castilian Knights of Calatrava.
Daughter of SS. Walbert and Bertilia. Flemish nun, founder of monastery at Maubeuge, d. about 684.
A former Cistercian Abbey in the valley of the Vils in Lower Bavaria.
A Northumbrian king, son of King Oswin; d. 14 December, 705.
Abbot of Malmesbury, bishop of Sherborne, poet, d. about 709.
Bishop of Le Mans, d. 856.
Italian naturalist. (1522-1607)
A French polemical writer of the early years of the nineteenth century, b. in Paris, date unknown; d. 1812.
A Jesuit historiographer. (1592-1652)
Alegre, Francisco Xavier
Historian, born at Vera Cruz, in Mexico, or New Spain, 12 November, 1729; died at Bologna, 16 August, 1788.
Alemany, Joseph Sadoc
First Archbishop of San Francisco. (1814-1888)
Chinese missionary and scholar, born at Brescia, in Italy, in 1582; died at Fou-Tcheou, China, in August, 1644.
Armenian Rite Archdiocese in Syria.
Ales and Terralba
Diocese made up of 42 communes in the province of Cagliari, Archbishopric of Oristano, Italy.
Alessandria della Paglia
Diocese in Piedmont, Italy, a suffragen of Vercelli.
Italian architect, b. 1500; d. 1572.
Diocese in European Turkey, since 1886 suffragan of Scutari.
Seven men with this name are described.
Alexander (Early Bishops)
Profiles of six bishops of this name in the early Church.
Alexander Briant, Saint
English Jesuit priest and martyr. He was scarcely over 25 when martyred in 1581.
Alexander I, Pope Saint
Article on this pope, who died in 115 or 116. According to a tradition dating to the fifth century, Alexander was martyred, but it is possible that he has been confused with another St. Alexander who was indeed a martyr.
Alexander II, Pope
Alexander III, Pope
Reigned from 1159-81.
Alexander IV, Pope
A French historian and theologian, of the Order of St. Dominic. (1639-1724)
Alexander of Abonoteichos
The most notorious imposter of the second century of the Christian era.
Alexander of Hales
Biographical article on the first of the scholastic theologians to use Aristotelean principles in systematic theology.
Alexander of Jerusalem, Saint
Alexander, Bishop of Cappadocia, imprisoned for his faith, served as coadjutor to the Bishop of Jerusalem. Exiled and again imprisoned, Alexander was tortured and died in prison in 251.
Alexander of Lycopolis
Alexander Sauli, Saint
Apostle of Corsica, Barnabite, bishop of Aleria, d. 1592.
Pietro Philarghi, born c. 1339, on the island of Crete (Candia), whence his appellation, Peter of Candia; elected 26 June, 1409; died at Bologna, 3 May, 1410.
Alexander VI, Pope
Rodrigo Borgia, born at Xativa, near Valencia, in Spain, 1 January, 1431; died in Rome, 18 August, 1503.
Alexander VII, Pope
Biographical article on this seventeenth-century pontiff.
Alexander VIII, Pope
Pietro Ottoboni, born at Venice, April, 1610; elected 5 October, 1689; died at Rome, 1 February, 1691.
Patriarch of Alexandria. Elected instead of the heresiarch Arius, who had been scheming to be made bishop. A man of great holiness, St. Alexander died in 326.
Called "The Charcoal Burner." Made bishop of Comana at the recommendation of St. Gregory Thaumaturgus. St. Alexander was martyred in the Decian persecution.
Alexandre, Dom Jacques
Benedictine monk. (1653-1734)
Seaport of Egypt, on the left bank of the Nile.
Alexandria, The Church of
Founded by St. Mark the Evangelist, the center from which Christianity spread throughout all Egypt, the nucleus of the powerful Patriarchate of Alexandria.
Alexandrian Library, The
The Great Library of Alexandria, so called to distinguish it from the smaller or "daughter" library in the Serapeum, was a foundation of the first Ptolemies for the purpose of aiding the maintenance of Greek civilization in the midst of the conservative Egyptians.
Alexandrine Liturgy, The
The parent rite of all others in Egypt.
Fifteenth century nuns who adopted the Rule of St. Augustine and devoted themselves to the same corporal works of mercy as those of the Brothers of St. Alexius, or Cellites.
A religious institute which had its origin at Mechlin, in Brabant, in the fifteenth century, during the ravages of the "black death."
Alexis Falconieri, Saint
Visionary, co-founder of the Servites, uncle of St. Juliana Falconieri. St. Alexis died in 1310, at the age of 110 years.
Tries to untangle the story of the Man of God. According to tradition, a fifth-century Roman who became a beggar in Edessa. He is honored as a confessor of the Faith.
Alfieri, Count Vittorio
Tragic poet of Italy. (1749-1803)
A priest and at one time a Camaldolese monk. (1801-1863)
Alfonso de Zamora
A converted Spanish Rabbi, baptized 1506; died 1531.
Alfonso of Burgos
Royal confessor of Ferdinand and Isabella. Died 1489.
A Jesuit missionary in England during the persecution. (1587-1652)
Alfred the Great
King of the West Saxons. (849-899)
Daughter of King Offa of Mercia. Hermit at Crowland, fl. 795.
Monk of Winchester, became the last bishop of Sherborne, d. 1058.
Alger of Liége
French priest. (1055-1132)
An Italian diocese comprising twenty-two communes in the province of Sassari, and four in that of Cagliari, Archdiocese of Sassari.
Archdiocese comprising the province of Algeria in French Africa. Its suffragans are the Sees of Oran and Constantine.
The Micmacs, Abenakis, Montagnais, Penobscots, Chippewas, Mascoutens, Nipissings, Sacs, Pottowatomies, and Illinois, the Pequods of Massachusetts, the Mohegans of New York, the Lenapes of Pennsylvania and Delaware, with many other minor tribes, may be classed among them.
A diocese made up of twelve communes in the province of Caserta, Archbishopric of Benevento, Italy.
In a broad sense, whatever is necessary to sustain human life: not merely food and drink, but lodging, clothing, care during sickness and burial.
In the common legal sense of the word, the allowance by order of the court a husband pays to his wife for her maintenance while she is living separately from him, or paid by her former husband to a divorced woman.
Those days on which the "liturgy", i.e. the Holy Sacrifice of the Eucharist, is not allowed to be celebrated.
All Hallows College
An institution devoted to the preparation of priests for the missions in English-speaking countries.
All Saints' Day
Celebrated on the first of November. Instituted to honour all the saints, known and unknown, and, according to Urban IV, to supply any deficiencies in the faithful's celebration of saints' feasts during the year.
All Souls' Day
The commemoration of all the faithful departed is celebrated by the Church on 2 November, or, if this be a Sunday or a solemnity, on 3 November.
The name of God in Arabic.
Diocese; suffragan of the Archdiocese of Agra, India.
Archaeologist and historian. (b. 1841)
A learned Greek of the seventeenth century. (1586-1669)
A Milanese Dominican who won distinction as a historian, archaeologist, and antiquary. (1715-1785)
Artist known as Correggio, the place of his birth. (1494-1534)
Composer from the same family which produced the painter Correggio.
A liturgical mystic expression.
A French priest and Orientalist. (1799-1833)
Allen, Edward Patrick
Fifth Bishop of Mobile, Alabama, U.S.; born at Lowell, Massachusetts, 17 March, 1853.
The first woman of New England birth to become a nun. (1784-1819)
Educator, born at Milton, Vermont, 17 December, 1808; died in Worcester, Massachusetts, 28 May, 1876.
Archbishop of Dublin, canonist, and Chancellor of Ireland. (1476-1534)
Priest and martyr. He was executed at Tyburn in the beginning of the year 1538.
Jesuit missionary in China, born in Germany, died in China, probably about 1777.
Allies, Thomas William
English writer. (1813-1903)
Allioli, Joseph Franz
Studied theology at Landshut, was ordained at Ratisbon, 1816, studied Oriental languages (1818-20), became professor in the University at Landshut in 1824, and was transferred with the university to Munich in 1826, but owing to a weak throat he had to accept a canonry at Ratisbon. Became Dean of the chapter at Augsburg, in 1838.
One of the English priests who were victims of the plots of 1679-80.
A solemn form of address or speech from the throne employed by the Pope on certain occasions.
Information on three people with this name.
English priest, died about 1590.
Jesuit missionary and explorer. (1620-1689)
A Hebrew word signifying a "young woman", unmarried as well as married.
Alma Redemptoris Mater
The opening words of one of the four Antiphons sung at Compline and Lauds, in honour of the Blessed Virgin, at various seasons of the year.
Almagro, Diego de
Generally considered a foundling; came to Panama in 1514 with Pedro Arias de Avila (D'Avila), and soon distinguished himself in military expeditions.
Jesuit missionary. (1571-1653)
A suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Granada in Spain.
Italian Oratorian priest. (1714-1779)
English Cistercian and Confessor the Faith. (d. 1585)
Sixteenth-century English priest and writer.
Alms and Almsgiving
Any material favour done to assist the needy, and prompted by charity.
English hermit and martyr, d. about 700.
A party of heretics who arose after the Cataphrygians, Quartodecimans, and others, and who received neither the Gospel of St. John nor his Apocalypse.
Aloysius Gonzaga, Saint
Short biography of this Jesuit student, who died in 1591 at the age of 23.
Alpha and Omega
Includes Jewish and Christian meanings.
Alpha and Omega (in Scripture)
Employed from the fourth century as a symbol expressing the confidence of orthodox Christians in the scriptural proofs of Our Lord's divinity.
Alphabet, Christian Use of the
The Hebrew, Greek and Latin alphabets have been variously made use of in Christian liturgy.
Alphonsus Liguori, Saint
Long biographical article on the founder of the Redemptorists and devotional writer.
Alphonsus Rodriguez, Saint
Spanish-born widower, Jesuit lay brother, served as porter at Majorca for 46 years, d. 1617. Also known as Alonso.
Physician and botanist. (1553-1617)
The German Imperial Territory so known, and divided for State purposes into three civil districts.
Altamirano, Diego Francisco
Altamura and Acquaviva
An exempt archipresbyterate in the province of Bari, in southern Italy.
Altar (in Liturgy)
In the New Law the altar is the table on which the Eucharistic Sacrifice is offered.
A small bell placed on the credence or in some other convenient place on the epistle side of the altar.
Made of wood, tin, britannia, silver, or other metal. A round flat weight, covered if necessary with silk or linen, and having a knob on top, so as to be easily taken hold of, is placed on the breads.
Bread is one of the two elements absolutely necessary for the sacrifice of the Eucharist.
For mystical reasons the Church prescribes that the candles used at Mass and at other liturgical functions be made of beeswax.
Consists of five parts: the foot, the stem, the knob about the middle of the stem, the bowl to receive the drippings of wax, and the pricket, i.e. the sharp point that terminates the stem on which the candle is fixed.
The "Caeremoniale Episcoporum (I, xii, 13), treating of the ornaments of the altar, says that a canopy (baldachinum) should be suspended over the altar.
To assist the memory of the celebrant at Mass in those prayers which he should know by heart, cards on which these prayers are printed are placed on the altar in the middle, and at each end.
The sanctuary and altar-steps of the high altar are ordinarily to be covered with carpets.
A small square or oblong chamber in the body of the altar, in which are placed the relics of two canonized martyrs.
The custom of using three altar-cloths began probably in the ninth century, but at present it is of strict obligation for the licit celebration of Mass.
The principal ornament of the altar.
Drawn around the altar at certain parts of Mass.
An appendage which covers the entire front of the altar, from the lower part of the table to the predella, and from the gospel corner to that of the epistle side.
On the Jewish altar there were four projections, one at each corner, which were called the horns of the altar. These projections are not found on the Christian altar, but the word cornu ("horn") is still maintained to designate the sides or corners of the altar.
In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should always burn in the Tabernacle of the Testimony without the veil.
Used in churches to protect the altar candles and lamp, if the latter for any reason, such as a draught, cannot be kept lit.
A step behind the altar, raised slightly above it, for candlesticks, flowers, reliquaries, and other ornaments.
The corporal, pall, purificator, and finger towels.
Altar of Our Lady
In general it signifies any altar of which the Blessed Virgin is the titular.
A cover made of cloth, baize or velvet which is placed on the table of the altar, during the time in which the sacred functions do not take place.
The railing which guards the sanctuary and separates the latter from the body of the church. Also called the communion-rail.
A cloth, on which images of Our Lord, of the Blessed Virgin, or of saints, are represented, may be suspended above the altar, unless such images are painted on the wall.
That part of the altar which faces the congregation.
The number of steps leading up to the high altar is for symbolical reasons uneven; usually three, five, or seven, including the upper platform.
An altar ornament from the Middle Ages.
A solid piece of natural stone, consecrated by a bishop, large enough to hold the Sacred Host and chalice.
A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having the appearance of an altar.
Vase to hold flowers for the decoration of the altar.
The chalice is the cup in which the wine and water of the Eucharistic Sacrifice is contained.
Wine is one of the two elements absolutely necessary for the sacrifice of the Eucharist. For valid and licit consecration vinum de vite, i.e. the pure juice of the grape naturally and properly fermented, is to be used.
An altar having a double front constructed in such a manner that Mass may be celebrated on both sides of it at the same time.
Altar, History of the Christian
An elevated surface, tabular in form, on which the Sacrifice of the Mass is offered.
Consists of a solid piece of natural stone which must be sufficiently hard to resist every fracture.
An altar is said to be privileged when, in addition to the ordinary fruits of the Eucharistic Sacrifice, a plenary indulgence is also granted whenever Mass is celebrated thereon.
Altar, Stripping of an
Removal of the altar-cloths, vases of flowers, antipendium, and other ornaments, so that nothing remains but the cross and the candlesticks with the candles extinguished.
The fees received by a priest from the laity when discharging any function for them, e.g. marriages, baptisms, funerals.
A picture of some sacred subject painted on the wall or suspended in a frame behind the altar, or a group of statuary on the altar.
Altars (in Scripture)
Describes several biblical uses of the word.
Altars (in the Greek Churches)
The altar of the Russian Orthodox or the Ruthenian Greek Catholic churches means the sanctuary, and not merely the altar known to Latin churches.
Short biography of the eleventh-century bishop of Passau, driven from his see for enforcing Pope Gregory VII's call for clerical celibacy.
Irish-born hermit and missionary in Bavaria, monastic founder, eighth century.
Diocese in Illinois.
A suffragan see of the province of Philadelphia.
A term formed by Auguste Comte in 1851, to denote the benevolent, as contrasted with the selfish propensities.
Signifies in ecclesiastical usage, a student preparing for the sacred ministry in a seminary.
Notable Umbrian painter. (1430-1502)
Alva y Astorga, Pedro d'
A Friar Minor of the Strict Observance and a writer on theological subjects. (d. 1667)
Alva, The Duke of
Warrior and statesman. (1508-1582)
Alvarado, Alonzo de
A Knight of Santiago, b. at Secadura de Trasmura, near Burgos, date unknown; d. 1559.
Alvarado, Fray Francisco de
A native of Mexico, entered the Dominican order 25 July, 1574.
Alvarado, Pedro de
Accompanied Grijalva on his exploration of Yucatan and the Mexican coast in 1518, and was the chief officer of Cortez during the conquest of Mexico.
Alvarez de Paz
A famous mystic of the Society of Jesus. (1560-1620)
A Spanish mystic, who was the spiritual director of St. Teresa. (1533-1580)
Spanish theologian, born about 1550; died At Trani, Kingdom of Naples, 1635.
Jesuit and educator. (1526-1582)
Spanish writer. (1280-1352)
Close friend of St. Augustine of Hippo. Like Augustine, Alypius was baptized by Ambrose. St. Alypius became bishop of Tagaste.
Alzate, José Antonio
Seventeenth century priest born at Ozumba, Mexico.
Alzog, Johann Baptist
Church historian. (1808-1878)
A Semitic term meaning mother, adopted by the Copts and the Greeks as a title of honour applied to religious and ladies of high rank.
Amadeo, Giovanni Antonio
Italian architect and sculptor. (1447-1522)
Amadia and Akra
Designates two Catholic dioceses of the Chaldean Rite in Kurdistan, Turkey in Asia.
Amalarius of Metz
A liturgical writer, b. at Metz, in the last quarter of the eighth century; d. about 850.
Sister or niece of Pepin of Landen. Amalberga was married to Witger; they both entered monastic life. Also called St. Amelia.
Virgin who rejected Charlemagne's advances.
A people remembered chiefly as the most hated of all the enemies of Israel.
Archdiocese directly dependent on the Holy See, has its seat at Amalfi, not far from Naples.
Heretical sect founded towards the end of the twelfth century.
A church-historian of the fourteenth century, and member of the Augustinian Order.
Hermit, missionary, bishop of Maastricht, monastic founder, d. about 690.
A titular see and metropolis of Pontus in Asia Minor on the river Iris, now Amasiah.
A titular see of Paphlagonia in Asia Minor, on a peninsula jutting into the Black Sea.
Second Bishop of Monterey and Los Angeles, California. (1810-1878)
Name of two titular sees, one in Syria, suffragan of Apameia, with an episcopal list known from 449 to 536; the other on the southern coast of Cyprus, whose episcopal list reaches from the fourth century to 787.
Amazones, Diocese of
A South American diocese, dependent on San Salvador of Bahia.
Maronite Orientalist. (1663-1742)
The undue craving for honor.
A word of Greek origin, supposed to signify a mountain or elevation.
Ambo (in the Russian and Greek Church)
Sometimes two ambos were used, from one of which the Epistle was read and from the other the Gospel.
Amboise, George d'
French cardinal, archbishop, and statesman. (1460-1510)
Ambronay, Our Lady of
A sanctuary of the Blessed Virgin at Ambronay, France, regarded as one of the two candles of devotion to Our Lady in the Diocese of Belley.
Ambros, August Wilhelm
Historian of music and art critic. (1816-1876)
Ambrose of Camaldoli, Saint
Born Ambrose Traversari, theologian, translator of many of the Fathers, author, d. 1439.
Ambrose of Sienna, Blessed
Dominican teacher and missionary, diplomat, d. 1286.
Article on the life and teachings of this Bishop of Milan, and Doctor of the Church, who died in 397.
Erected at Milan by fourth-century bishop, St. Ambrose, and was consecrated in the year 386.
Chant composed by St. Ambrose.
The term implies no attribution of authorship, but rather a poetical form or a liturgical use.
Founded between 1603 and 1609 by Cardinal Federigo Borromeo at Milan.
Ambrosian Liturgy and Rite
The liturgy and Rite of the Church of Milan, which derives its name from St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan (374-397).
The Order of St. Ambrose was the name of two religious congregations, one of men and one of women, founded in the neighbourhood of Milan during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
The name given to the author of a commentary on all the Epistles of St. Paul, with the exception of that to the Hebrews.
A cloister, gallery, or alley; a sheltered place, straight or circular, for exercise in walking; the aisle that makes the circuit of the apse of a church.
Diocese comprising seven towns in the province of Perugia, Italy, and is under the immediate jurisdiction of the Holy See.
Ordained in 1631, a Doctor of the Sorbonne, and member of the French Oratory. (1609-1678)
One of a small number of Hebrew words which have been imported unchanged into the liturgy of the Church.
An obsolete form of honorary satisfaction, customary in the Church in France as late as the seventeenth century.
Humanist and convert from Lutheranism to the Catholic Church. (1503-1557)
Consists of three main divisions: North America, Central America, and South America.
America, Pre-Columbian Discovery of
Offers details of early exploration.
American College at Louvain, The
An institution for the education of priests founded in 1857.
American College in Rome, The
Owes its existence chiefly to Archbishop Hughes, of New York, and Archbishop Kenrick of Baltimore.
American College in Rome, The South
The Rev. Ignatius Victor Eyzaguirre went to Rome, in 1857, and proposed to the Pope the erection of a college for students from Latin American countries.
Amherst, Francis Kerril, D.D.
English bishop. (1819-1883)
A short linen cloth, square or oblong in shape and, like the other sacerdotal vestments, needing to be blessed before use.
Canon of Palermo, and ecclesiastical historian of Syracuse and Messina, (d. 1641).
Theologian born at Cosenza, in Naples, 2 April, 1578.
An Armenian Rite diocese located in Mesopotamia, Asiatic Turkey.
Amiens, Diocese of
Comprises the department of Somme.
Amiot, Joseph Maria
Missionary to China. (1718-1793)
A titular see of Pontus in Asia Minor.
American naval officer and author (1820-1898)
The supreme divinity of the Egyptian pantheon.
One of the desert fathers. Lived with his wife for 18 years as brother and sister, after which he became a hermit in Nitria and she also became a monk. Fourth-century Egypt.
Divisions of the four Gospels.
A race closely allied to the Hebrews.
Former Benedictine abbey in Lower Franconia (Bavaria), founded in the early part of the eighth century by St. Pirmin.
A titular see of Phrygia in Asia Minor, now known as Hergen Kaleh.
A name of doubtful origin and meaning, used to designate an ancient people often mentioned in the Old Testament.
Philosopher and theologian. (1692-1775)
Old Testament prophet.
A term applied to the condition of certain ecclesiastics in regard to their benefices or offices.
Vicariate Apostolic of Amoy, located in China, created in 1883, and entrusted to the care of the Dominicans.
Amphilochius of Iconium
Fourth-century Cappadocian bishop.
Amphilochius of Sida
Vessels generally made of clay, and furnished with ears or handles.
Ampleforth, The Abbey of
Benedictine abbey in England.
Their peculiarity consists in the sediment of dark red colour they contain, from which they derive the name, blood-ampullæ, on the theory that the sediment is the remains of the blood of a martyr.
An Italian diocese in Sardinia, suffragan of Sassari.
Physicist and mathematician. (1775-1836)
The name of certain ancient Irish elegies or panegyrics on native saints.
The Syrian houses in the region of Hauran were inhabited, from the third century to the seventh, by the upper and middle classes of the population. A house of this kind in perfect preservation is still to be seen at Amrah.
King of Sennaar (Shinar), or Babylonia.
The capital, and second residential city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
An object generaliy inscribed with mysterious formulæ and used by pagans as a protection against various maladies, as well as witchcraft.
Amulets, Use and Abuse of
Amulets have had quite a general vogue among all people of all times and have been characterized by a bewildering variety as to the material, shape, and method of employment.
A titular see of Peloponnesus in Greece, in the ecclesiastical province of Hellas, a suffragan of Corinth.
Bishop of Auxerre, Grand Almoner of France. (1513-1593)
A violent and extremely radical body of ecclesiastico-civil reformers which first made its appearance in 1521 at Zwickau.
The title which was taken by Cardinal Pietro Pierleone at the contested papal election of the year 1130.
Anacletus, Pope Saint
Third pope, a martyr, d. about 91. May be the same person as Pope St. Cletus.
A term in medicine, and the allied sciences, signifying a state of insensibility to external impressions, consequent upon disease, or induced artificially by the employment of certain substances known as anæsthetics, or by hypnotic suggestion.
An Italian diocese in the province of Rome under the immediate jurisdiction of the Holy See.
A philosophical term used to designate, first, a property of things; secondly, a process of reasoning.
The process by which anything complex is resolved into simple, or at least less complex parts or elements.
A liturgical term in the Greek Rite.
An absence of law.
Article on this martyr, whose feast day is 25 December. Attracted a cultus at Rome in the late fifth century, and a sixth-century legend makes her a Roman matron, though martyred elsewhere.
Name of four ancient sees.
Librarian of the Roman Church. (810-879)
Anastasius I, Pope Saint
Article on the pope remembered chiefly for condemning Origenism, d. 401.
Anastasius II, Pope
Anastasius III, Pope
Anastasius IV, Pope
Anastasius Sinaita, Saint
Profile of the seventh-century abbot of the monastery of Mt. Sinai, vociferous opponent of the Monophysites and Monothelites, writer.
Bishop of Antioch, exiled by the emperor, restored to his see in 593 by St. Gregory the Great. Anastasius died in 598.
A former magician and soldier, converted to Christianity, became a monk. He was martyred in 628.
Placed on high, suspended, set aside.
Includes several mentioned by this name.
Virgin and martyr, was denounced as a Christian and put to death by the sword in the Decian persecution.
Third-century bishop of Laodicea, mathematician, scientist, philosopher.
Patriarch of Constantinople, anti-Nestorian, anti-Eutychian. Some say he was killed by heretics in 458.
The science of the form and structure of living beings.
A titular metropolitan see of Cilicia (Lesser Armenia), suffragan of Antioch.
Anazco, Pedro de
A missionary and student of Indian languages. (1550-1605)
Anchor (as Symbol), The
Regarded in ancient times as a symbol of safety.
In Christian terminology, men who have sought to triumph over the two unavoidable enemies of human salvation, the flesh and the devil, by depriving them of the assistance of their ally, the world.
Ancient of Days
A name given to God by the Prophet Daniel.
A title often given to a deceased woman in early Christian inscriptions.
Ancona and Umana
An Italian diocese in the Archdiocese of Ancona.
Ancona, Ciriaco d'
An Italian antiquary whose family name was Pizzicolli, born at Ancona about 1391; died about 1455 at Cremona.
The name given to a thirteenth century code of rules for the life of anchoresses, which is sometimes called "The Nuns' Rule".
A titular see of Galatia in Asia Minor, suffragan of Laodicea.
Ancyra, Councils of
Three councils were held in the former capital of Galatia (now Angora) in Asia Minor, during the fourth century.
The name given by the Arabs to the portion of Spain subject to their dominion.
Benedictine monastery in Bavaria.
Anderdon, William Henry
English Jesuit and writer, born in London, 26 December, 1816; died 28 July, 1890.
Anderledy, Anthony Maria
General of the Society of Jesus. (1819-1892)
Anderson, Henry James
Scientist and educator. (1799-1875)
Anderson, Lionel Albert
An English Dominican, b. about 1620; d. 21 October, 1710.
A Scottish Jesuit. (1575-1624)
An English Catholic, b. 1557; d. 1618.
English Catholic layman. (d. 1640)
English Benedictine. (1611-1671)
Andlaw, Heinrich Bernhard, Freiherr von
Catholic statesman. (1802-1871)
Andrada de Payva, Diego
Portuguese theologian. (1528-1575)
Biographer and ascetic writer.1590-1672)
Andrada, Antonio de
Missionary and explorer of Tibet in the seventeenth century.
Andrea Dotti, Blessed
Servite priest, miracle worker, d. 1315.
An Italian sculptor and architect, b. 1270; d. 1349.
Andrea, Giovanni d'
Andreas of Caesarea
Andreas of Ratisbon
Andreis, Felix de
Lazarist superior. (1778-1820)
Sixteenth-century Spanish canonist.
Andrew Avellino, Saint
Canon lawyer, priest, reformer, Theatine, d. 1608.
Andrew Bobola, Saint
Polish Jesuit priest and missionary, martyred in 1657.
Andrew Corsini, Saint
Article on this Carmelite, called "the Apostle of Florence," regarded as a prophet and thaumaturgus, who became bishop of Fiesoli, and died in 1373.
Andrew of Crete, Saint
Also known as Andreas, monk, bishop of Gortyna, best known for his hymnody, d. 740 or 720.
Andrew of Lonjumeau
Dominican missionary and papal ambassador. (d. 1253)
Andrew of Rhodes
Theologian, d. 1440.
Andrew the Scot, Saint
Brother of St. Bridget the Younger and archdeacon of Fiesole, d. about 877.
The Apostle in Scripture and tradition.
Was stoned to death at Lampsacus, during the Decian persecution, along with his companion Paul.
Andrews, William Eusebius
Editor and author. (1773-1837)
Comprises three towns in the Province of Bari and one in the Province of Potenza, Archdiocese of Trani, Italy.
Fifteenth-century friar, poet, chronographer.
André, Yves Marie
Littérateur and historian. (1740-1817)
Titular see of Cilicia.
Roman composer, b. c. 1560; d. c. 1630.
Anerio, Giovanni Francesco
Born in Rome c. 1567; died. c. 1620.
Italian Dominican, b. at Taggia, in the province of Genoa; d. in Rome, 14 May, 1825.
Ange de Saint Joseph
French missionary friar of the Order of Discalced Carmelites. (1636-1697)
Ange de Sainte Rosalie
French genealogist and friar of the house of the Petits-Pères of the Discalced Augustinians. (1655-1726)
The word is used in Hebrew to denote indifferently either a divine or human messenger.
Angela Merici, Saint
Biography of the founder of the Ursulines, who died in 1540.
Angela of Foligno, Blessed
Short biography of the penitent, mystic, writer, Third Order Franciscan, who died in 1309.
Angeli, Francesco degli
Missionary to Ethiopia. (1567-1628)
Angeli, Girolamo degli
Missionary to Japan. (1567-1623)
A congregation of women founded at Milan about 1530 by Countess Luigia Torelli of Guastalla for the protection and reclamation of girls.
Angelico, Fra, Blessed
Biography of this Dominican, a famous painter, who died in 1455.
Angelo Carletti di Chivasso, Blessed
Fifteenth-century Franciscan, a moral theologian.
Angelo Clareno da Cingoli
One of the leaders of the Spiritual Franciscans.
Angels of the Churches
St. John in the Apocalypse is shown seven candlesticks and in their midst, the Son of Man holding seven stars. The candlesticks represent the seven Churches of Asia; the stars, the angels of those Churches.
Angels, Early Christian Representations of
The oldest fresco in which an angel appears is the Annunciation scene (second century) of the cemetery of St. Priscilla.
A short practice of devotion in honour of the Incarnation repeated three times each day, morning, noon, and evening, at the sound of the bell.
The triple Hail Mary recited in the evening, which is the origin of our modern Angelus, was closely associated with the ringing of a bell.
Convert, poet, controversialist, the son of a Lutheran Polish Nobleman. (1624-1677)
The desire of vengeance.
Comprises the territory embraced in the department of Maine and Loire.
Angers, University of
Early in the eleventh century this school became famous under the direction of Marbodus.
Anges, Notre Dame de
A miraculous shrine near Lur, France, containing a crypt (Sainte Chapelle) which tradition dates back to an early period.
Abbot of Centula, fathered two children by Charlemagne's unmarried daughter Bertha. He died in 814.
A noted scholar, b. at Piscenza, Italy, 1750; d. at Polotsk, 21 February, 1788.
Anglesea, The Priory of
Founded in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Nicholas for a community of Austin Canons, by Henry I. Dugdale.
In the creed of the Catholic Church, Holy Order is one of the Seven Sacraments instituted by Our Lord Jesus Christ.
A term used to denote the religious belief and position of members of the established Church of England.
Anglin, Timothy Warren
Canadian journalist and member of Parliament, born in the town of Cloankilty, County Cork, Ireland, 1822; died 3 May, 1896, in Canada.
Anglo-Saxon Church, The
History of the occupation, conversion, and development.
An Italian diocese comprising twenty-seven towns and three villages in the province of Potenza and nine towns and one village in the province of Cosenza, Archdiocese of Acerenza.
Angola and Congo
Diocese of Portuguese West Africa, suffragan of Lisbon.
Armenian rite diocese in Asia Minor.
Diocese; comprises the Department of the Charente in France, and has always been suffragan to the Archbishopric of Bordeaux, under the old régime as well as under the Concordat.
The episcopal see of the Azores, suffragan of Lisbon.
Native of Burgos in Spain, came to America in 1524 as a soldier, but joined the Dominican order in 1529.
Vicariate Apostolic comprising the territory of the German Duchy of Anhalt.
Anicetus, Pope Saint
Biography of this martyr, a contemporary of St. Polycarp and of the heretic Marcion.
Well known prayer dating from the first half of the fourteenth century and enriched with indulgences by Pope John XXII in the year 1330.
Anima, College and Church of the, in Rome
S. Maria dell' Anima, the German national church and hospice in Rome, received its name, according to tradition, from the picture of Our Lady which forms its coat of arms.
Animals in Christian Art
Animal forms have always occupied a place of far greater importance than was ever accorded to them in the art of the pagan world.
Animals in the Bible
The sacred books were composed by and for a people almost exclusively given to husbandry and pastoral life, hence in constant communication with nature.
The doctrine or theory of the soul.
An Italian composer, born at Florence about 1500; died 1571.
Anise has been, since Wyclif, the rendering of anethon in the English Versions, But this is not accurate. The exact equivalent of the plant anethon is dill, while anise corresponds to the pimpinella anisum.
Details of four women by this name in Sacred Scripture.
Byzantine historian, eldest daughter of Alexius Comnenus, Emperor of Constantinople (1081-1118).
Anna Maria Gesualda Antonia Taigi, Blessed
Happily married for 48 years, became a Third Order Trinitarian, d. 1837.
The historical literature of the Middle Ages may be classed under three general heads: chronicles, annals, and lives of the saints.
Son of Seth, succeeded (A.D. 6 or 7) Joazar in the high-priesthood by appointment of Quirinius who had come to Judea to attend to the incorporation of Archelaus's territory into the Roman province of Syria.
French Jesuit, theologian, writer, and opponent of Jansenism. (1590-1670)
The first fruits, or first year's revenue of an ecclesiastical benefice paid to the Papal Curia (in medieval times to bishops also).
Anne d'Auray, Sainte
A little village three miles from the town of Auray, in the Diocese of Vannes, famous for its sanctuary and for its pilgrimages, or pardons, in honour of St. Anne.
Anne de Beaupré, Sainte
Devotion to Saint Anne, in Canada.
Anne García, Blessed
Better known as Anne of St. Bartholomew. Biography of one of the first Discalced Carmelites. She died in 1626.
Anne Line, Saint
A convert to Catholicism, hanged in 1601 for the (unproven) crime of harboring a priest. She is one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.
According to apocryphal literature, the mother of Mary.
Anne-Marie Javouhey, Blessed
Founder of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny, missionary to Africa and South America, d. 1851.
Diocese comprising the Department of Haute-Savoie in France.
Catholic theologian and popular writer. (1794-1843)
Annibaldi, Annibale d'
Theologian, b. of a Roman senatorial family early in the thirteenth century; d. at Rome, 1 September, 1271.
Annibale, Giuseppe d'
Cardinal and theologian. (1815-1892))
Annius of Viterbo
Archeologist and historian, born at Viterbo about 1432; died 13 November, 1502.
Former soldier, Archbishop of Cologne, d. 1075.
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, The Feast of the
In the Latin Church this feast is first mentioned in the Sacramentarium of Pope Gelasius.
In the sixth month after the conception of St. John the Baptist by Elizabeth, the angel Gabriel was sent from God to the Virgin Mary.
Annunciation, The Orders of the
A penitential order founded by St. Jeanne de Valois.
A French historian. (1723-1806)