A hookah (waterpipe, narghile, arghila, kalian, qalyan or shisha) is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored tobacco called shisha in which the vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin (often glass-based) before inhalation.

When a waterpipe is used to produce smoke (as is common in the Arab States of the Persian Gulf), it is usually referred to as a hookah, which means "jar" in Arabic. When the same device is used to vaporize shisha (as is common in India and the Levant), it is usually referred to as a nargile, which means "gourd" in Sanskrit.
The vapor from a nargile looks similar enough to the smoke from a hookah as to cause both users and medical professionals to often confuse the two.

This category is for sites about the recreational use of hookah and other types of water pipes.

Related categories 3

Hookah (Shisha, Narghile) Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)
A critical review of the relevant literature and the public health consequences of environmental tobacco smoke resulting from hookah use. [PDF]
HRJ: Hookah Smoking and Cancer
A controlled study with the finding of the overall CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) levels in exclusive hookah smokers not being significantly different from the levels in non-smokers.
JNRBM: a Critique of WHO TobReg
Article by Kamal Chaouachi challenging the credibility of the "Advisory Note" report by the WHO study group on tobacco product regulation.
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: The Relationship of Shisha Smoking to Postextraction Dry Socket
A study by Fouad A Al-Belasy finding that both cigarette and hookah smokers had a higher chance of developing post-extraction dry socket than non-smokers.
Journal of Public Health: Does Shisha Smoking Affect Blood Pressure and Heart Rate?
A study by Saafan A. Al-Safi observing a significant elevation of blood pressure and heart rate among shisha smokers. Current cigarette smoking associated with frequent water pipe smoking resulted in greater elevation in blood pressure measurements among both types of tobacco smokers.
Journal of Public Health:A Radical Critique of the “Standardised” Smoking Machine
An article by Kamal Chaouachi, critiquing the smoking machine a large amount of hookah research is done on.
ScienceDirect: The Medical Consequences of Narghile (Hookah, Shisha) Use in the World
A meta-analysis by K. Chaouachi, concluding that a significant amount of carbon monoxide is produced by the charcoal used to heat and distil the tobacco–molasses mixture.
World Health Organization: TobReg
An advisory note on waterpipe tobacco smoking: health effects, research needs and recommended actions by regulators. [PDF]
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June 29, 2014 at 12:24:10 UTC
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